Presentation on theme: "Wheelock XXXIV Deponent Verbs Ablative with Special Deponents."— Presentation transcript:
Wheelock XXXIV Deponent Verbs Ablative with Special Deponents
Deponent Verbs Deponent verbs have passive endings but active meanings The only new forms to be learned are the imperatives You must remember which verbs are deponent
Deponent Verbs Lack 4th principal part hortor, hortārī, hortātus sum See how they look passive? But they still mean: I urge, to urge, I urged
Pres: hortor, hortāris, hortātur... = I urge, you urge, he urges Imp: hortābar, hortābāris... = I was urging, you were urging... Fut: hortābor, hortāberis... = I will urge, you will urge Perf: hortātus/-a/-um sum... = I urged PluP: hortātus/-a/-um eram... = I had urged FuP: hortātus/-a/-um erō... = I will have urged Subjunctive Pres: horter, hortēris... Imp: hortārer, hortārēris... Perf: hortātus/-a/-um sim, sīs... PluP: hortātus/-a/-um essem...
Participles Pres.hortāns, urging Perf. hortātus/-a/-um, having urged* Fut.hortātūrus/-a/-um, about to urge Ger.hortāndus/-a/-um, to be urged N.B. Deponent verbs still have four participles. HOWEVER, - the "perfect passive participle" is active in meaning - the gerundive is actually passive in meaning! - the present and future have active forms
Infinitives Pres.hortārī, to urge Perf.hortātus/-a/-um esse, to have urged Fut. hortātūrus/-a/-um esse, to be about to urge Imperatives Singular: hortāre! (looks like the non-existent present active infinitive) Plural: hortāminī! (looks like 2nd pl. pres. indicative)
Semi-Deponents These exist... because language is crazy. audeō, I dareaudēre, to dare ausus sum, I dared gaudeō, gaudēre, gāvīsus sum
Ablative with Special Deponents The ablative of means is used idiomatically with a few verbs. ūtor (to benefit oneself) is the most common (others: fruor, to enjoy, fungor, to perform, potior, to possess, vēscor, to eat) Ūtitur stilō. Idiomatically: He is using a pencil. *translate it as "use" and treat the abl. as direct object
Practice 1.What the heck is a deponent verb? 1.Write a 1st person plural synopsis of cōnor (six tenses of indicative, four subjunctive). 1.Write the imperatives of patior. 1.Translate the following participles: a) locūtusb) cōnātusc) secūtūrus
Sententiae Antīquae 1.Cēdāmus Phoebō et, monitī, meliōra sequāmur.* (Phoebus Apollo, god of prophecy) 1.Nam nēmō sine vitiīs nāscitur; optimus ille est quī minima habet. 1.Tardē sed graviter vir sapiēns īrāscitur.* (tardus, slow; īrāscor, to become angry)
1. Mundus est communis urbs deōrum atqu hominum; hī enim sōlī, ratiōne ūtentēs, iūre ac lēge vīvunt. 2. Catilīna, ēgredere ex urbe; patent portae; proficīscere; nōbīscum versārī iam diūtius nōn potes; id nōn feram, nōn patiar. (versor, to stay) 3. Cūra pecūniam crēscentem sequitur et dīves male dormit. 4. Nisi laus nova nāscitur etiam vetus laus in incertō iacet ac saepe āmittitur. (vetus, old) 5. Amīcitia rēs plūrimās continet; nōn aquā nōn igne in plūribus locīs ūtimur quam amīcitiā.
1. Homō stultus! Postquam dīvitiās habēre coepit, mortuus est! 2. Nōvistī mōrēs puellārum; dum in speculum spectant, annus lābitur. lābor, lābī, lāpsus sum = to slip, glide (by)
Epigrammata Mentītur quī tē vitiōsum, Zōile, dīcit: nōn vitiōsus homō es, Zōile, sed vitium! -Martial 11.92 (vitiōsus, full of vice; remember that sum, esse is often omitted!) Bella es, nōvimus, et puella, vērum est, et dīves--quis enim potest negāre? Sed cum tē nimium, Fabulla, laudās, nec dīves neque bella ne puella es! - Martial 1.64