Amud Comment: Don Johansen (1994): “Amud I shows affinities with the neandertals of Shandiar Cave in Iraq and Tabun, but is also has some similarities to the Skhul and Qafzeh populations of early Homo sapiens.”
A Neandertal with a Chin! Neandertals have been referred to affectionately as “chinless wonders”, as they do not characteristically possess a chin. At the Tabun site, specimen II Rak(1998) states: “I would like to stress, therefore, that my insistence on recognizing a true chin in Tabun II is based on the topography of the anterior section of the mandible, which consists of the unique morphological components defined as constituting a true chin”.
Time Line Conflict for linear evolution/gradualism The problem arises here that the supposed AMHS sites of Qafzeh and Skhul predate some of the supposed Neandertal sites. Explanations of why this situation resulted is the “ebb and flow theory”, where cold adapted Neandertals come down when the glaciers expand, and AMHS retreat to Africa. Bar-Yosef describes the Levant as the “central bus station”
Multiregional Evolution vs. Replacement Theories. Multiregional Evolution posits that our species evolved in the various areas that Homo erectus/ergaster colonized in the first ‘out of Africa’ migration, and evolved into AMHS with a constant gene flow out of Africa Replacement Theory says there were only two migrations out of Africa, with the latter one coming ~100 kya and replacing all prior homininds completely
Shared Technology and Culture. At all sites in the Levant, the Mousterian Culture is present and dominant. Earlier Levallois technology is present at the oldest site of Tabun, which is to be expected There is no technological ‘tool kit’ in the Levant comparable to the advances present in Cro-Magnon sites in Europe.
My argument. Shared/overlapping time. Shared/overlapping space. Shared/overlapping morphology. Shared material culture in the form of the Mousterian technology. If you have all of these represented in one region, you have one variable population and not two separate species.
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