Presentation on theme: "6GEO4 Unit 3 Life on the Margins: the food supply problem"— Presentation transcript:
16GEO4 Unit 3 Life on the Margins: the food supply problem
2What is this option about? The Life on the Margins :food supply problem option focuses on why so many people live at the edge of survival, whilst there is enough food globally to provide for all. See the food spectrum diagram belowIn addition to studying places suffering inequality in food supply and security, you will need to understand:The complex causes of food insecurityThe impact of desertificationEfforts to try to manage food insecurity.Synoptic contextPeoplePlacePowerWho suffers from food insecurity and over nutritionFeast or famine-where are the margins of survival?Who are the players involved in food security?Decreasing health health balance Decreasing healthFamine--Malnutrition-----good diet Obesity
3Food supply and security patterns CONTENTSFood supply and security patternsComplex causes of food supply inequalitiesDesertification and life at the margins of survivalResponse to food insecurity and food supply issuesClick on the information icon to jump to that section.Click on the home button to return to this contents page
41. Food supply and security patterns There are four subtopics you will need to research- see below tableThe concept of a global food crisis started in the 1970s with worries over the basic volume and stability of food supply.The food crisis has since widened, as shown in the FAO definitionFood security is a key aim of the UN MDGs: Goal 1 : Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger by 2015Food security definition by the FAO:‘ a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life’Current issues:faminefood miles ecofootprintsglobalisation of food tastesObesity and over nutritionEnvironmental issues resulting from food productionWhy food supply varies spatiallyTypes of life on the margins and role of food security: rural and urban
5What is food security?Food security depends on direct and indirect factorsFood must be:AvailableAffordableUtilisedFood security -- Insecurity ……chronic hunger (malnutrition) -- acute hunger (famine)Good health Poor health
6Current issues: 1. hunger hotspots ASIA –threats from war, political disputes, natural hazardsAFGHANISTANBANGLADESH-NEPAL N KOREA (DPRK)The main problem in food supply is its uneven distributionOver 50% of the world’s population live in low income, food deficit countries2009: worldwide 850 million people suffer from hunger, 1.02 billion are undernourished , most of them in developing countries. (FAO)EASTERN AFRICA - the Horn of Africa 20 m affected by civil dispute, displacement, droughtSOMALIA KENYA ETHIOPIA SUDAN-LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARRIBBEAN – drought and over reliance on imported food and aid:GUATEMALANICARAGUA HAITISOUTHERN AFRICA - Millions continue to be affected by high levels of domestic prices, and high seasonal food demand during peak hunger months. : ZIMBABWE LESOTHO SWAZILAND
7Current issues 2 : Future Food supply and famine FAO report ‘How to feed the world in 2050’ projections:Global population of 9 billion will mean new and traditional demand for agricultural produce put ting growing pressure on already scarce agricultural resources.Global demand for food, feed and fibre will double.Crops increasingly used for bioenergy and other industrial purposes not food.Agriculture forced to compete for land and water with sprawling urban settlements, 70% population will be urban (50% at present)Agriculture will have to adapt to and also contribute to the mitigation of climate change, helping preserve natural habitats, protecting endangered species and maintain a high level of biodiversity.New technologies will be needed to grow more food with less people as rural depopulation continues in most regions .!Major Hotspot of deficit: Sub-Saharan Africa
8Current issues3: Globalisation of food tastes, under and over nutrition Food tastes are becoming more globalised, for example for westernised habits of meat eating, bread etc.People have more choices in urban areasThe role of media is important: soap and cookery programmes encouraging westernised dietary and sedentary habits for the more affluentThe rising middle classes in transition economies such as India and China are changing their food habits.This is called the food transition from staple to often high protein and fats and sugarsThis has huge implications : creating obesity and heart disease health risks. and changes in the social and physical environment of production areas.In countries where famine and under nutrition was traditionally the main issue, the reverse: over nutrition is increasing , especially in India and China.Obesity has now reached epidemic proportions globally, with approximately 1.6 billion adults and 20 million children under 5 years old being overweight.(World Health Organisation)
9Current issues 4 :Environmental issues resulting from food production The scale and intensity of food production on land and in the oceans inevitably means changes to natural ecosystems and loss of biodiversity.In the 1990s issues centred on the threats from the Green Revolution, and later GM crops. Overuse of chemicals and technology resulted in environmental pollution and human health issuesThe latest debate centres on deforestation and replacement of staple food crops by often subsidised biofuels, especially in Brazil and USAThere are global concerns over Ecofootprints and food miles .Ethical concerns over food production methods are rising, centred on animal welfare and exploitation of workers
10Patterns of food supply and Law of diminishing returns Some areas are naturally more suited naturally to food production: eg the great plains of America and Russia for instance.Peri-urban areas have also been traditionally important in food supply: eg Beijing Bangkok, Madrid. Such areas are under constant threat from urban sprawlPhysical factors limit food production unless technology is available to overcome temperature, water and nutrient deficiencies. Irrigation, chemicals and greenhouses are costly however.Agricultural advances in yields have shown there is a law of diminishing returns which limits even GM products.Point of diminishing returns no matter what new input no real increased outputAdditional outputs ie crop yields, livestockInputs ie labour, capital, machinery
11Why food supply varies spatially: factors Human factorsPhysical factorsAccessibility of marketsLand ownership systems- security of tenure.Inheritance laws- may be gender biasedMarket and Trade patterns and regulations skewed in favour of more developed economiesCompetition often unfair , especially if subsidies, quotas etc involvedGovernment action and supportBig businesses and TNCs now dominate research into agricultural production and are governed by profit margins rather than food security for poor peopleAid agencies are key players in both long and short term food suppliesSoil –nutrient storeClimate -seasonal changesPrecipitation –amount, frequency, typeLength of thermal growing seasonRelief- steep or waterlogged areas less usefulAspect-slope angleAltitude- affecting temperature, water supplyHazards: tectonic, hydro-meteorological and biologicalRecent climate change and weather ‘shocks’ linked to global warming.
12Types of life on the margins and role of food security: rural and urban The FAO calls this the "century of cities“ identifying food supply as a major challengeSupplying cities with safe and affordable food will strain the food supply and distribution chain to the breaking point.The challenge is greatest in LEDCs , where urban poverty rates are often over 50%On average 30% more spent on food than in rural areasLong distances, bad roads, poorly maintained trucks and urban crowding cause spoilage of 10 to 30% of produce in transit.City and suburban farms supply food to about 700 m city dwellers – 25% of the world’s urban population.New research increasing on creating ‘hungerproof cities’!Traditional food insecurity is characteristic of rural areas especially in poorer economiesSub Saharan Africa has highest rate of undernourishmentIndia has increasing URBAN dwellers facing scarcityNB even New York has soup kitchens!
132. Causes of global inequalities in food supply and security Food production varies greatlyBetween :World cereal production doubledFood production increased by 33% per personDaily intake of calories increased by a thirdReal food prices dropped by almost 50%Yet almost 1bn people do not have enough to eat, mainly in poorer countries. WHY? You will study:The complexity of causes of famine and food surpluses: environmental, economic, socialLong and short term, direct and indirectThe role of population pressure in food insecurityThe environmental impacts of attempts to increase global food supplyWho are the vulnerable groups?
14Factors affecting food security Direct causesIndirect Root causesEconomicIncome ,poverty trap, land security/tenure, food supply from local, national or imported sources, aid, infrastructure ,food hoardingTrade restrictionsDebt repaymentsSocialPopulation growth, poor health and reduced labour especially scourge of HIV/AIDs pandemic, war, deliberate food destruction,War, civil disputes, corruption, refugees and displacement, rise of middle classes and changed food tastes, gender inequalityEnvironmentNatural disasters: floods, drought, desertification, deforestation, pests, overcropping, overgrazing, urban sprawlPollution, climate changeRoot/ Indirect driversDirect driversFood securitySince 1992 the % of short and long term food crises directly linked to human causes has risen from 15 to over 35%
15Who are the vulnerable groups in food insecurity? Vulnerable groups of peopleLandless rural dwellersAnyone on a low incomeRefugees and displaced peoplePeople with low literacy ratesWomen and children and agedUrban dwellers with no formal employmentPeople with poor health especially HIV/AIDs, MalariaEthnic/religious minoritiesThere are a huge range of people more vulnerable to food insecurity. The key factor is wealth
16Population pressure and resource relationships Traditional pessimistic Malthusian ModelBoserup /technocentric modelPopulation outstrips food supply. Possible in some localised areas but not at global scale-so far!Inventions and technology keep pace with demands for food .For decades, agricultural science has focused on boosting production through the development of new technologies -can be :low tech : crop resistant plants, targeted irrigation ....high tech: megadams, chemical pesticides....Africa offers examples of systemic issues at a continental scale since pre independence most countries were self sufficient in food yet most now rely on imports and aid and there are many famine hotspots. Complex political-demographic and environmental factors are at play here
17The food supply system OUTPUTS Desired: Food supply INPUTSMachineryChemicalsAntibioticsAnimal/fish feedPURPOSEIncreased efficiencyIncrease yieldsRemove pests, weedsReduce diseaseIncrease density per areaOUTPUTSDesired: Food supplyUndesired outputs: -Pollution-toxic, eutrophicationDegradation, deforestation, desertificationsoil erosion, antibiotic resistancemore meat=more methane,more animal feeds....The food supply system
18Environmental alternatives in food production Traditional organicModern higher technologyRelatively low impact on the environmentEU, reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy( CAP )foster more environmentally friendly agriculture, with a growth in LEAF farms( Linking Environment with Farming).However tends to be less profitable than more technologically based types, and has suffered with global recession of the early 20th C.NB majority of farmers in developing counties are still rooted in subsistence and small scale production methods which are often organic too because of poverty.High impact on environment from modern farming in westernised countries since WW 2. Often large scale intensive or extensive commercial.Similar issues more recently in developing economies adopting Green Revolution techniques.
193. The role of desertification in threatening life at the margins The 4 main topics may be grouped as below table summarisesThe UN defines desertification as ‘land degradation in arid, semi arid and dry subhumid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities.’Land degradation means the reduction or loss of the biological or economic productivity of drylands.70% of all drylands are classed as degraded ,excluding hyperarid deserts, and suffering desertificationThe scale and impact of DesertificationThe characteristics and vulnerability of dryland ecosystemsFood production, supply and desertification
20Drylands and desertification? Drylands Include all terrestrial regions where the production of crops, forage, wood and other ecosystem services are limited by water.41% of Earth’s land surface, 2 billion people ,33% of world population.Climate classiﬁed as dry subhumid, semiarid, arid or extreme hyper-arid.Precipitation often unreliable and sporadic hence ecosystems fragile and vulnerable to over use .On average low human well-being and development indicator: 90% are in developing countries.Asia and Africa dominate, with less areas in Central America and Europe. The top 10 are: Australia, China, Russia and USASome smaller countries are almost 100% classed as dryland : Botswana, Burkina Faso, Turkmenistan, Iraq, and MoldovaDesertification affects the food security of over 2billion people in drylands .Africa and Central Asia are particularly at risk, with 3 key areas of vulnerability in Sub-Saharan Africa: the Sahel, the Horn of Africa and SE AfricaSalinisation is a linked problem
21Causes of desertification The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment identifies the cause as the result of a long-term failure to balance human demand for ecosystem services and the amount the ecosystem can supplySee diagram for simplified complex causesMismanagement and politics are often root causesClimate change is adding more complexity
22Food production in dryland /desertified areas Food production generally requires massive amounts of water. Examples:1 kg of wheat needs 1000l of water1 kg of rice needs 3,000l.Irrigation can ensure an adequate and reliable supply of water which increases yields of most crops by up to 400%.Although only 17% of global cropland is irrigated, it produces 40% of the world's food.Ongoing food availability depends on increasing irrigation efficiency and limiting environment damage through salinisation, damaged aquifers or reduced soil fertilityHuman population growth in drylands increased by 18.5%Sensitivity to human pressure increases with aridityHuman pressure decreases with aridity
234. Management and Responses to Food insecurity Strategies and techniques to increase global food supply-: high and low technologyOrganisations involved in managementRole of sustainable strategiesDo nothing (ignore the issue/risk of food insecurity)Move to a safer location –refugees/displaced peopleAttempt to prevent the risk-Adapt lifestyle to the hazardA strategy means the overall aims and tactics of a scheme,It is implemented by various delivery techniques involving a range of policies and actual technology.Food security management mirrors hazard risk management-see diagram
24Management target zones productionprocessingaccessdistributionconsumptionwaste managementIncreasing food production leads to greater availability of food and generates income which can help break poverty cycles.However there is a huge spectrum of long and short term strategies. These may involve:Fairer trade,Reduced debt servicing,reduced subsidies to richer economies,Less tied aid,More community involvement,appropriate technology,infrastructure building.....
25Players Profit Role in sustaining life of the margins Examples Player + motiveRole in sustaining life of the marginsExamplesIndividuals e.g. FarmersSurvival/ profitDirect producers of foodCommunities harbour stores of valuable local knowledge, coping strategies and innovationTheir co-operation is critical to ensure environmental sustainabilityFair TradeGovernmentstabilityFunding for agricultural research and developmentCreating political and economic conditions creating stability of food supplyResponse during times of crisis.Often technocentric large scale projects e.g. China’s Great Green Wall, or UK overseas aid projectsTNCsProfitResearch and investment into new farming methods and technologiesResource exploitation and trade in cash crops, fertilizers and farm machineryGM Golden RiceMonsantoNGOs and Foundations-PhilanthropicCommunity level support for farmers in the developing worldEducation, training and skills providersMany promote social equity, for instance female empowermentPractical Action ,Water AidEmergency aid eg OxfamThe International Alliance Against HungerResearch OrganisationsAcademicScientific research on new species and systemsEducation and skills training of farmersThe development of HYVs by IRRIAGRAs work on a ‘Green Revolution of Africa’IGOsEg UNEP & FAOStabilityPromote international co-operationImplementation of global actions such as MDGsMonitoring and research to identify problems and seek solutionsDevelopment assistance and aid to the developing worldWorld Bank’s Global Response Food Programme1994 UN Convention on DesertificationWatchdog pressure groupsEnvironmentResearch and information gathering and Lobbying of agenciesWorld Resources InstituteUSA Coalition FoodSUSTAIN
26Business as Usual or Sustainability in food security? Seeking ways of providing food, water and energy that are long-lasting and have less of an impact on the environment has led to the quest for sustainable food supply systems ( the red star) need 3 overlapping criteria to work effectively.A well-functioning food system :Improves human health and social well-beingIs positive for the environment and the economy long termCan therefore cope with shocks from natural and human created disasters.Difficult to achieve without some form of negative externalitiesEconomic stability/growthSocial equity & HealthEnvironmental HealthFood consumptionFood productionFood processing distribution.marketing
27World Food summit 2009Aims of FAO and 180 member countrieshelp for poorer farmersStrategies to halt rising food pricesincrease investment in science and technology, continue studying biofuels and cut the number of the world's hungry by half by 2015The global food insecurity situation has worsenedThe number of hungry people could increase by a further 100 m in 2009 and pass the 1bn markFood prices remain high in developing countries,The global economic crisis is aggravating the situation by affecting jobs and deepening povertyIs it possible to eat well and save the planet as promoted by pressure group SUSTAIN?AchievementsFailuresSome significant pledges of emergency food aid eg $1.5 billion US from the Islamic Investment Bank.A similar world hunger reduction target was made in 1996’s food summit.Between the number of the world's hungry has increased.No long term strategies for dealing with the crisis