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Post World War I Nationalism. Post World War I Nationalism Japan China Germany India Italy Soviet Union.

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Presentation on theme: "Post World War I Nationalism. Post World War I Nationalism Japan China Germany India Italy Soviet Union."— Presentation transcript:

1 Post World War I Nationalism

2 Post World War I Nationalism Japan China Germany India Italy Soviet Union

3 PeopleDiplomacy Economy Leader(s) Military Important Events

4 Italy

5 Leader(s) – Benito Mussolini Working class family background Working class family background Early socialist, but switched Early socialist, but switched Formed Fasci di Combattimento party (Fascists) Formed Fasci di Combattimento party (Fascists) Defended private property and class structure & prevented a communist revolution Defended private property and class structure & prevented a communist revolution Promised work & benefits Promised work & benefits Blackshirts – Mussolini’s followers Blackshirts – Mussolini’s followers Appointed prime minister & Appointed prime minister & Ended democratic rule & bans non-Fascist parties establishes a corporate state Ended democratic rule & bans non-Fascist parties establishes a corporate state Wanted to recapture the greatness & glory of the Roman Empire Wanted to recapture the greatness & glory of the Roman Empire Called himself El Duce Called himself El Duce

6 Important Events 1920 – strikes in Lombardy and Piedmont (Mussolini supported) 1920 – strikes in Lombardy and Piedmont (Mussolini supported) 1922 – Fascists march on Rome & Mussolini appointed Prime Minister 1922 – Fascists march on Rome & Mussolini appointed Prime Minister 1924 – Fascists win a majority of seats in parliament 1924 – Fascists win a majority of seats in parliament 1936 – Rome-Berlin Axis is signed 1936 – Rome-Berlin Axis is signed

7 People Post WW I – dissatisfied with Treaty of Versailles Post WW I – dissatisfied with Treaty of Versailles Veterans, workers, and peasants unhappy Veterans, workers, and peasants unhappy Peasants seize land Peasants seize land Middle and upper classes feared a communist revolution Middle and upper classes feared a communist revolution Many Italians opposed fascism, but most supported Mussolini Many Italians opposed fascism, but most supported Mussolini

8 Diplomacy Italy invades Ethiopia in 1935 Italy invades Ethiopia in 1935 Mussolini wants to enhance Italy’s image as a world power Mussolini wants to enhance Italy’s image as a world power League of Nations imposes sanctions, but they do not work League of Nations imposes sanctions, but they do not work 1936 – Rome-Berlin Axis 1936 – Rome-Berlin Axis

9 Economy Economic downturn after WW I Economic downturn after WW I Strikes, inflation, shortages of coal Strikes, inflation, shortages of coal Mussolini solved unemployment problem Mussolini solved unemployment problem

10 Military WW I veterans could not find work WW I veterans could not find work Built up Italy’s armed forces Built up Italy’s armed forces Army invaded Ethiopia in 1935 Army invaded Ethiopia in 1935

11 Germany

12 Leader(s) – Adolf Hitler Austrian born Austrian born World War I veteran World War I veteran Member of the National Socialist Workers’ Party Member of the National Socialist Workers’ Party Led the Brownshirts Led the Brownshirts Staged the “Beer Hall Putsch” – failed Staged the “Beer Hall Putsch” – failed Wrote Mein Kampf Wrote Mein Kampf Blamed Jews & Communists for losing war Blamed Jews & Communists for losing war Appealed to German’s sense of history Appealed to German’s sense of history Becomes Chancellor in 1933 Becomes Chancellor in 1933 Attacks Jews Attacks Jews Takes title of der Führer Takes title of der Führer Restores Germany’s military might Restores Germany’s military might Ignored Versailles Treaty Ignored Versailles Treaty Organizes Nazi youth movement Organizes Nazi youth movement

13 Important Events 1919 – Germans elect an assembly which establishes a democratic republic called the Weimar Republic 1919 – Germans elect an assembly which establishes a democratic republic called the Weimar Republic 1923 – Ruhr Valley occupied by French troops & Beer Hall Putsch 1923 – Ruhr Valley occupied by French troops & Beer Hall Putsch 1929 – Great Depression in Germany 1929 – Great Depression in Germany 1933 – Hitler becomes chancellor & Reichstag fire 1933 – Hitler becomes chancellor & Reichstag fire 1934 – Purge of the Brownshirts 1934 – Purge of the Brownshirts 1935 – Nuremburg Laws enacted 1935 – Nuremburg Laws enacted 1936 – Hitler and Mussolini sign the Berlin-Rome Axis 1936 – Hitler and Mussolini sign the Berlin-Rome Axis 1938 – Kristallnacht 1938 – Kristallnacht Austria is annexed – “One blood demands one Reich” Austria is annexed – “One blood demands one Reich” 1938 – Hitler demands and receives the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia (appeasement) at the Munich Conference 1938 – Hitler demands and receives the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia (appeasement) at the Munich Conference

14 People Blamed Weimar leaders for signing the Versailles Treaty Blamed Weimar leaders for signing the Versailles Treaty Widespread opposition to Weimar Leaders Widespread opposition to Weimar Leaders Brownshirts – private army of veterans and street thugs Brownshirts – private army of veterans and street thugs Hitler appealed to workers and industrialists Hitler appealed to workers and industrialists Political parties banned by Nazis Political parties banned by Nazis Labor unions taken over by Nazis Labor unions taken over by Nazis Churches controlled and clergy silenced Churches controlled and clergy silenced Jews – stripped of citizenship and right to hold office; barred from schools and destroyed business Jews – stripped of citizenship and right to hold office; barred from schools and destroyed business

15 Diplomacy France - occupies the industrial Ruhr Valley France - occupies the industrial Ruhr Valley U.S. – provides loans to Germany – helps free Germany of debt U.S. – provides loans to Germany – helps free Germany of debt Adolf Hitler supports General Francisco Franco of the Spanish Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War ( ) he wanted Spanish iron ore and magnesium; prevent spread of communism; test new weapons and military tactics (blitzkrieg) Adolf Hitler supports General Francisco Franco of the Spanish Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War ( ) he wanted Spanish iron ore and magnesium; prevent spread of communism; test new weapons and military tactics (blitzkrieg)

16 Economy Allies set reparations at $35 billion Allies set reparations at $35 billion 1922 – Germany says it can not pay (industrial Ruhr Valley is occupied) 1922 – Germany says it can not pay (industrial Ruhr Valley is occupied) Inflation soared Inflation soared Savings of Germans wiped out Savings of Germans wiped out Mid-1920s – France reaches compromise with Germany Mid-1920s – France reaches compromise with Germany U.S provides loans – Germany has 5-year period of prosperity U.S provides loans – Germany has 5-year period of prosperity Great Depression (begins in 1929) – unemployment, etc. Great Depression (begins in 1929) – unemployment, etc.

17 Military Treaty of Versailles limited the size of the Germany army Treaty of Versailles limited the size of the Germany army Hitler sought to restore Germany’s military might Hitler sought to restore Germany’s military might German factories begin turning out guns, ammunition, airplanes, tanks, etc. German factories begin turning out guns, ammunition, airplanes, tanks, etc. Government stresses importance of a strong military Government stresses importance of a strong military

18 Japan

19 Leader(s) Emperor Hirohito – constitutional monarch Emperor Hirohito – constitutional monarch Influential military leaders – opposed to democratic reforms Influential military leaders – opposed to democratic reforms

20 Important Events disarmament conference/ Japan becomes 3 rd most powerful navy disarmament conference/ Japan becomes 3 rd most powerful navy 1923 – earthquake in Tokyo- Yokohama area 1923 – earthquake in Tokyo- Yokohama area 1924 – U.S. bans Japanese immigration 1924 – U.S. bans Japanese immigration 1931 – invades Manchuria 1931 – invades Manchuria 1937 – war with China begins 1937 – war with China begins 1941 – attack on Pearl Harbor 1941 – attack on Pearl Harbor

21 Diplomacy Twenty-One Demands makes China Japanese protectorate Twenty-One Demands makes China Japanese protectorate Disarmament conference in Washington benefits Japan Disarmament conference in Washington benefits Japan Japanese army invades Manchuria Japanese army invades Manchuria Attack on Pearl Harbor, Singapore, and Dutch East Indies in 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor, Singapore, and Dutch East Indies in 1941

22 People population explosion from 35 million to 60 million population explosion from 35 million to 60 million 1930s – militarism influences all aspects of Japanese life 1930s – militarism influences all aspects of Japanese life Democratically minded Japanese hoped Emperor would stop militarism Democratically minded Japanese hoped Emperor would stop militarism Working and middle class grows Working and middle class grows Military dress was appealing Military dress was appealing Universal male suffrage Universal male suffrage

23 Economy Most of the Japanese economy was in hands of ziabatsu Most of the Japanese economy was in hands of ziabatsu Challenges of population density Challenges of population density World wide depression devastated silk factories and other industries World wide depression devastated silk factories and other industries Tokyo-Yokohama earthquake affects economy Tokyo-Yokohama earthquake affects economy Land was scarce Land was scarce Very few resources (especially iron ore, coal, and oil) Very few resources (especially iron ore, coal, and oil)

24 Military Army leaders decide to invade NE China (Manchurian Incident) Army leaders decide to invade NE China (Manchurian Incident) Government could not control army Government could not control army 1932 – assassinates a prime minister of Japan 1932 – assassinates a prime minister of Japan

25 India

26 Leader(s) Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi - middle class background; pacifist who believed in civil disobedience Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi - middle class background; pacifist who believed in civil disobedience Indian National Congress & Muslim League – nationalist organizations that lead India to independence Indian National Congress & Muslim League – nationalist organizations that lead India to independence British arrest Gandhi British arrest Gandhi mile march to the sea by Gandhi to protest the salt tax mile march to the sea by Gandhi to protest the salt tax

27 Important Events 1914 – Gandhi leaves South Africa for India 1914 – Gandhi leaves South Africa for India 1919 – Britain imposes harsh laws on India to stifle opposition 1919 – Britain imposes harsh laws on India to stifle opposition Amritsar massacre Amritsar massacre British arrest Gandhi British arrest Gandhi mile march to the sea by Gandhi to protest the salt tax mile march to the sea by Gandhi to protest the salt tax British parliament passes the Government of India Act – limited self rule for India British parliament passes the Government of India Act – limited self rule for India

28 Diplomacy British pass the “Government of India Act” – limited self rule for India British pass the “Government of India Act” – limited self rule for India India had no control over diplomacy until they achieved independence in 1948 India had no control over diplomacy until they achieved independence in 1948

29 People Were urged to reject Western civilization by Gandhi Were urged to reject Western civilization by Gandhi Boycotted British goods Boycotted British goods Shocked by brutal massacre at 1919 Amritsar Shocked by brutal massacre at 1919 Amritsar Hindu-Muslim tension increase Hindu-Muslim tension increase Nationalists supported Britain in WW I, but want independence for India Nationalists supported Britain in WW I, but want independence for India Some Indian’s want to remain in the British empire, but desire home-rule Some Indian’s want to remain in the British empire, but desire home-rule

30 Economy Wheat from India fed Allied soldiers in WW I Wheat from India fed Allied soldiers in WW I Indian cotton clothed Allied troops Indian cotton clothed Allied troops

31 Military Indian soldiers fought for the British in World War I (Middle East & Africa) Indian soldiers fought for the British in World War I (Middle East & Africa)

32 China

33 Leader(s) Sun Yixian(yat-sen) – declares China a republic in 1912 Sun Yixian(yat-sen) – declares China a republic in 1912 Yuan Shikai – takes power & creates dictatorship Yuan Shikai – takes power & creates dictatorship Chiang Kai-shek – officer in the Kuomintang Army; defeats the warlords in 1928 and establishes a government in Nanjing Chiang Kai-shek – officer in the Kuomintang Army; defeats the warlords in 1928 and establishes a government in Nanjing Mao Zedong – leader who leads 100,000 communist. Mao Zedong – leader who leads 100,000 communist.

34 Important Events 1912 – Chinese republic declared 1914 – Sun Yixian ousted 1923 – Chiang kai-shek grows in power 1925 – Sun Yixian dies 1925 – Sun Yixian dies 1927 – communists fail to take over Kuomintang; Chiang purges them 1927 – communists fail to take over Kuomintang; Chiang purges them 1931 – Japan invades Manchuria 1931 – Japan invades Manchuria – Long March (100,000 communists troops to 8,000) – Long March (100,000 communists troops to 8,000)

35 Diplomacy “21 Demands”: Japanese list of demands designed to control China. “21 Demands”: Japanese list of demands designed to control China. Versailles Treaty granted Shandong Peninsula to Japan – was humiliating and surprising to China Versailles Treaty granted Shandong Peninsula to Japan – was humiliating and surprising to China Japan invades in 1931 and controls most of eastern China by 1939 Japan invades in 1931 and controls most of eastern China by 1939

36 People Shocked by Versailles Treaty Shocked by Versailles Treaty “May 4 th Movement”: Reformers reject Confucian traditions/adopt Western traditions in order to keep the West at bay. “May 4 th Movement”: Reformers reject Confucian traditions/adopt Western traditions in order to keep the West at bay. Peasants supported communists because they Peasants supported communists because they – overthrew landlords –redistributed land to peasants

37 Economy Agriculturally based economy with millions of peasants Agriculturally based economy with millions of peasants

38 Military Warlords divided China amongst themselves in 1916 – civil war followed Warlords divided China amongst themselves in 1916 – civil war followed Kuomintang Army battled Red Army in 1930s for control of China Kuomintang Army battled Red Army in 1930s for control of China Long March – retreat of communists Long March – retreat of communists Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist’s forces and the Communist forces suspended their conflict with each other in order to concentrate on fighting the Japanese Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist’s forces and the Communist forces suspended their conflict with each other in order to concentrate on fighting the Japanese

39 Soviet Union

40 Leader(s) Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) – Bolshevik leader; suffered a stroke in 1922 Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) – Bolshevik leader; suffered a stroke in 1922 Leon Trotsky – most important person in the communist party after Lenin; built the Red Army into an effective fighting force; believed in a world wide revolution; exiled to Siberia (and then expelled) by Stalin; assassinated in Mexico City Leon Trotsky – most important person in the communist party after Lenin; built the Red Army into an effective fighting force; believed in a world wide revolution; exiled to Siberia (and then expelled) by Stalin; assassinated in Mexico City Joseph Stalin – skilled administrator; rose to general secretary of the Communist party; outmaneuvered Trotsky after Lenin’s death; believed in Soviet Union first in terms of revolution; had Trotsky murdered Joseph Stalin – skilled administrator; rose to general secretary of the Communist party; outmaneuvered Trotsky after Lenin’s death; believed in Soviet Union first in terms of revolution; had Trotsky murdered

41 Important Events 1919 – Comintern established 1919 – Comintern established 1921 – Lenin announces New Economic Policy (NEP) 1921 – Lenin announces New Economic Policy (NEP) 1922 – Official name changes to Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), new constitution written, and Lenin suffers two strokes 1922 – Official name changes to Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), new constitution written, and Lenin suffers two strokes 1924 – Lenin dies 1924 – Lenin dies 1928 – Stalin declares end to NEP, announces Five Year Plans and collectivization 1928 – Stalin declares end to NEP, announces Five Year Plans and collectivization 1930s – series of purges by Stalin 1930s – series of purges by Stalin Stalin seizes Ukraine’s grain results in death of millions Stalin seizes Ukraine’s grain results in death of millions 1934 – Socialist realism art instituted 1934 – Socialist realism art instituted 1943 – Comintern dissolved 1943 – Comintern dissolved

42 Diplomacy Comintern established to encourage Communist parties in other countries to overthrow their governments by legal or illegal means Comintern established to encourage Communist parties in other countries to overthrow their governments by legal or illegal means

43 People 27 million died in WW I, revolution, and civil war 27 million died in WW I, revolution, and civil war Leadership of the communist party controlled the workers (was supposed to be the other way around) Leadership of the communist party controlled the workers (was supposed to be the other way around) Private businesses, small manufacturers and farmers allowed to operate under NEP Private businesses, small manufacturers and farmers allowed to operate under NEP Peasant majority (farmers) were fiercely anticommunist – had prospered under NEP Peasant majority (farmers) were fiercely anticommunist – had prospered under NEP Kulaks (prosperous peasants) – opposed collectivization Kulaks (prosperous peasants) – opposed collectivization Millions of communist party members were expelled and sent to labor camps (purges) Millions of communist party members were expelled and sent to labor camps (purges) Non-Russian nationalities suffered; Russians dominated Soviet Union Non-Russian nationalities suffered; Russians dominated Soviet Union Thousands of peasants were killed when opposing collectivization; millions in the Ukraine starved Thousands of peasants were killed when opposing collectivization; millions in the Ukraine starved

44 Economy NEP – major industries under government control; small businesses allowed to operate NEP – major industries under government control; small businesses allowed to operate Five Year Plans – success in spurring industrial growth Five Year Plans – success in spurring industrial growth Collectivization produced terrible results – opposition and starvation; Soviet union unable to feed its population Collectivization produced terrible results – opposition and starvation; Soviet union unable to feed its population

45 Military Military leadership suffered as a result of purges – would take them years to recover Military leadership suffered as a result of purges – would take them years to recover

46 Mexico

47 Leaders Porfirio Diaz: led Mexico for 35 years. Porfirio Diaz: led Mexico for 35 years. Francisco Madero: Reformer; demands free elections. Elected in 1911 by assassinated by one of his generals. Francisco Madero: Reformer; demands free elections. Elected in 1911 by assassinated by one of his generals.

48 Leader(s) Venustiano Carranza: Passed Constitution of Venustiano Carranza: Passed Constitution of Lazaro Cardenas: Pushed nationalization of industries (oil) and gave land to peasants. Lazaro Cardenas: Pushed nationalization of industries (oil) and gave land to peasants.

49 Important Events After Diaz steps down; almost a decade of civil war. After Diaz steps down; almost a decade of civil war. Constitution of 1917: Strengthened government control over economy. Constitution of 1917: Strengthened government control over economy.

50 Diplomacy Generally poor relations with U.S. Generally poor relations with U.S. –U.S. :  interferes in Mexican Revolution  invades Veracruz, Northern Mexico, Nicaragua Good Neighbor Policy: U.S. lessened interference in Latin America, supported Latin American endeavors. Good Neighbor Policy: U.S. lessened interference in Latin America, supported Latin American endeavors.

51

52

53 People Military dictators & small groups of wealthy controlled power. Military dictators & small groups of wealthy controlled power. Majority of Mexicans poor. Majority of Mexicans poor. Cultural Nationalism: Pride in one’s own culture. Cultural Nationalism: Pride in one’s own culture. Diego Rivera & other muralists portrayed Mexican struggle for liberty. Diego Rivera & other muralists portrayed Mexican struggle for liberty.

54 This mural is located at the City College of San Francisco.

55 Economy Latin American natural resources sold to Western powers. Latin American natural resources sold to Western powers. Great Depression: Demand for Latin Americans goods vanished. Great Depression: Demand for Latin Americans goods vanished.


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