Nomads to Civilized Folk Paleolithic Period Earliest humans used tools, fire Hunters/gatherers Culture evidenced by cave paintings
Neolithic Revolution About 10,000BC Grow grains and domesticate animals – Leads to permanent communities First civilizations spring up
Egypt and Western Asia! Boom Civilizations Developing cities Organized states Political, military, social, and religious systems Written language Record keeping ENORMOUS monuments Bust Smaller states rise: Phoenicians and Israelites Assyrians and Persians bring peace and prosperity to Middle East
Egypt vs. Mesoamerica Pyramids of Giza – 2500BC +/- Pyramids of Mexico – 900AD +/-
Ancient Aliens: What are the Pyramids? Straight from the History Channel!
Key Elements of India Two major empires: Mauryan and Gupta Indus River Valley, BCE Aryan arrival creates rigid caste system Hinduism and Buddhism
Greeks! Contributions Western culture Philosophy, literature, art, politics, etc. City-states Peloponnesian War: 5th Century BC Thinkers: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle Hellenistic Era Alexander the Great Four kingdoms
Ancient China First Dynasty – Shang, about 1600 BC Mandate of Heaven – Gives kings a divine right of rule – What is the Chinese cultural definition of Heaven?
Roman Empire Biggest Contributor to American Society Language, culture, politics, law, societal constructs, architecture City of Rome unifies Italian peninsula Republic ruled by oligarchy of aristocrats Republic to Empire Defeating Carthage, Macedonia, Greece, and more And then….COLLAPSE Civil war, invasion, plague, economic decline Christianity takes root
Discussion & Review The peoples of ______ and ______ built the first civilizations. – Mesopotamia and Egypt What empire preceded the Gupta empire in India? – Mauryan What was the first Chinese dynasty? – Shang
The World Before Modern Times Ch 1, Lesson 2 New Patterns of Civilization
World of Islam – 700CE Contributions Math, science, literature, and art Arab Empire Muhammad Umayyad and Abbasid Dynasties Islamic Civilization Built on Quran Extensive trade network From E Europe to SE Asia! Absorbed conquered culture Brought code of law and written language to conquered ppls
Early Africa – 1300 AD Major Civilizations Egypt, Kush, Axum Zimbabwe under Islam Trading States Ghana and Mali Songhai Empire: salt and gold Society Based on lineage groups Many gods and spirits Ancestor worship Traditions in art, music and architecture European threat Around 1400 AD the Portuguese began exploring West Africa for gold and slaves.
Medieval Asia – 500 CE Massive growth and conflict China Five dynasties over 1000 years Japan Long isolated, begins to adopt Chinese customs, technology, and culture India Invasions from Islam, sultanate of Delhi Religious turmoil: Hindus, Buddhists, and Muslims Southeast Asia Other societies flourish because of the success and power of Chinese and India civilizations
Europe in Middle Ages – 800 CE Western Civilization Begins! Carolingian Empire Fall of Western Roman Empire Charlemagne fuses Rome and Germans with Christianity Feudalism puts nobles in charge High Middle Ages 1000 to 1300 sees rapid growth in agriculture, production, trade, cities, towns, and economies Catholicism is King Dominant religion Culture and Decline 1300s include plague, war, trade declines, and a series of unfortunate events.
Byzantine Empire Eastern Rome becomes Byzantine Empire Prospers for hundreds of years Macedonia – 9 th, 10 th, and 11 th Centuries Culture Spreads To the Balkans, central Europe and Russia Greek classics make comeback Falls because of Crusades and Ottoman Turks in 1452
Americas – 5000BC Calusa in Florida! Central/South Cultures – Maya and Aztec Temples, pyramids, palaces Polytheistic Human sacrifice – Inca Fall to Spanish in 15 th Century North Cultures – Inuit, Anasazi, and Iroquois, etc.
Discussion & Review The eastern Roman Empire became the _________ Empire – Byzantine Name two civilizations which pyramids? – Mesoamerican and Egyptian In Central and South America, what dominant cultures first flourished? – Maya, Aztek, & Inca