2Information SystemThe term information system is frequently used to refer to the interaction between people, processes, data and technology.This interaction can occur within or across organizational boundaries.An information system is not only the technology an organization uses, but also the way in which the organizations interact with the technology and the way in which the technology works with the organization’s business processes.Information systems are distinct from information technology in that an information system has an information technology component that interacts with the processes components.
3Information SystemThe Information System consists of four parts which include:Procedures,Software,Hardware,Information or data.
4SoftwareSoftware is a set of instructions that makes the computer perform tasks. In other words ,software tells the computer what to do.A program is a set of instructions that tell the computer how to process data to produce the required results. (The program refers to any piece of software.)
5HardwareThe physical components associated with a computer or other system.CPUPeripheral Devices
6Data and Information What is data? What is information? Data is unorganised facts, numbers, letters and symbols represented in a formalised manner suitable for communication, interpretation and processing by humans or computers.What is information?Information is data which has been assigned a commonly understood meaning.
7ProceduresThe rules or guidelines for the running of the information system and its components.System manualsProgram manuals
8IS in OrganizationsThe data in databases is used to build information, and information---and how it is used---lies at the heart of every organization.Of course, how useful information is depends on the quality of it, as well as the information systems used to distribute it.
9Qualities of Good Information Correct and verifiable: This means information must be accurate and checkable.Complete yet concise: Complete means information must include all relevant data. Concise means it includes only relevant data.Cost effective: This means the information is efficiently obtained and understandable.Current: Current means timely yet also time sensitive, based on historical, present or future information needs.Accessible: This means the information is quick and easily obtained.
10Types of Information System There are various types of information systems, for example:Office information systemsTransaction processing systemsManagement information systemsDecision support systemsExecutive support systemsExpert systems
11Office Information Systems OIS also called office automation systems, combine various technologies to reduce the manual labor required in operating an efficient office environment and to increase productivity.Used throughout all levels of an organization, OIS technology include fax voice mail, , scheduling software, word processing, and desktop publishing, and other.Backbone of an IS is a network: LANAll office functions like Typing, Filing, Record Management, Fax, Copying, Telephone calls are candidates for integration into the network.
12Electronic Publishing System Electronic Communication System OISElectronic Publishing SystemElectronic Communication SystemElectronic Collaboration SystemImage Processing SystemOffice Management SystemsWord-processingVideo conferencingElectronic SchedulingTask ManagementElectronic MeetingTeleconferencingMultimedia Systems
13Transaction Processing Systems A transaction is a recorded event having to do with routine business activities like Production, Distribution, Sales, Orders, Material purchased, Employees hired, Taxes paid etcA transaction may be recorded manually or via a computer system and includes everything concerning the product or service in which the organization is engaged.TPS is a computer based information system that keeps track of the transactions needed to conduct business.
14Management Information Systems A MIS is a computer based information system that uses data recorded by a TPS as input into programs that produce routine reports as output.
15Decision Support Systems A DSS is a computer based information system that provides a flexible tool for analysis and helps managers focus on the future.DSS applications are not single information resources such as a database of a program that graphically represents sales figures but a combination of integrated resources working together.DSS often come close to acting as AI agents.
16Executive Support System An ESS is an easy to use DSS made especially for strategic managers; it specifically supports strategic decision making.It draws on data not only from system internal to the organization but also from those outside, such as news services or market-research databases.
17Expert SystemsAn expert system or knowledge based system, is a set of interactive computer programs that helps users solve problems that would otherwise requirement the assistance of a human expert.Created on the basis of knowledge collected on specific topics from human specialists.Imitate the reasoning process of a human being.Examples are:MYCIN : helps in diagnosing infectious diseasesPROSPECTOR: Assess geological data to locate mineral deposits.