Presentation on theme: "Generalization Occurs when a CR results from stimuli that are similar to the CS, even though these stimuli may never have been associated with US. The."— Presentation transcript:
Generalization Occurs when a CR results from stimuli that are similar to the CS, even though these stimuli may never have been associated with US. The more similar the stimuli are to the CS, the greater the likelihood of generalization. Ex: Watson’s Little Albert experiment
Generalization John Watson’s “Little Albert” –
Generalization The likelihood of a CR based on similarity in color to the original CS
Discrimination Occurs when stimuli similar to the CS do not result in a CR. This will happen only after repeated training in which the CS is paired with a UCS, but the similar stimuli are not paired with the UCS. The more similar the stimuli are to the CS, the greater the difficulty of discrimination.
Applications of Classical Conditioning Advertising: it is suggested that consumer attitudes for advertised products are influenced by pairing the product with other pleasant things such as good music and pleasant photographs. Examples?
Applications Taste Aversions: The CS is a novel taste, the US is typically a drug that produces nausea UR, and the CR is avoidance of the taste. Ex: – Pairing radiation (US) with sweetened water (CS) caused rats to become nauseated (UR). – Chemotherapy and Kool-Aid – Weight loss: pairing favorite foods (CS) with noxious odors (US) so they are less likely to eat them in the future.
Operant Conditioning Learning through reinforcement or punishment. OP-The learner is not passive, learning based on consequence. (unlike classical conditioning) OP-Organism learns associations between its behavior & resulting events CC-Organism learns associations between events it doesn’t control.
Edward Thorndike The Law of Effect – Placed cats in wooden puzzle box where they had to get out by pressing a lever. Behavior followed by reward is more likely to reoccur. Behavior followed by unfavorable consequences, less likely reoccur.
Operant Conditioning B.F Skinner (Operant Chamber) – Skinner Box – Shaping – Measuring device that recorded responses of rats according to rewards. – Conditioning process where reinforcers guide behavior closer to desired behavior. Builds upon existing behaviors Through shaping pigeons can be taught to discriminate images (human face vs. other objects) Often used in animal training
Operant Conditioning: Types of Reinforcement Reinforcer Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Event that strengthens behavior. Addition of something pleasant. – Food, Stickers in grade school Removal of something unpleasant. – Seatbelt Ding, Mother Nagging, taking aspirin to relieve headache
Operant Conditioning: Types of Punishment Punishment Positive Punishment Negative Punishment Decreases a behavior Addition of something unpleasant. – Spanking, parking ticket Removal of something pleasant. – Taking away cell phone, taking away license – Big Bang Theory & Operant Conditioning – &safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1 &safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1
Comparing CC & OC classical Learning associations between events that aren’t controlled/responses automatic Associations made between unconnected stimuli (bell/salivation) Responses are involuntary/automatic operant Operating from the environment depending on reinforcements & punishments Organisms associate their own actions with consequences through reinforcements/punishments (cussing/getting time out) Voluntary responses
Practice John walks into his first period class. His adrenaline starts flowing when he has to take a test. He flunked the last test. Your car has a light that blinks annoyingly until you buckle your seatbelt so you buckle your seatbelt. The professor announced a policy of exempting students from the final exam if they attend regularly. Attendance in the class has dramatically increased. Every time someone flushes the toilet in the building the water in the shower becomes very hot. Overtime the person begins to jump back when hearing the toilet flush. Tara dated someone she was very attracted to who frequently had onion breath. She is no longer dating him but feels aroused when she encounters onion breath. Johnny gets spanked for teasing his sister. He no longer teases his sister to avoid getting spanked. Every time the bell rings the dogs now salivate. Every time Leonard’s girlfriend speaks in a lower tone Sheldon, gives her chocolate where she continues to speak in a low tone.
Applications of Operant Conditioning Which do you think is more effective in getting you to study more? Have a quiz every week Have random quizzes that you don’t know when they will be given. After completing a certain amount of work, you take a quiz then get credit. There is a set time for when it must be done. You will be given a quiz which you will receive credit for but it is dependent on how much work you do but you don’t know when it will be given.
Reinforcement Schedules Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcing response every time it occurs. – Learning occurs quickly – So does extinction – Difficult to administer
Reinforcement Schedules Partial Reinforcement Ratio – Relies on response Interval – Relies on time Fixed schedules – Stay the same Variable schedules – Vary, change Responses are sometimes reinforced – Learning slower – Lasts longer & more resistant to extinction
Partial reinforcement schedules Fixed-Ratio – Results in high, steady responding until the reinforcement is delivered Behavior reinforced after a set (fixed)number of responses. Action (reinforcer) stays the same – Buy 10 get one free – Production Line Work: Workers at a product factory are paid for every 15 products they make. This results in a high production rate and workers tend to take few breaks. It can, however, lead to burnout and lower-quality work
Variable –Ratio – Leads to a high, steady response rate Reinforcers applied after an unpredictable number of responses. Action (reinforcer) changing – Slot machines – Fishing – Sales-Don’t know when your will make a sale so you make more attempts knowing that a sale will be made at some point. – Sales bonuses: Call centers often offer random bonuses to employees. Workers don’t know how many calls they need to make in order to receive the bonus, but they know that they increase their chances the more calls or sales they make.
Variable Interval – The rate of response is relatively slow, but steady Reinforcing response at unpredictable times. Amount of time changing – Sometimes your mom calls when you get home from school – Your boss checks in on you randomly 3 or so times a week – Pop Quizzes: sometimes you have one once a week, may be twice, then nothing one week – /facebook: no set time for checking but you check several times a day looking for something interesting
Fixed Interval – Responses tend to increase gradually as the reinforcement time draws close Reinforcing response after a time has been set. Amount of time stays the same – Every Friday is date night – You get paid on Fridays, after seven days have past – Black Friday
Relevance of Operant Conditioning 3 conditions of children showing interest in drawing – Which group spent the most amount of time on the drawings? – Which group worked harder? Expected reward group: – If they did a good job they could get a badge & their name on the honor-roll board Unexpected reward group: – Told to draw without mention of any rewards, unexpectedly children were given rewards Condition Control Group: – Told to draw without promise of reward or presentation of reward.
Results Expected reward group spent the least amount of time No significant differences between control & unexpected group Over Justification – Promising rewards for doing what one already likes to do encourages one to see the reward rather then the intrinsic interest. – Can excessive rewards/praise undermine intrinsic motivation or have an aversive effect?
Operant Conditioning Primary Reinforcers Conditioned reinforcers Innate reinforcer as stimulus/one that satisfies biological need. – Food in Skinner Box Stimulus that gains reinforcing power through association with primary reinforcer. – Light that goes on before food is dispensed, rat works to make the light go on
Observational Learning Modeling Learning by observing others. Observing behavior and imitating behavior.
Observational Learning Biological Explanation – Mirror Neurons – Neurons in the frontal lobe that fire when observing another's actions. Monkeys observe another’s actions then imitate: these neurons are activated. Humans – Assist in language development – Empathy, to infer another’s emotional state – Children imitating behavior
Observational Learning & Albert Bandura (& the bobo dolls) Bandura’s Experiments In 1 room child is drawing In another part of room adult is working with toys Adult begins to pound, kick, & throw things & the large inflated bob doll while yelling at it. Child observes & is taken to a room with a bobo doll – What happens next? watch?v=Z0iWpSNu3NU watch?v=Z0iWpSNu3NU
Bandura’s conclusions Children not exposed to adult model far less likely to act aggressively – Bandura suggested that we are far more likely to imitate those who are similar to us, we admire, or perceive as successful.
Applications of Observational Learning Antisocial Effects Sex portrayed in media Abuse Television & Violence Columbine Desensitization to casual sexual behavior Men who beat wives more likely to have had fathers were abusive The average child views 8,000 murders & 100,000 acts of violence before end of elementary
Nurture Shock “The Inverse Power of Praise” – Pro Bronson & Ashley Merryman Seminar Discussion Monday Read & Complete Ticket for Monday!