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COPY. What is the periodic table? compact way of organizing elements contains a lot of information allows us to make predictions about behavior and properties.

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Presentation on theme: "COPY. What is the periodic table? compact way of organizing elements contains a lot of information allows us to make predictions about behavior and properties."— Presentation transcript:

1 COPY

2 What is the periodic table? compact way of organizing elements contains a lot of information allows us to make predictions about behavior and properties of elements Elements COPY

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5 History of the Periodic Table End of the 1700’s – less than 30 elements known Many elements discovered during 1800’s Many experiments done to determine atomic masses

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7 John Newlands 1864: if elements arranged by atomic mass - properties repeat every 8 th element Law of Octaves –did not work for all known elements Key idea was correct: Properties of elements do repeat in periodic way

8 Mendeleev & Meyer Mendeleev produced 1 st accepted PT: 1869 Elements ordered by ↑ atomic mass into columns with similar properties PredictedPredicted existence & properties of undiscovered elements Not totally correct –more accurate atomic mass calculations showed some elements weren’t in right place

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10 Remember 1860’s: No subatomic particles yet discovered Dalton’s billiard ball model of the atom

11 1913 – Henry Moseley by 1913, protons & electrons discovered –Neutrons were predicted Moseley determined atoms of each element contain unique # protons (= atomic number) rearranged Mendeleev’s PT by atomic number instead of mass problems with elements in wrong place disappeared

12 Periodic Law increasing atomic numberThere is a periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of elements when arranged by increasing atomic number

13 Glenn Seaborg: 1950’s Lanthanide and Actinide Series

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16 Seaborg Mendeleev Mosley Newlands

17 Vocabulary of PT groupsfamiliesColumns called groups or families –Today: #1 thru 18, Arabic numerals –Past: A & B groups, Roman numerals A-Group –Columns 1,2,13-18 (= representative elements) –IA – 8A B-Group –Transition metals (columns 3-12) –IB - 8B seriesperiodsRows are called series or periods –#1 thru 7 COPY

18 Column numbering (1  18) left to right Period numbering (1  7) top to bottom

19 Structure of Periodic Table Closely related to electron configuration of each element COPY

20 Energy Levels = Row Number Elements in same row have same # of principal energy levels –so # of principal energy levels = to row # COPY

21 Going Across Row 2: 2-8Ne18 (VIIIA) 2-7F17 (VIIA) 2-6O16 (VIA) 2-5N15 (VA) 2-4C14 (IVA) 2-3B13 (IIIA) 2-2Be2 (IIA) 2-1Li1 (IA) ConfigurationElementFamily COPY

22 Going Down Column 1: Fr Cs Rb K Na3 2-1Li2 1H1 ConfigurationElementPeriod COPY

23 Valence Electrons 414 or IVA 313 or IIIA 22 or IIA 11 or IA Number of Valence Electrons Group COPY

24 Valence Electrons Chemical behavior determined by # valence electrons Elements with same # valence electrons will have similar chemical properties –Elements in same column have similar chemical properties COPY

25 Classifying the Elements metals2/3 (75%) of elements are metals non-metals metalloidsRemaining elements: non-metals & metalloids (semi-metals) Metalloids: –some properties of metals & some properties of nonmetals Staircase:Staircase: –dividing line between metals & nonmetals –elements to left are metals (except H) –elements to right are non-metals COPY

26 Properties of Metals Malleable – flattened into sheets Ductile – drawn into wires & tubes have Luster Good Conductors of heat & electricity Solid at room temperature (except Hg) “Metals are losers”Metals lose electrons & form positive ions “Metals are losers” Low ionization energy Low electronegativity COPY

27 Properties of Nonmetals generally gases or solids (except Br 2 ) solids are Brittle solids are Dull poor conductors of heat & electricity Nonmetals gain electrons & form negative ions “Nonmetals are winners” “Nonmetals are winners” High ionization energy High electronegativity Properties: OPPOSITE of metals COPY

28 Properties of Metalloids 7 metalloids: –5 on right of staircase: B,Si,As,Te,At –2 on left of staircase: Ge,Sb Each metalloid has some metallic and some nonmetallic properties –Example:Si shiny like metal but brittle like nonmetal COPY

29 Names of Families (AKA group A elements) Group 1 = Alkali Metals Group 2 = Alkaline Earth Metals Groups 3-12: Transition metals Group 13 = Boron family Group 14 = Carbon family Group 15 = Nitrogen family Group 16 = Oxygen family Group 17 = Halogens Group 18 = Noble Gases COPY

30 Transition Metals Groups 3 through 12 AKA group B elements Actinide & Lanthanide series –inner transition elements put the COLOR in your life –form brightly colored salts/solutions COPY

31 Elements that are gases at STP Diatomics: H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2 Monatomics: noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn COPY

32 Two Elements: liquid at room temperature Br 2 (non-metal) and Hg (metal) COPY

33 All other elements are solids at room temperature


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