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Mr. Wraga ASACS Counselor RHS Health Classes discussion and support ppt 2014.

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1 Mr. Wraga ASACS Counselor RHS Health Classes discussion and support ppt 2014

2 Weed Brain-Impact on Hippocampus How many hits to slow growth? How many hits to slow growth? 3 hits/week and HC stopped growing 3 hits/week and HC stopped growing Catch up Catch up 6 mos to start growing again 6 mos to start growing again 2 yrs for every 1 yr of using 2 yrs for every 1 yr of using Only up to age 25 Only up to age 25 What’s funny about Cheech & Chong (Beevis & Butthead)? What’s funny about Cheech & Chong (Beevis & Butthead)? Slowed speech; cadence Slowed speech; cadence Monotone Monotone

3 cont Other ways to help HC grow: Other ways to help HC grow: Sleep Sleep Get off your butt Get off your butt Lay off the stupid stuff Lay off the stupid stuff Example: Dementia home Example: Dementia home 50 yr old man, weed since teen, lots of beads and electricity can’t get to where it wants to go 50 yr old man, weed since teen, lots of beads and electricity can’t get to where it wants to go Can’t remember: Can’t remember: Why he lives there, where he should go to the bathroom, what happened 10 min ago…

4 Impact! Bat to head: What to watch for: Bat to head: What to watch for: Nausea, lethargy, unconscious, seizures, headache, death (brain swelling), speech, eyes, disorientation, poor memory Nausea, lethargy, unconscious, seizures, headache, death (brain swelling), speech, eyes, disorientation, poor memory Hangover Hangover Black-out, headache, shaking (seizure), light sensitivity, …. Black-out, headache, shaking (seizure), light sensitivity, …. Both cases HC doesn’t grow for 6 months Both cases HC doesn’t grow for 6 months

5 Mice addicts Adol mice given cocaine Adol mice given cocaine End of HC swollen, not growing End of HC swollen, not growing No growth for 6 mos No growth for 6 mos FMRI showed same FMRI showed same Alpha Mouse has long HC Alpha Mouse has long HC Can regulate mood Can regulate mood Learn new things Learn new things

6 What is addiction? Addiction is a condition that results when a person ingests a substance (alcohol, cocaine, nicotine) or engages in an activity (gambling) that can be pleasurable but the continued use of which becomes compulsive and interferes with ordinary life responsibilities, such as work or relationships, even health. Users may not be aware that their behavior is out of control and causing problems for themselves and others.

7 Experimentation The first stage, experimentation, is the voluntary use of alcohol or other drugs. Many times it involves teens going to a party and drinking or popping pills in order to fit in. Sometimes, the person experimenting is trying to forget about or escape from an issue. An older person may start drinking to cope with depression after losing a job. Experimentation may even include a teenager taking their mom’s prescription painkillers to cope with an injury from a sports activity. At the time the substance seems to solve the problem. The person takes more, and moves from experimentation to regular use, the next stage. Curiosity. The first stage, experimentation, is the voluntary use of alcohol or other drugs. Many times it involves teens going to a party and drinking or popping pills in order to fit in. Sometimes, the person experimenting is trying to forget about or escape from an issue. An older person may start drinking to cope with depression after losing a job. Experimentation may even include a teenager taking their mom’s prescription painkillers to cope with an injury from a sports activity. At the time the substance seems to solve the problem. The person takes more, and moves from experimentation to regular use, the next stage. Curiosity.

8 Risky Use Behavior has changed noticeably and/or suddenly Behavior has changed noticeably and/or suddenly Consequences begin to build Consequences begin to build May continues to drink or use despite the negative effects May continues to drink or use despite the negative effects Organize around AOD use Organize around AOD use risky use may overlap with dependence. risky use may overlap with dependence. Some risky behaviors include: Some risky behaviors include:

9 Dependence Constant use Constant use Inability to take care of major responsibilities Inability to take care of major responsibilities Repeatedly using drugs in situations that are physically hazardous, Repeatedly using drugs in situations that are physically hazardous, Legal problems Legal problems Their risky behavior may also escalate to things such as: Their risky behavior may also escalate to things such as: Dependent but “functioning”’ Dependent but “functioning”’ House of cards House of cards Walking on eggshells Walking on eggshells Tolerance Tolerance Withdrawal Withdrawal

10 Addiction Serious psychological and physical changes from constant heavy use of alcohol, drugs, or both. Serious psychological and physical changes from constant heavy use of alcohol, drugs, or both. Uncontrollable craving, seeking, and use, despite repeated negative consequences. Uncontrollable craving, seeking, and use, despite repeated negative consequences. Addiction is a progressive, chronic, and fatal disease. If left untreated, it can only lead to: Addiction is a progressive, chronic, and fatal disease. If left untreated, it can only lead to:

11 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Age 0.0% 0.2% 0.4% 0.6% 0.8% 1.0% 1.2% 1.4% 1.6% 1.8% % in each age group who develop first-time dependence CANNABIS ALCOHOL TOBACCO Addiction Is A Developmental Disease that starts in adolescence and childhood Age at tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis dependence per DSM IV

12 Addiction is a Developmental Disease: It Starts Early 67% 1.5% 5.5% < >25 26% First Marijuana Use, (Percent of Initiates )

13 Sample of 10,123 teens between the ages of 13 to 18 (2012) 15 percent of the teens met the criteria for lifetime alcohol abuse, and 16 percent could be categorized as drug abusers 15 percent of the teens met the criteria for lifetime alcohol abuse, and 16 percent could be categorized as drug abusers The median age for drug abuse with dependence to start was at the age of 14 The median age for drug abuse with dependence to start was at the age of 14 Archives of General Psychiatry) Archives of General Psychiatry) Archives of General Psychiatry Archives of General Psychiatry

14 Rats Exposed to Nicotine in Adolescence Self-Administer More Nicotine Than Rats First Exposed as Adults Collins et al, Neuropharmacology, 2004, Levin et al, Psychopharmacology, 2003

15 What Environmental Factors Contribute to Addiction? Stress Stress Early physical or sexual abuse Early physical or sexual abuse Witnessing violence Witnessing violence Peers who use drugs Peers who use drugs Drug availability Drug availability

16 Advances in science have revolutionized our fundamental views of drug abuse and addiction.

17 ControlAddicted Dopamine D2 Receptors are Decreased by Addiction Functionally… DA D2 Receptor Availability Cocaine Alcohol Heroin Meth

18 Your Brain on Drugs Today YELLOW shows places in brain where cocaine binds (e.g., striatum) Fowler et al., Synapse, 1989.

19 Amphetamine Cocaine Time After Drug Morphine hr Time After Drug % of Basal Release Accumbens Caudate Nicotine Di Chiara and Imperato, PNAS, 1988 Effects of Drugs on Dopamine Release

20 Changes in Attitudes Lead to Changes in Use Changes in Attitudes Lead to Changes in Use Monitoring the Future Study, 2007.

21 COMORBIDITY

22 Extended Abstinence is Predictive of Sustained Recovery It takes a year of abstinence before less than half relapse Dennis et al, Eval Rev, 2007 After 5 years – if you are sober, you probably will stay that way.

23 Mmmmmmm?????? Don’t necessarily believe all of this Don’t necessarily believe all of this Don’t necessarily believe a drug being legal means it’s ok Don’t necessarily believe a drug being legal means it’s ok Cigarette smoking kills 5.5 million/year Cigarette smoking kills 5.5 million/year Making weed legal is about the drug war not working, not about weed being ok for you Making weed legal is about the drug war not working, not about weed being ok for you Just kidding….You should believe all of this…. Just kidding….You should believe all of this….

24 Estimated Economic Cost to Society Due to Substance Abuse and Addiction: Illegal drugs: $181 billion/year Illegal drugs: $181 billion/year Alcohol: $185 billion/year Alcohol: $185 billion/year Tobacco: $158 billion/year Tobacco: $158 billion/year Total: $524 billion/year Total: $524 billion/year Surgeon General’s Report, 2004; ONDCP, 2004; Harwood, 2000.

25 RESOURCES School School Teachers Teachers Coaches Coaches Staff Staff School Counselors School Counselors ASACS Counselors ASACS Counselors Community Parents Religious Leader Coach Counselors

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