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YEAR 12 CLASSICAL STUDIES mythology schoolhistory.co.nz.

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Presentation on theme: "YEAR 12 CLASSICAL STUDIES mythology schoolhistory.co.nz."— Presentation transcript:

1 YEAR 12 CLASSICAL STUDIES mythology schoolhistory.co.nz

2 What is a myth? Muthos means ‘utterance’ or something which is told. Often includes legends – which are based in fact Edges often blurred Many myths contain elements of folk tales

3 Some myths are strongly religious Passed on through the generations Explain the origins of the world Explain natural phenomena - day/night, seasons, storms etc May explain or support existing customs or rituals: birth, marriage, status of women, crop fertility etc

4 Reflect human dreams and wishes e.g do tales of heroes reflect men’s desire to be superhuman?

5 Where do myths come from? Usually found in most cultures From a time before writing generally used A time of genuine belief in the gods A time lacking in scientific explanation A time when people believed all events had a divine origin Verbal communication allowed myths to change

6 Greek Myths Earliest reference from Homer and Hesiod in the eighth century BC Originated between BC

7 Ancient Greece Asia Minor Peloponnese Attica and Boetia Thessaly and Macedonia Crete

8 Important places Coast of Asia Minor to the right Cycladic Islands Crete Mainland Greece: Peloponnese (south) Attica and Boetia (central) Thessaly and Macedonia

9 Background to Greece

10 Stone Age Aegean pre 3000BC Similar types of people in these areas Possibly from modern Iraq Farming and domesticated animals Worshipped fertility spirits – mainly female Placated male spirits - destructive

11 Early Bronze Age BC Bronze used over whole area Civilization flourished Worship of fertility goddesses (Mother/Earth) 2000BC upheaval on Asia mainland caused people to arrive These people brought wheel pottery

12 Greek mainland invaded by several waves of less cultured people from the north They were warlike Patriarchal Worshipped mainly male deities who lived on mountain tops and ruled the skies Homer called them Achaeans They looted and killed and eventually settled

13 Middle Bronze Age BC Crete appears to have escaped the invaders and their civilisation continued uninterrupted Around 2000BC it had a surge in trade and wealth Largest palace was Knossos May have had a powerful fleet It is called Minoan Civilisation after King Minos

14 Minoan Civilization

15 Crete: Minoan Civilization (Palace at Knossos)

16 Minoans worshipped a mother goddess The bull was an important symbol Crete was the most advanced civilisation in the area Minoans may have demanded ‘tribute’ from other areas

17 Knossos: Minoan Civilization

18 Achaeans They lived on mainland Greece Main centre was Mycenae This civilisation was called Mycenaeans Each state had a fort and a warrior king Endemic fighting Because of trade with Crete Mycenaeans began to worship earth goddess as well as sky god

19 Eventually civilisation on Crete collapsed May be linked to Thera – volcano Mycenaeans took opportunity to seize control of Crete around 1450BC They burned and looted and by 1380BC the Palace of Knossos was destroyed

20 Late Bronze Age BC Mycenaeans now dominated in the Mediterranean Peaked around 1300BC Had unstable parasitic nobility who survived by seizing the wealth of others in war Describing a Greek hero as a ‘sacker of cities’ (Homer) was a compliment

21 The Mycenaean Civilization

22 Troy May have been a battle to eliminate trade competition or to get scarce metals Troy fell 1250BC Within a century all major sites on the mainland Greece fell Except Athens

23 Plan of the City of Troy

24 Homer: The “Heroic Age” Homer: The “Heroic Age”

25 Original Wall of the City of Troy

26 The Mask of Agamemnon

27 The Dark Ages BC General destruction had occurred which was disastrous for the Greek world Loss of centralised control led to lawlessness, population decline, simpler life ensued

28 Homer, the Blind Poet

29 Homer’s Great Epics

30 Homer’s View of the World

31 The Dorians The Dorians took advantage and moved south down through the Greek peninsula and settled in the Peloponnese and Crete Many Greeks moved to the coast of Asia Minor to escape The Dorians were even less ‘civilised’ and set progress back even further

32 Creation of Mythology At this time the art of writing was lost and oral tradition flourished Storytellers knitted together tales from a wide area In later Classical times Sparta and Athens changed details of myths to suit themselves

33

34 The Rise of the Greek Polis Athens NaxosCorinth Syracuse Larissa Eboea

35 ATHENS: Yesterday & Today

36 Archaic Period and Classical Age Between the end of the Dark Ages and the Persian Invasion which led to the Classical Age The Classical Age ends with the death of Alexander in 323BC Rome then dominated the Mediterranean area

37 Great Athenian Philosophers Great Athenian Philosophers $ Socrates  Know thyself!  question everything  only the pursuit of goodness brings happiness. $ Plato  The Academy  The world of the FORMS  The Republic  philosopher-king

38 Great Athenian Philosophers $ Aristotle  The Lyceum  “Golden Mean” [everything in moderation].  Logic.  Scientific method.

39 Athens: The Arts & Sciences $ DRAMA (tragedians):  Aeschylus  Sophocles  Euripides $ THE SCIENCES:  Pythagoras  Democritus  all matter made up of small atoms.  Hippocrates  “Father of Medicine”

40 Phidias’ Acropolis

41 The Acropolis Today

42 The Parthenon

43 The Agora

44 The Classical Greek “Ideal”

45 Olympia


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