Presentation on theme: "Generalization Occurs when a CR results from stimuli that are similar to the CS, even though these stimuli may never have been associated with US. The."— Presentation transcript:
1GeneralizationOccurs when a CR results from stimuli that are similar to the CS, even though these stimuli may never have been associated with US.The more similar the stimuli are to the CS, the greater the likelihood of generalization.Ex: Watson’s Little Albert experiment
3GeneralizationThe likelihood of a CR based on similarity in color to the original CS
4DiscriminationOccurs when stimuli similar to the CS do not result in a CR. This will happen only after repeated training in which the CS is paired with a UCS, but the similar stimuli are not paired with the UCS.The more similar the stimuli are to the CS, the greater the difficulty of discrimination.
5Applications of Classical Conditioning Advertising: it is suggested that consumer attitudes for advertised products are influenced by pairing the product with other pleasant things such as good music and pleasant photographs.Examples?
6ApplicationsTaste Aversions: The CS is a novel taste, the US is typically a drug that produces nausea UR, and the CR is avoidance of the taste.Ex:Pairing radiation (US) with sweetened water (CS) caused rats to become nauseated (UR).Chemotherapy and Kool-AidWeight loss: pairing favorite foods (CS) with noxious odors (US) so they are less likely to eat them in the future.
7Operant Conditioning Learning through reinforcement or punishment. OP-The learner is not passive, learning based on consequence. (unlike classical conditioning)OP-Organism learns associations between its behavior & resulting eventsCC-Organism learns associations between events it doesn’t control.
8Edward Thorndike The Law of Effect Placed cats in wooden puzzle box where they had to get out by pressing a lever.Behavior followed by reward is more likely to reoccur.Behavior followed by unfavorable consequences, less likely reoccur.
9Operant Conditioning B.F Skinner (Operant Chamber) Skinner BoxShapingMeasuring device that recorded responses of rats according to rewards.Conditioning process where reinforcers guide behavior closer to desired behavior.Builds upon existing behaviorsThrough shaping pigeons can be taught to discriminate images (human face vs. other objects)Often used in animal training
10Operant Conditioning: Types of Reinforcement ReinforcerPositive ReinforcementNegative ReinforcementEvent that strengthens behavior.Addition of something pleasant.Food, Stickers in grade schoolRemoval of something unpleasant.Seatbelt Ding, Mother Nagging, taking aspirin to relieve headache
11Operant Conditioning: Types of Punishment Decreases a behaviorAddition of something unpleasant.Spanking, parking ticketRemoval of something pleasant.Taking away cell phone, taking away licenseBig Bang Theory & Operant ConditioningPunishmentPositive PunishmentNegative Punishment
13Comparing CC & OC classical operant Learning associations between events that aren’t controlled/responses automaticAssociations made between unconnected stimuli (bell/salivation)Responses are involuntary/automaticOperating from the environment depending on reinforcements & punishmentsOrganisms associate their own actions with consequences through reinforcements/punishments (cussing/getting time out)Voluntary responses
14PracticeJohn walks into his first period class. His adrenaline starts flowing when he has to take a test. He flunked the last test.Your car has a light that blinks annoyingly until you buckle your seatbelt so you buckle your seatbelt.The professor announced a policy of exempting students from the final exam if they attend regularly. Attendance in the class has dramatically increased.Every time someone flushes the toilet in the building the water in the shower becomes very hot. Overtime the person begins to jump back when hearing the toilet flush.Tara dated someone she was very attracted to who frequently had onion breath. She is no longer dating him but feels aroused when she encounters onion breath.Johnny gets spanked for teasing his sister. He no longer teases his sister to avoid getting spanked.Every time the bell rings the dogs now salivate.Every time Leonard’s girlfriend speaks in a lower tone Sheldon, gives her chocolate where she continues to speak in a low tone.
15Applications of Operant Conditioning Which do you think is more effective in getting you to study more?Have a quiz every weekHave random quizzes that you don’t know when they will be given.After completing a certain amount of work, you take a quiz then get credit. There is a set time for when it must be done.You will be given a quiz which you will receive credit for but it is dependent on how much work you do but you don’t know when it will be given.
16Reinforcement Schedules Continuous ReinforcementReinforcing response every time it occurs.Learning occurs quicklySo does extinctionDifficult to administer
17Reinforcement Schedules Partial ReinforcementRatioRelies on responseIntervalRelies on timeFixed schedulesStay the sameVariable schedulesVary, changeResponses are sometimes reinforcedLearning slowerLasts longer & more resistant to extinction
18Partial reinforcement schedules Fixed-RatioResults in high, steady responding until the reinforcement is deliveredBehavior reinforced after a set (fixed)number of responses.Action (reinforcer) stays the sameBuy 10 get one freeProduction Line Work: Workers at a product factory are paid for every 15 products they make.This results in a high production rate and workers tend to take few breaks. It can, however, lead to burnout and lower-quality work
19Reinforcers applied after an unpredictable number of responses. Variable –RatioLeads to a high, steady response rateReinforcers applied after an unpredictable number of responses.Action (reinforcer) changingSlot machinesFishingSales-Don’t know when your will make a sale so you make more attempts knowing that a sale will be made at some point.Sales bonuses: Call centers often offer random bonuses to employees. Workers don’t know how many calls they need to make in order to receive the bonus, but they know that they increase their chances the more calls or sales they make.
20Reinforcing response at unpredictable times. Amount of time changing Variable IntervalThe rate of response is relatively slow, but steadyReinforcing response at unpredictable times.Amount of time changingSometimes your mom calls when you get home from schoolYour boss checks in on you randomly 3 or so times a weekPop Quizzes: sometimes you have one once a week, may be twice, then nothing one week/facebook: no set time for checking but you check several times a day looking for something interesting
21Reinforcing response after a time has been set. Fixed IntervalResponses tend to increase gradually as the reinforcement time draws closeReinforcing response after a time has been set.Amount of time stays the sameEvery Friday is date nightYou get paid on Fridays, after seven days have pastBlack Friday
22Relevance of Operant Conditioning 3 conditions of children showing interest in drawingWhich group spent the most amount of time on the drawings?Which group worked harder?Expected reward group:If they did a good job they could get a badge & their name on the honor-roll boardUnexpected reward group:Told to draw without mention of any rewards, unexpectedly children were given rewardsCondition Control Group:Told to draw without promise of reward or presentation of reward.
23Results Expected reward group spent the least amount of time No significant differences between control & unexpected groupOver JustificationPromising rewards for doing what one already likes to do encourages one to see the reward rather then the intrinsic interest.Can excessive rewards/praise undermine intrinsic motivation or have an aversive effect?
24Operant Conditioning Primary Reinforcers Conditioned reinforcersInnate reinforcer as stimulus/one that satisfies biological need.Food in Skinner BoxStimulus that gains reinforcing power through association with primary reinforcer.Light that goes on before food is dispensed, rat works to make the light go on
25Observational Learning ModelingLearning by observing others.Observing behavior and imitating behavior.
26Observational Learning Biological ExplanationMirror NeuronsNeurons in the frontal lobe that fire when observing another's actions.Monkeys observe another’s actions then imitate: these neurons are activated.HumansAssist in language developmentEmpathy, to infer another’s emotional stateChildren imitating behavior
27Observational Learning & Albert Bandura (& the bobo dolls) Bandura’s ExperimentsIn 1 room child is drawingIn another part of room adult is working with toysAdult begins to pound, kick, & throw things & the large inflated bob doll while yelling at it.Child observes & is taken to a room with a bobo dollWhat happens next?
28Bandura’s conclusions Children not exposed to adult model far less likely to act aggressivelyBandura suggested that we are far more likely to imitate those who are similar to us, we admire, or perceive as successful.
29Applications of Observational Learning Antisocial EffectsSex portrayed in mediaAbuseTelevision & ViolenceColumbineDesensitization to casual sexual behaviorMen who beat wives more likely to have had fathers were abusiveThe average child views 8,000 murders & 100,000 acts of violence before end of elementary
30Nurture Shock “The Inverse Power of Praise” Seminar Discussion Monday Pro Bronson &Ashley MerrymanSeminar Discussion MondayRead & Complete Ticket for Monday!