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Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 to Divide Africa Why is Africa so poor? Why is AIDS such a big problem in Africa? Why is hunger such a big problem in Africa?

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Presentation on theme: "Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 to Divide Africa Why is Africa so poor? Why is AIDS such a big problem in Africa? Why is hunger such a big problem in Africa?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Berlin Conference of to Divide Africa Why is Africa so poor? Why is AIDS such a big problem in Africa? Why is hunger such a big problem in Africa? Why is there so much violence in Africa? Why is Africa always in need of so much help? Why do we constantly see pictures of hungry and abused African children? Disclaimer: Downloaded from Mr. Weiss at Bartlett High School.

3 Berlin Conference of to Divide Africa First Meeting of the Berlin Conference C:\Users\Owner\Documents\BHS \CWP\Genocide Presentations\The Berlin Conference\Berlin Conference\Berlin Conference Home.mht

4 Berlin Conference of to Divide Africa See this as a “blank” map of Africa, as it was before the Berlin Conference, but each state represents a tribe

5 Berlin Conference of to Divide Africa Think of each state as a: Different cultureDifferent culture Different languageDifferent language Different religionDifferent religion Think of each state as a: Different cultureDifferent culture Different languageDifferent language Different religionDifferent religion The red lines arbitrarily divides up the continent What effect do you think this had on the people of Africa?

6 Berlin Conference of to Divide Africa The bottom left map is Africa in 1878 and the large color map is Africa after The Berlin Conference in 1895.

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8 In 1884 at the request of Portugal, German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called together the major western powers of the world to negotiate questions and end confusion over the control of Africa. Bismarck appreciated the opportunity to expand Germany's sphere of influence over Africa and desired to force Germany's rivals to struggle with one another for territory.

9 Berlin Conference of to Divide Africa At the time of the conference, 80% of Africa remained under traditional and local control. What ultimately resulted was a hodgepodge of geometric boundaries that divided Africa into fifty irregular countries. This new map of the continent was superimposed over the one thousand indigenous cultures and regions of Africa. The new countries lacked rhyme or reason and divided coherent groups of people and merged together disparate groups who really did not get along.

10 Berlin Conference of to Divide Africa The Conference of Berlin in In November 1884, representatives of fourteen European countries plus the United States met at Berlin to regulate conditions under which territorial annexations in Africa could be made. European leaders feared that the "scramble" for lands and resources could lead to war in Europe. Ground rules for making territorial claims were established, including the stipulation that effective occupation had to be demonstrated. Within two decades the partition of Africa was virtually completed. No Africans were in attendance at the Berlin Conference.

11 Berlin Conference of to Divide Africa

12 European Imperialism in Africa – 4:08

13 Berlin Conference of to Divide Africa The Berlin Conference: The General Act of Feb. 26, 1885 Chapter 1 (emphasized) VI. All the powers exercising sovereign rights or influence in the aforesaid territories bind themselves to watch over the preservation of the native tribes, and to care for the improvement of the conditions of their moral and material well-being What does this mean???

14 Berlin Conference of to Divide Africa Top 10 Major Challenges Africa Faces Why is Africa so poor? Why, when other regions of the world have made significant strides since the global wave of decolonization after World War II, has Africa been trapped in a persistent state of underdevelopment? The follow list, though hardly exhaustive, presents some of the causes of Africa's poverty and instability and highlights the major challenges Africa must overcome in order to realize its promise. Top 10 Major Challenges Africa Faces Why is Africa so poor? Why, when other regions of the world have made significant strides since the global wave of decolonization after World War II, has Africa been trapped in a persistent state of underdevelopment? The follow list, though hardly exhaustive, presents some of the causes of Africa's poverty and instability and highlights the major challenges Africa must overcome in order to realize its promise. cachallenge.htm

15 Berlin Conference of to Divide Africa 1)The Legacy of Colonialism The colonial period in Africa was relatively brief, but it is difficult to overstate its impact. The colonial powers haphazardly divided Africa as it suited their interests, in many cases joining previously distinct ethnic groups in a single state while bisecting others with artificial boundaries. Creating states without regard to nations (i.e., the people who constitute a state) has contributed to ethnic violence and the low levels of legitimacy held by many governments in Africa today.

16 Berlin Conference of to Divide Africa The Colonization of the Continent by European Powers "The Berlin Conference was Africa's undoing in more ways than one. The colonial powers superimposed their domains on the African continent. By the time independence returned to Africa in 1950, the realm had acquired a legacy of political fragmentation that could neither be eliminated nor made to operate satisfactorily."

17 Berlin Conference of to Divide Africa Of the Europeans who scrambled for control of Africa at the end of the 19th century, Belgium's King Leopold II left arguably the largest and most horrid legacy of all. While the Great Powers competed for territory elsewhere, the king of one of Europe's smallest countries carved his own private colony out of 100km2 of Central African rainforest. He claimed he was doing it to protect the "natives" from Arab slavers, and to open the heart of Africa to Christian missionaries, and Western capitalists. King Leopold II left arguably the largest and most horrid legacy

18 Berlin Conference of to Divide Africa Men who failed to bring enough rubber for agents were killed He turned his "Congo Free State" into a massive labor camp, made a fortune for himself from the harvest of its wild rubber, and contributed in a large way to the death of perhaps 10 million innocent people. What is now called the Democratic Republic of Congo has clearly never recovered. "Legalized robbery enforced by violence", as Leopold's reign was described at the time, has remained, more or less, the template by which Congo's rulers have governed ever since. What is now called the Democratic Republic of Congo has clearly never recovered. "Legalized robbery enforced by violence", as Leopold's reign was described at the time, has remained, more or less, the template by which Congo's rulers have governed ever since. Men who failed to bring enough rubber for agents were killed


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