Presentation on theme: "The League of Nations Topic B Learning Guide 2. Q1. Give the rationale for the establishment of the League of Nations Collective Security The underlying."— Presentation transcript:
Q1. Give the rationale for the establishment of the League of Nations Collective Security The underlying assumption by the supporters of the League of Nations was that the world is interdependent and that national self interest must give way to the common interests of all nations. Security of individual states would best be achieved through group solidarity. This same assumption is the basis for today’s United Nations. Purpose of the League 1.To prevent war 2.To carry out the provisions of the peace treaties 3.To assist the improvement of social and economic conditions.
Q2. Describe the organization within the League of Nations. Assembly - consisted of representatives of all the members of the League. Deal with any matter affecting the peace of the world. Decisions needed unanimous vote of the assembly. Council – representatives of the principal powers plus repetitive of four other member nations Secretariat – registers treaties & gathers information Secretary General – secretarial duties World Court – hear and determine disputes of international character
Powers of the League Stop their trade Economic sanctions Use armed forces to protect the covenants of the League (no military force of its own)
Q3. Give three reasons for the ultimate failure of the League of Nations. 1.Could not take action on important matters without the unanimous consent of the Council or Assembly. 2.Pass laws that were compulsory for all member nations 3.Back up its decisions with military force unless the member nations were willing to supply troops and weapons. Absents of the USA – Congress controlled by Republicans' (isolationism) President – Democratic want Absents of Germany & Russia
Q4. Explain the mandate system established by the League of Nations. The process by which the L.G. administered the colonies of the defeated central powers after WW1 Idea was to help them to become self-sufficient and politically independent. G.B. & France received the bulk of the Ottoman Empire G.B. & Japan administering the Pacific Empire of Germany G.B., France, South Africa received mandates over Germany’s African processions
Types of Mandates Class A - close to self-governance (immediate independence) Class B - considerable support required in political and social issues (eventual independence) Class C – lacking any necessary sense of developed & annexed by the mandate state. (perpetual colonial status)
Q5. Identify the League’s accomplishments in the 1920’s and 1930’s See Handout
Q6. Explain the terms of the Washington Naval Conference of 1921. What was the intent and the result of limiting naval forces? Q7. Treaty of Rapallo 1925 Q8. Locarno Pact 1925 Q9. Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928
TREATYCOUNTRIESINTENT (TERMS)RESULT Washington Treaties USA GB Japan Italy France Promote security & peace Froze the number of capital ships nations could build for 10 years Discontent by they those not receiving equitable limits Maintain American superiority 5 USA /GB - 3 Japan - 1.75 Italy & France Discontent over equitable limits Treaty of Rapallo 1922 Germany Russian Diplomatic & economic cooperation German economic support Access to Russian for military maneuvers Violation of the treaty of Versailles Ends isolation of Germany Locarno Pact 1925 International cooperation Germany France Belgium British Italian Czech Poland Mutual defence pacts against German aggression Guaranteed the common boundaries of Belgium, France, and Germany Agreed to change the eastern boundaries of Germany (arbitration) Germany allowed into the League of Nations 1926 Demilitarize the Rhineland 1930 Repudiated the Pact 1936 & sent troops in the Rhineland Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 Pact of Paris Peace Building 15 countries 62 total USA, France G.B, Italy France Renounce war as a national policy USA right to defense – no obligation to participate in stopping nations that broke the treaty. Illusion of security, no plan to deal with aggression Japan – Manchuria 1931 Italy – Abyssinia 1935 Germany – Poland Legal basis for Crimes against peace Nuremburg trials
TreatyCountriesIntent Four Power Pact USA, Britain, Japan, France A treaty of mutual consultation among its members in the event of territorial disputes in the Far East The Little Entente Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia, Romania A treaty to resist territorial expansion by the former members of the Austro- Hungarian Empire
Q10. There have been many reasons for the worldwide depression. As many as four hundred explanations have been advanced to account for the unprecedented scope and length of this depression. Identify five major causes for this global problem. 1. Prices of agriculture produce fell by 30%. Worlds farms and plantations were production to much – large supply. 2. During WWI, European agriculture had suffered a setback & other countries had expanded their production to supply a new demand.
4. Producers were forced to sell at lower and lower prices. 5. Americans invested less in foreign countries and more in American stock markets. 7. 1929 “Wall Street Crash” decline in manufactured goods. 3. By the 1920’s European agriculture had returned to pre- war levels. 6. Less money found it’s way into Europe causing foreign business to decline.
Q11. Explain the impact of the collapse of the American stock market on the international economy. Shift in economic power from Europe to USA Alliances borrowed heavily from USA to finish the war Rebuilding of Europe primarily financed by USA causing them to be closely tied to USA
Depression in the United States Bankrupted businesses increased Unemployment rose Money needed to the USA Reduction in foreign lending Calling in of existing loans Close ties with the USA caused a ripple effect to Europe Countries raised Protectionist trade policies place heavy tariffs on imports to protect their industries Created more unemployment
Extremists offered quick solutions or scapegoats for the economic difficulties Germany the weakest was hit the hardest Left wing parties disunited Right wing dominated by the Nazi Hitler – an opportunist blamed the Jews, communist, democrats, & treaty of Versailles for the economic problems. Hitler was the most successful – public works programs autobahn, remilitarization USA introduced the New Deal – government programs France & Britain – small changes to support industry but minimal.