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Soil and Topography Soils at the top and bottom of the slope tend to be thicker than the soil on the slope itself.

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Presentation on theme: "Soil and Topography Soils at the top and bottom of the slope tend to be thicker than the soil on the slope itself."— Presentation transcript:

1 Soil and Topography Soils at the top and bottom of the slope tend to be thicker than the soil on the slope itself

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4 Section 12.4: Erosion Erosion – the process by which the products of weathering are transported Most of the eroded soil is deposited elsewhere as transported soil Accelerated Soil Erosion – unwise farming and ranching practices increase soil erosion – Clearing forests, overgrazing, etc… Gullying – process of rainwater eroding soil to produce gullies Sheet Erosion – stripping away of parallel layers of topsoil to expose the surface of subsoil or bedrock

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7 Soil Conservation – Terracing – creation of steplike ridges that follow the contours of the land; prevent rapid erosion – Crop rotation – rotating of crops planted on a yearly basis; stops erosion in its early stages and allows gullies formed during one season to be filled with soil in the next

8 Gravity and Erosion – Gravity causes rock fragments to move down inclines – Movement of fragments down an incline is called mass movement; can either be rapid or slow – Talus – accumulation of fragments at the base of a slope May be reduced to smaller fragments through mechanical and chemical weathering

9 Mass Movements Rapid Mass Movements – Rockfall: fall of rock from a steep cliff – Landslide: sudden movement of masses of loose rock and soil down the slope of a hill, mountain or cliff – Mudflow: movement of a large mass of mud – Slump: movement of a large piece of soil or rock down a slope in a single piece Slow Mass Movements – Solifluction: occurs in the mountain and arctic climates where there is permafrost and soil that has thawed above the permafrost and flows down the slope – Solifluction means “soil flow” – Creep: extremely slow downhill movement of rock fragments

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13 Erosion and Landforms –Landform: physical features on the Earth’s surface –Three major landforms: Mountains Plains Plateaus –Erosion of Mountains Mountains are generally uplifted faster than they are eroded; mountains being uplifted are rugged with sharp peaks Peneplain: low almost featureless surface near sea level caused as a result of erosion –New England Monadnocks: knobs of hard rock (granite) that are resistant to erosion and protrude above the peneplain

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15 Erosion of Plains and Plateaus Plain – flat landform that is generally not high above sea level Plateau – flat landform, high elevation; subject to more erosion than a plain –Mesa – smaller fragments of a plateau created by erosion –Buttes – smaller fragments of a mesa created by erosion


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