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Despite being the LAND OF THE FREE, USA access to sport is varied. Opportunity Provision and Esteem factors have led to less access for some groups. In.

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Presentation on theme: "Despite being the LAND OF THE FREE, USA access to sport is varied. Opportunity Provision and Esteem factors have led to less access for some groups. In."— Presentation transcript:

1 Despite being the LAND OF THE FREE, USA access to sport is varied. Opportunity Provision and Esteem factors have led to less access for some groups. In the last 50 years it has changed and role models have emerged. The dominant group is still WHITE MIDDLE CLASS MALES. The culture of minority groups cause separation from the MAINSTREAM CULTURE. This can cause SEGREGATION, and DISCRIMINATION. PLURALISM is a culture in which all cultures are tolerated and welcomed. The USA believe they have this but it is arguable that HEGEMONY actually exists. This is when one social group dominates. Discrimination occurs because a hegemonic group manipulates the pluralist groups. CAPITALISM has directly influenced American values such as the AMERICAN DREAM, and the LAND OF OPPORTUNITY. This has instilled the LOMBARDIAN ETHIC and represents FRONTIER SPIRIT ASSIMILATION is when you identify yourself with your new culture and become accepted by it. In the USA it is called AMERICANISATION USA society is segregated by WEALTH and RACE. The White Anglo Saxon Protestant (WASP) is the dominant group. UK is segregated by class. 3 ETHICS apply to sport in USA. 1) LOMBARDIAN 2) RADICAL is wining is important but how it is achieved is more important 3) COUNTER CULTURE is anti competitive and the focus is on fun and intrinsic benefits

2 In the USA there is a HIERARCHY of ethnic groups which determine ACCESS to sport. This is also known as STACKING. 1. WASP 2. Ethnic Europeans 3. African Americans 4. Mexicans and Puerto Ricans 5. Vietnamese 6. Native American Indians CENTRALITY is when stacking is used to determine the positions of players on a sports field. EG: Quarter Backs in American Football have rarely been African American as this is seen as a decision making role 1) Compare how social factors have determined access to sport in both the USA and the UK. 2) Explain why you think that teamwork is not a natural value for Americans 3) With reference to American Football, Baseball and Basketball, suggest how you would expect the Hegemonic group to determine access. Give examples. How does this compare to the UK? 4) Compare the Cultural Determinants in which the UK has adopted cricket but the USA has adopted Baseball? (20 Marks)

3 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE USA 2006 – 15% of USA children and 40 million people are OBESE. The UK has a similar trend. PE in the USA is in crisis. Up until the 1970s it was compulsory but the President Nixon abolished military conscription and states were less vigorous in enforcing PE. In 2000 Illinois was the only state to have compulsory PE. This is now not the case. This is because it SAVES A SCHOOL MONEY. The biggest decline in PE participation occurs after primary school The NASPE (Nat. Association for Sport and Phys. Ed) said that it was becoming to expensive to run. SCHOOL BOARDS then eliminated it to concentrate on increasing grades. The 2001 ‘No Child Left Behind Act’ accentuated the problem. It was designed to raise academic standards In the UK it is recommended that children should undertake 1 hour of moderate physical activity every day. Obesity is still rising. Recently strategies have been adopted to reverse the decline. The NASPE has invested $60m to the PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR PROGRESS prog. (PEP). This aims to improve PE from Kindergarten to Grade 12. TITLE lX 1972 was a law to address gender inequality. It has greatly increased opportunities for girls and women in USA. Before it 1 in 27 women took part. Now 1 in 2.5 do. ADAPTED PE PROGRAMMES have been developed to address inequality for disabled.

4 OUTDOOR EDUCATION Americans have a love for the GREAT OUTDOORS. This is a result of the FRONTIER LEGACY and is part of the AMERICAN DREAM. OUTDOOR EDUCATION in the USA is about teaching skills and personal development in a FORMAL setting in the NATURAL ENVIRONMENT. SUMMER CAMPS (or Camp Schools) have hugely developed since the mid 20 th Century. They are SPONSORED in 3 ways 1) STATE (for the less wealthy) 2) ETHNIC or RELIGIOUS GROUPS 3) COMMERCIAL (for the wealthy/profit). The range of opportunities is DISCRIMINATORY based on parental wealth. There are many different types including ACADEMIC, SELF IMPROVEMENT, and SPECIAL NEEDS. There are around camps of which 8000 are residential mainly based around outdoor adventure They are very PATRIOTIC. The Stars and Stripes Flag is displayed. They have CAMP FIRE RITUALS which reflect MILITARY ETHOS and FRONTIERISM Research camps from the 3 different types of sponsor. Be ready to feedback this information. Describe how it operates. Evaluate the BENEFITS of attending Summer Camps. Describe the Benefits as: Physical, Psychological, Esteem, Self Realisation, Health, Active Lifestyles, Challenge, Knowledge, Cultural Experiences, Skills, Independence. Link these to the camp you have researched

5 INTRA MURAL sports are RECREATIONAL sports that take place WITHIN a high school. They are open to all and may involve leagues. It promotes PARTICIPATION. It is meant to be INFORMAL but is actually very intense. They start in ELEMENTARY school, develop through high school to college Sports include flag football, lacrosse, field hockey, soccer and volleyball It is associated with the RADICAL ETHIC and is a strategy to promote PE and Sport. INTER MURAL sport in the USA fixtures between other schools. In the UK it is called INTER SCHOOL sport. In ,000 pupils competed in the UK and the government pledged £2.4 Billion to school sport up to In the UK school sport is important but PE has higher status. Matches are organised on an EXTRA CURRICULAR basis organised by many agencies. In the USA the SHSAA is solely responsible. In UK the NGBs tend to run competitions and they select National teams Sports Colleges in UK are not necessarily elite. In USA SCHOLARSHIPS are offered by some private schools PARTICIPATION ethic exists in UK whereas LOMBARDIANISM prevails in the USA. Sponsorship is small scale in UK and MEDIA involvement and SPECTATORISM is low

6 Whilst PE in the USA is in crisis HIGH SCHOOL INTER MURAL or INTRA MURAL SPORT is very strong. Schools have squads in most major sports for the purpose of INTER SCHOOL competition. The BIG 3 sports are emphasised Some wealthy schools can compete in Ice Hockey if it has an ice rink. The STATE HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION (SHSAA) controls competition. It has a branch in each state such as the (AIA) Arizona Interscholastic Assoc. These do not receive federal funding BUT are self sufficient as they see competition as a huge part of the education process. Schools are grouped into 5 CONFERENCES based on the number of students SPECIALIST HEAD COACHES run the teams. The coaches and the PE teachers are accountable to the ATHLETICS DIRECTOR. Sport is very HIGH STATUS. Much more so than PE. This is mainly because it is a direct reflection of pro sport and is considered a NURSERY for pro teams. Matches are played in the school stadium in an atmosphere enhanced by CHEERLEADERS and MARCHING BANDS. There is a big emphasis on LOMBARDIANISM because the team represent the COMMUNITY. Also as coach lives in a HIRE AND FIRE environment, and finally because the students can win SCHOLARSHIPS to colleges. COMMERCIALISM is huge including sponsors, gate receipts and ALUMIN (former student) donations

7 SPORTS PARTICIPATION in the UK has risen and 75% of people engage in Physical Activity. Rates in the UK are higher than in the USA. Younger people are more active than older people and WEALTH determines how much opportunity you have. In 1980 there were 200 gyms in the UK. Now there are 6000 Have a look at the table which indicates activities pursued by both men and women in the UK: What are the TRENDS? Are Individual activities are more popular than team games? Who participate most – Men or Women? Are there any activities which are more popular by gender? Why do you think there is a difference by age? Explain the AMERICANISATION of physical activity in the UK What is the only MAJOR GAME in the table Now consult the table which highlights participation in the USA and compare these TRENDS with the information you have obtained for the UK. What cultural factors may have influenced these trends

8 Mass Participation in the USA is not high. Only 19% of adults take part in high level activity. 60% are UNDER ACTIVE. Men take part in activity which is COMPETITIVE more than women. Both gender’s participation decline with AGE. INDIVIDUAL activities are more popular than TEAM games. WEALTH is a huge factor in OPPORTUNITY. The wealthy participate more A GYM /JOGGING CULTURE has developed since the 1950s. Statistics suggest activity is INCREASING especially in PILATES. OBESITY is a major concern. Colorado is only state to have less than 20% OBESITY. 30 states are 25% + In the UK AMATEUR CLUBS have a big tradition for participation, competition, facilities which exist because of VOLUNTARY MEMBER’S SUBSCRIPTIONS and some PUBLIC FUNDING (National Lottery). This does not exist in the USA. If people want to play competitively they organise their own FRIENDSHIP teams organised by the AAU (Amateur Athletic Union) which is a national NON PROFIT and VOLUNTEER organisation The AAU organise the NATIONAL YOUTH FITNESS PROGRAMME as part of the PRESIDENT’S CHALLENGE in which 4 m youths register to prove exceptional physicality PRIVATE CLUBS operate but they are EXPENSIVE, SPORTS SPECIFIC (Golf, Tennis) and are for the WEALTHY.

9 MIDNIGHT BASKETBALL LEAGUES were established in 1986 in an attempt to cut CRIME LEVELS. This is a SOCIAL project to assist inner city youths. It is played between 10pm and 2am on playgrounds funded by local government. Players must attend a 1 hour WORKSHOP related to drugs, crime, alcohol. Players are mainly year old males. Standards are very HIGH and can attract TV viewers of 3.5 million. HYPERLINK LITTLE LEAGUES are for children in the USA and are very popular. Teams are managed by VOLUNTEERS (who are mainly parents). There is a great emphasis on SAFETY, MORALITY and the WIN ETHIC as it is imposed by parents who believe it prepares them for the future. There is a saying LITTLE LEAGUE TO SUPER BOWL. Competition is STRUCTURED and reflects the PROFESSIONALS game Little League attracts COMMERCIALISM and MEDIA ATTENTION and MINI SUPERBOWLS inspire competition. Little league version of American Football is POP WARNER FOOTBALL, of Baseball is PEE WEE BASEBALL and Basketball is BIDDY BASKETBALL Major Initiatives to increase mass participation in the USA also include TIME OUT FOR BETTER SPORTS FOR KIDS and HOOK A KID ON GOLF

10 PATHWAYS TO PROFESSIONAL SPORT IN THE USA The main way into PROFESSIONAL sport in the USA is through the EDUCATION system. Children start in LITTLE LEAGUE and the go into HIGH SCHOOL. Some high schools offer SCHOLARSHIPS to the most talented. Then the best are offered further scholarships to COLLEGES (Universities). At the end of college there is a PRO DRAFT SYSTEM in which PROFESSIONAL TEAMS select the best college players. There is NO RELEGATION or PROMOTION and the team that finishes LAST gets the first pick of the BEST players from college TITLE 1X means that women’s sports are funded equally. The BIG 4 are the most successful as they are the most COMMERCIAL as they make a PROFIT. There is a massive WIN AT ALL COST attitude. COACHES are well paid but the student does not but they do not complain because of OPPORTUNITY and AMBITION, STATUS and SELF ESTEEM, EXCITEMENT, and the DRAFT The STANDARD is VERY HIGH. Communities support their local College. The NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) organises it. SPECIAL ADMIT PROGRAMMES allow players without academic strength to go to college

11 THE BIG 4 SPORTS IN THE USA BASEBALL: was ADAPTED from rounders and is the NATIONAL PASTIME and started as a working class game. Very few schools played it though because adults disapproved. It became an OBSESSION as it represented rebellion. It was preferred to cricket because it is dynamic and hard hitting matching the PACE of life in USA. The RAILWAY system enabled rapid growth and increased fixtures. Professionalism led to WIN AT ALL COSTS ethic. The scale of MLB is immense. In million people watched games. AMERICAN FOOTBALL: it developed through colonial times and has been ADAPTED from rugby. The forward pass innovation made a distinction from it. Its origins lie in the IVY LEAGUE colleges. Head on Collision and Confrontation are common. It is aggressive and violent. The NFL’s show piece is the SUPERBOWL. In 2007 it attracted 130m viewers. Commercialism is huge. 30sec advert is $2.5m. Dallas Cowboys are worth $1B BASKETBALL: INVENTED in 1891 it was rooted in white education. Today the game is very different. The NBA revenue is over $3.5 B. In 1988 Michael Jordan became highest earning sportsman in world. It is High Scoring and the Commercials fit perfectly with breaks in play. It is now also an Inner City game ICE HOCKEY: ADOPTED from Canada. Its roots are in colleges. The Stanley Cup is the NHLs showpiece. FRANCHISES are prevalent in all of the BIG 4

12 EQUALITY AND DISCRIMINATION IN THE USA Discrimination has existed since sport was codified in the USA. Black players were excluded from the MLB until In the 1950s a period of TOKENISM took place where teams hired a small amount of black players to look NON DISCRIMNATORY. More players entered the Pro Leagues but they were STACKED into ATHLETIC positions (such as the Running Back). WASP athletes dominated DECISION MAKING roles like the Quarter Back or Pitcher. This is called CENTRALITY. This is being addressed in the 21 st C. Playing staff in the MLB is now 20%, Gridiron is 68% and Basketball is dominated by African Americans as only 20% of players are White. WHITE FLIGHT has taken place from the sport. Success of Ethnic Minorities is down to OPPORTUNITY, PROVISION and ESTEEM. Success in sport is hugely important to them. ROLE MODELS (from Mohammed Ali and Jesse Owens to Tiger Woods and Serena Williams) have provided the motivation to break through the GLASS CEILING. The glass symbolises a barrier. People can see their ambition but cannot break through Success provides IDENTITY and challenges the dominance of the WASP group Critically evaluate the success of Ethnic Minority groups in the USA. Compare the situation in the USA with the UK

13 THE BIG 4 SPORTS IN THE USA 1) The Big 4 Sports in the USA reflect American society. Discuss 2) UK sports are becoming increasingly AMERICANISED. Discuss this view with reference to the following: SPECTATORS ENTERTAINMENT COMMERCIALISM GOLDEN TRIANGLE MERCHANDISE TV RIGHTS FRANCHISES RELEGATION AND PROMOTION CHANGE OF SEASONS LOMBARDIANISM, CAPITALISM CHANGING FORMATS OF THE GAME TO SUIT THE SPECTATOR You will find it useful to refer to Association Football, Rugby League and Cricket

14 HISTORICAL DETERMINANTS OF AUSTRALIA Australia began as a PENAL COLONY in Prisoners lived with the MILITARY who were called FREE SETTLERS. They had chosen to live there. Life was very hard and return impossible. The name CURRENCY was given to the children of convicts. A reference to their parents payment on release. The wealthier free settler children were known as STERLING to show that they were born in the MOTHER COUNTRY. CURRENCY however grew stronger and fitter and though they were not higher status, they suited the OUTDOOR LIFESTYLE. They later became known as CORNSTALKS. SPORTS such as cricket were quickly ADOPTED from the UK. CURRENCY boys regularly played STERLING and beat them. They saw this as a victory against the MOTHERLAND. This is the spawn of PATRIOTISM and it gave SOCIAL STATUS. WINNING was more important than taking part. 19 th C Sporting development then COPIED that in the UK Public Schools. RIVALRY between the countries was intense and Australians used the success as a BENCHMARK to judge national PROGRESS. Recently though, success is more about NATIONAL GLOBAL AMBITION. (Sydney 2000, FIFA 2022) Sport is a reflection of their ENERGETIC, YOUNG culture and their PRIDE. Australia gained INDEPENDENCE fro m Britain in 1901 but the Queen is still Head of State. Prisoner of Motherland (POM) is used to refer to the British

15 GEOGRAPHICAL DETERMINANTS OF AUSTRALIA SIZE: Australia is 32 times larger than the UK. It is more comparable to the size of Europe. The 19 th C development of sport was hindered because of this. This inaccessibility was known as THE TYRANNY OF DISTANCE. TOPOGRAPHY: there are 4 main areas. 1) Low, sandy, Coastal Plains are HABITABLE and developed sport 2) Eastern Highlands is mountainous and can host Winter sports 3) The Central Plains are INHOSPITABLE and are use for BUSH WALKING and trekking 4) The Western Plateau has desert and rocky waste. Almost 40% of Australia is desert CLIMATE: There is huge DIVERSITY. Warm Summers and Mild Winters on the Eastern Seaboard has significantly contributed to sport development. The north is Tropical and there is desert URBANISATION and POPULATION DENSITY: Population is 22m. 18m live on Eastern Seaboard. This has led to a BEACH CULTURE and was a huge draw for IMMIGRANTS including British to enjoy a better lifestyle DOWN UNDER. There are only 7 people per square mile. This is mis- leading because the population is URBAN. It is an urban environment. TRANSPORT: Sporting journeys were originally by BOAT. The Railway developed in 19 th C. Journeys were long. Now transport is WORLD CLASS

16 COMMERCIALISATION OF SPORT IN AUSTRALIA The major sports in Australia are COMMERCIALISED. From the 19 th C to the 1970s Australian sport made money through gate receipts. In the 1980s TV deals became the major source of REVENUE. KERRY PACKER’S WORLD SERIES of CRICKET ensured this development. HYPERLINK The GOLDEN TRIANGLE is huge and sport is a CORPORATE COMMODITY. There have been problems. (1990s Super League Packer vs Murdoch) MULTI NATIONAL companies are attracted to SPONSOR sport. EG: Twenty20 Cricket. Association Football’s popularity is massively increasing and is supported as such by Lucrative Deals. HISTORICAL, GEOGRAPHICAL and SOCIO ECONOMIC determinants shape the NATIONAL CULTURE and must be in place if a country can promote sport as a COMMERCIAL ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY. Discuss the extent to which cultural factors explain the growth of commercialism in Australia(20 Marks) Socio economic factors can include the Economic System, Class, Wealth, Media Outlets. In addition use learned historical and geographical factors

17 SOCIAL DETERMINANTS AND EQUALITY IN AUSTRALIA Minority groups face SOCIAL EXCLUSION in Australia. The ASC is trying to address the issues of OPPORTUNITY, PROVISION, and ESTEEM The ABORIGINES are the INDIGENOUS population. During colonisation they were not hostile to the British but they were PERSECUTED. The WHITE AUSTRALIA policy was highly discriminatory and was designed to shape the composition of the population. It was only abolished in Now Australia is committed to MULTI CULTURALISM apology Although only 2% of population they are DISPROPORTIONATELY represented in sport. The INDIGENOUS SPORTS PROGRAMME led by the ASC has worked to improve Opportunity Provision and Esteem for Mass Participation and Excellence amongst the Aboriginal ethnic group DISABILITY: The ASC has given the DISABILITY SPORT programme High Priority to increases ACCESS for mass participation and excellence. GENDER: The BUSH CULTURE and FRONTIER attitude established male domination. Women suffered serious discrimination. Women were only accepted if they were FEMININE. Today female athletes are encouraged to train like males, PE classes are mixed, and role models are growing. The ASC has a unit called WOMEN and SPORT UNIT

18 SOCIAL VALUES OF AUSTRALIA A strong sense of COMMUNITY developed in early colonisation because of the HARDSHIP endured. A GOLD RUSH attracted mass IMMIGRATION in the 19 th C. People were required to work together. LOYALTY, TEAM WORK and SOCIAL COHESION developed and Australia became a SOCIAL MELTING POT where different cultures and classes mixed. A strong EGALITARIAN ethos got rid of the CLASS PRIVILIGES. 19 th C Minister and Politician John Lang claimed that Australia offered a “Fair field for all. Australia became known as the LAND OF THE FAIR GO suggesting they were MULTICULTURAL. The BUSH CULTURE reflected the DETERMINATION and TENACITY and a belief that Australia controlled its own destiny. This culture reflects the hardship and toughness of its settlers. It is now evident in sport but it is now consigned to the past as Australia is now modern & COSMOPOLITAN There are 7 main categories of CULTURE that have had an influence on the Australian OBSESSION with sport. They are 1) POLITICAL 2)SOCIAL 3) IDEOLOGICAL 4) GEOGRAPHICAL 5) ECONOMIC 6) TRADITION 7) COMMERCIALISM

19 PE AND SCHOOL SPORT IN THE STATE OF VICTORIA The priority is on developing SKILLS and MASS PARTICIPATION not on Excellence. PE is compulsory until 16 but there is no NATIONAL curriculum. 65% take part outside of school. Schemes such as GO FOR YOUR LIFE encourage healthy eating and active lifestyles and LIFELONG physical activity. SEPEP (Sport Education and PE Programme) ensures that children learn 8 compulsory core areas until Y10. The SPORT EDUCATION aspect concentrates on TACTICS, STRATEGY and INTRA and INTER school competition. The PE part is concerned with BASIC MOTOR SKILLS. It requires at least 100 mins per week. The overall aim is PARTICIPATION ACTIVE AUSTRALIA is the SPORT FOR ALL policy. It has been updated and is now called MORE ACTIVE AUSTRALIA. This is grass roots sport PASE (PE & Sport Education) have INTENSIVE training programmes for teachers and train non specialists to deliver. This is government financed EXEMPLARY schools are used to swap good practice with local schools The FUNDAMENTAL SCHOOLS PROG. (FSP) teaches primary aged children in 11 fundamental motor skills. Other initiatives include SPORTS LEADERS PROGS, STATE AWARDS, SPORTS SEARCH (Talent Id) SPORTS PERSON IN SCHOOLS (Elite Role Models). The TEACHER games and The PACIFIC SCHOOL games increases networks. OUTDOOR EDUCATION is huge

20 OUTDOOR EDUCATION IN AUSTRALIA – VICTORIAN CASE STUDY There are 8 reasons why Outdoor education is heavily promoted in Victoria 1)CLIMATE 2)HEALTHY ACTIVE LIFESTYLES 3)BUSH CULTURE 4)It is considered important and is EXAMINED 5)ENVIRONMENT – AESTHETIC APPEAL 6)NATIONALISM AND PRIDE 7)SURVIVAL SKILLS - Character Building 8)OUTDOOR LIFESTYLE It is offered as part of the education programme from Primary Level. At Year 4 onwards there are SCHOOL CAMPS. The DUKE OF EDINBURGH AWARD operates throughout Australia. It includes OUTWARD BOUND challenges. Outdoor Education can be examined upon in Y10 as part of the HSC. SKIING take place in the Victorian mountains TIMBERTOP and The ALPINE SCHOOL in Victoria offer courses in OE

21 MASS PARTICIPATION IN AUSTRALIA – 2007 Figures 62% participate in physical activity. 32% are club members. 15% of people are considered SEDENTARY. Australia is experiencing health issues. 60% are overweight and 21% are OBESE. In the UK 25% are obese – Montreal Olympics failure prompted the Australian government to found the ASC to promote Mass Participation and Excellence. They did this through the AIS, addressing lack of participation and issues of Opportunity, Provision and Esteem. The MORE ACTIVE AUSTRALIA programme is funded by the ASC. In 1986 the ASC invested in AUSSIE SPORT initiative to MODIFY pitches, rules, equipment and the games for young people to increase participation. It is now called the JUNIOR SPORTS PROGRAMME. 6 Strategies have promoted Sports Participation. 1) PRIMARY and HIGH SCHOOL – 10 Strategies 2) SCHOOL SPORT NETWORK for staff 3) JUNIOR SPORTS PROGRAMME – modified games 4) ACTIVE AFTER SCHOOL COMMUNITIES (AASC) PROGRAMME – primary school free after school physical activity. Aimed at the inactive 5) LOCAL SPORTING CHAMPIONS PROGRAMME – grants given to individuals or teams to help with equipment etc 6) BLUEARTH programme – school fitness initiatives

22 SPORTING EXCELLENCE IN AUSTRALIA The AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTES OF SPORT (AIS) ambition is to achieve sporting GLOBAL excellence. Opened in 1981 following the disastrous 1976 Montreal Olympics. Based in Canberra and funded by the ASC. Elite athletes were selected to live and train together. Each state has an institute. EG: Victoria=VIS. They are funded by the state and by SPONSORS The State Institutes operate in PARALLEL. There is no HIERARCHY. It is DECENTRALISED and monitored by the NATIONAL ELITE SPORTS COUNCIL. There are 7 Main FUNCTIONS of the AIS 1)To produce ELITE performance 2)To provide athletes with SPONSORSHIP 3)To have world class FACILITIES 4)To have high quality COACHING and technical support 5)To provide treatment from SPORTS MEDICINE 6)To provide career advice EG: ACE – Athletic Career Education 7)To provide National and International COMPETITION The AIS works with NGBs to develop high performance. There are however ALTERNATIVE PATHWAYS into professional sport

23 ALTERNATIVE PATHWAYS INTO EXCELLENCE IN AUSTRALIA The DRAFT System operates in Australian Rules. It is an attempt to INTENSIFY competition. Some teams have been accused of TANKING to get 1 st pick. In Rugby League could be part of the AIS but could also be part of a CLUB ACADEMY. The KIDS TO KANGAROOS scheme allows players to get noticed by professional clubs. The TOYOTA CUP NATIONAL YOUTH competition is a televised spectacle of under 18 talent. There is no Draft In cricket Shane Warne is an example of someone who was not part of the AIS Use the following information to compare the pursuit of excellence by Australia and the UK: UK ambition 2012 is to finish 4 th / UK launched Golden Decade / Increased ethos of a Professional Approach in the UK / The UK government has recently heavily backed sport. Traditionally it has been low priority / The UKSI is a direct copy of the AIS / There are 4 Devolved Home Country Institutes / UKSI priority is Olympic Success / The UKSI is not the only pathway to pro sport in the UK / The UKSI is funded by Lottery / The UK government is not involved in policy making

24 A CASE STUDY OF CRICKET Rivalry has always existed between England and Australia. NATIONAL PROGRESS was measured against the MOTHERLAND. TEST matches were coined in 1861 but the 1 st one was in The ASHES MYTHOLOGY began as a Sydney newspaper mocked England after Australia’s 1 st victory. They carried a mock OBITUARY stating the cremation of English cricket 1932 BODYLINE series saw England use unsporting tactics The 1970s WORLD SERIES OF CRICKET modernised the game and made it more professional & popular whilst taking the power away from the ICC Recently Twenty20 and the IPL have reinforced the GOLDEN TRIANGLE Australian Cricket is a direct REPLICATION of the English game. The MCG is a copy of the MCC. In the UK cricket strongly represents the VALUES of the British Empire. CLASS DIVISION is evident in the UK but Australians are very critical of this

25 A CASE STUDY OF RUGBY LEAGUE Rugby League is more popular in Australia than Union. It is mainly played in New South Wales and Queensland. Franchises do exist though (Melbourne Storm). The Rugby League broke away from Union in a direct copy to what happened in Northern England. The 1950s saw progression in both countries but declines in attendances in the 1970s in Australia led to rule changes, sponsorships, play offs, and a STATE OF ORIGIN spectacle which has massive COMMERCIALISM. The game is associated with Lancashire and Yorkshire in England. It tends to be less popular than rugby union. The game originated as a result of BROKEN TIME payments. Its a WORKING CLASS sport in both countries Internationals between the 2 countries have become known as the Ashes Tests and England has recently started the War of the Roses match between Yorkshire and Lancashire. The game changed SEASON in 1996 through BSkyB and changed names to enhance its image. This was the start of SUPER LEAGUE. Massive emphasis has been placed on Franchises in London and Wales The England GRAND FINAL is now a direct copy of the Australian end of season finale in which there are 5 play off semi finalists

26 A CASE STUDY OF RUGBY UNION In the 19 th C Union was an UPPER CLASS game played by boys in private education and at university. Many players were lost to professional Rugby League. Rugby Union is less popular than League in Australia. The game has been boosted by the World Cup wins in 1991 and 1999 and beaten finalists in 2003 in Sydney. An AMATEUR ethos lasted until the 1990s. Professionalism was accepted with the signing of the 1995 PARIS DECLARATION COMMERCIALISM has been embraced and this has led to rule changes and the prestigious SUPER 14 tournament. However the administration and organisation of the game has not kept pace. League is still dominant In the UK Rugby Union is rooted in the PUBLIC schools and universities. OLD BOYS ASSOCIATIONS were formed from past pupils who formed clubs. There is a strong Middle to Upper Class Ethos. Until the 1995 Declaration, games were played only on a FRIENDLY basis. Leagues were set up to embrace professionalism. Laws have changed to embrace the casual spectator. Good Union players have now stopped going to League.

27 A CASE STUDY OF ASSOCIATION FOOTBALL Soccer did not transfer well to Australia because 1) SPORTS SPACE - the threat of it becoming the dominant of the 4 codes led to dismissal 2) It was mainly played by European Immigrants who displayed unsporting behaviour and was considered a FOREIGN game 3) RACISM occurred through Ghetto teams such as Melbourne Croatia 4) The poor standards It is becoming increasingly POPULAR because of 10 FACTORS 1) The Government has changed the ADMINISTRATION 2) The FFA was established to promote it 3) A new LEAGUE set up in ) ETHNIC teams were abolished – Sydney Hellas = Sydney Knights 5) Positive MEDIA interest 6) Lucrative SPONSORSHIP deals 7) SUCCESS vs England 2003 and 2006 World Cup 8) AIS Support 9) PARTICIPATION is fastest growing sport 10) AMBITION to host World Cup 2022 In UK it started in Public Schools but FA founded in 1863 and quickly became dominated by WORKING CLASS Professionals. This was hard to SUSTAIN in Australia because of SPORTS SPACE and TYRANNY OF DISTANCE UK WAGE CAP abolished led to rise in professionals BSkyB’s Premier League meant BIG BUSINESS and COMMERCE

28 A CASE STUDY OF AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALL Known as FOOTY it is 15 a side and it originated in Melbourne. It is now the NATIONAL sport. There is strong evidence to suggest it is a truly Aussie game as Tom Wills allegedly saw an ABORIGINAL LEAPING game and merged it with the rules he had learned in The UK Public Schools. It was CODIFIED in 1858 and was originally a game played on cricket ovals to keep them fit in Winter months Motto is POPULO LUDUS POPULI. The game of the people for the people. This shows cultural and ethnic diversity. The land of the fair go. It also transcends CLASS barriers as it allows Working class to gain status. ABORIGINAL people are very well represented in the game. COMMERCIALISM is huge and is of a similar level to Association Football in the UK and is now dependent on the GOLDEN TRIANGLE. FAIR PLAY and SPORTSMANSHIP are huge priorities and the BROWNLOW MEDAL is given out each year to reflect this.


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