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© Boardworks Ltd 2004 1 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 50 KS3 Chemistry 9F Patterns of Reactivity.

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Presentation on theme: "© Boardworks Ltd 2004 1 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 50 KS3 Chemistry 9F Patterns of Reactivity."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 KS3 Chemistry 9F Patterns of Reactivity

2 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 9F Patterns of Reactivity Metals and acid Summary activities Reactivity series and displacement Metals and water Metals and oxygen Contents

3 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 Metals and water The Romans used lead to make water pipes but didn’t know that lead reacts slowly with water and makes it poisonous! Some metals react vigorously with water, some metals react slowly and some do not react at all. What is the best type of metal to use for water pipes?

4 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 What is the test that a metal hydroxide is produced? Metals and water – general equation Potassium and sodium are metals that react vigorously with water even when a small amount of each metal is used. When a metal reacts with water, the products are a metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas. What is the general equation for the reaction of a metal with water? metalwater metal hydroxide hydrogen

5 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 hydrogen+lithium hydroxide  water+lithium 2Li+2H 2 O  2LiOH+H2H2 hydrogen+sodium hydroxide  water+sodium 2Na+2H 2 O  2NaOH+H2H2 hydrogen+potassium hydroxide  water+potassium 2K+2H 2 O  2KOH+H2H2 Metals and water – equations What are the products when each metal reacts with water? What is the balanced symbol equation for each reaction?

6 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 Metals and water – observations James investigated how reactive some metals are when they react with water and made these observations. Potassium immediately produces a lilac flame as it skims around the surface making a fizzing noise. potassium The sodium melts and skims over the surface producing a stream of small bubbles. Sometimes a yellow-orange flame appeared. sodium Bubbles of gas are given off quite quickly. When tested with universal indicator the water is now alkaline. lithium Metal Reaction with water Which of these metals is the most reactive with water? Which of these metals is the least reactive with water?

7 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 Copper is used in plumbing and silver and gold in jewellery. Why are these unreactive metals suitable for such uses? Metals and water – more observations James investigated how reactive other metals are with water and made these observations. No reaction. silver No reaction. copper Reacts slowly with cold water but reacts quickly with steam. magnesium No reaction. gold Metal Reaction with water

8 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 Metals and water – using unreactive metals The words “plumber” and “plumbing” come from plumbum (the Latin word for lead) because the ancient Romans used lead for their water pipes. Lead reacts very slowly with water making it poisonous, so this metal is no longer used in plumbing. Copper is a much better metal for water pipes because it does not react at all with water – plumbers should be renamed coppers!

9 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 Put the following metals in order of reactivity based on their reaction with water, starting with the most reactive: copper, gold, magnesium, lithium, potassium, silver, sodium. potassium sodium lithium magnesium copper, silver, gold Metals and water – order of reactivity

10 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 9F Patterns of Reactivity Metals and acid Summary activities Reactivity series and displacement Metals and water Metals and oxygen Contents

11 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 Metals and oxygen – general equation Most metals will react with oxygen. Some metals react faster than others and some may react very slowly or not at all. metaloxygen metal oxide When a metal does react with oxygen, the product is a metal oxide. What is the general equation for the reaction of a metal with oxygen? Magnesium, for example, burns in oxygen with a bright flame. The magnesium reacts with oxygen to produce magnesium oxide.

12 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 magnesium oxide  oxygen+magnesium 2Mg+O2O2  2MgO copper oxide  oxygen+copper 2Cu+O2O2  2CuO iron oxide  oxygen+iron 4Fe+3O 2  2Fe 2 O 3 Metals and oxygen – equations What are the products when each metal reacts with oxygen? What is the balanced symbol equation for each reaction?

13 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 Shaida investigated how reactive some metals are when they react with oxygen and made these observations. Which of these metals is the most reactive with oxygen? Metals and oxygen – observations The iron filings glowed red and sparkled leaving a brown-black looking solid. iron The copper turnings went through reds and oranges and then slowly got a permanent coating of black. copper The ribbon burned with a dazzling white flame giving grey-white smoke and ash. magnesium Metal Reaction with oxygen Which of these metals is the least reactive with oxygen?

14 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 magnesium iron copper Metals and oxygen – order of reactivity Put the following metals in order of reactivity based on their reaction with oxygen, starting with the most reactive: copper, iron, magnesium.

15 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 9F Patterns of Reactivity Metals and acid Summary activities Reactivity series and displacement Metals and water Metals and oxygen Contents

16 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 The first scientists to study chemistry were called alchemists. They were interested in many things including finding ways of changing cheap metals into gold. Some were very good at making metals look gold. Metals and acid – the acid test Acid was used to find out if gold objects were made of real or fake gold. Most metals react with strong acids. Gold is such an unreactive metal that it does not react with strong acids. This became known as “the acid test” because it stopped tricksters making false claims that something was gold. The phrase “the acid test” is used today to mean any process that will reveal fakes.

17 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 Metals and acid – experiment

18 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 Metals and acid – general equation Gold is an unreactive metal that does not react with acid. When a metal reacts with acid, the products are a metal salt and hydrogen. What is the general equation for the reaction of a metal with acid? metalacidmetal salt hydrogen How does the type of acid affect the type of salt produced? Other metals, such as magnesium and zinc, react with acid producing bubbles of gas. The “squeaky pop” test shows that this gas is hydrogen.

19 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 hydrogen+magnesium chloride  hydrochloric acid +magnesium Mg+2HCl  MgCl 2 +H2H2 hydrogen+aluminium chloride  hydrochloric acid +aluminium 2Al+6HCl  2AlCl 3 +3H 2 hydrogen+zinc chloride  hydrochloric acid +zinc Zn+2HCl  ZnCl 2 +H2H2 Metals and hydrochloric acid – equations What is made when each metal reacts with hydrochloric acid? What is the balanced symbol equation for each reaction?

20 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 hydrogen+magnesium sulfate  sulfuric acid +magnesium Mg+H 2 SO 4  MgSO 4 +H2H2 hydrogen+aluminium sulfate  sulfuric acid +aluminium 2Al+3H 2 SO 4  Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 +3H 2 hydrogen+zinc sulfate  sulfuric acid +zinc Zn+H 2 SO 4  ZnSO 4 +H2H2 Metals and sulfuric acid – equations What is made when each metal reacts with sulfuric acid? What is the balanced symbol equation for each reaction?

21 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 hydrogen+magnesium nitrate  nitric acid+magnesium Mg+2HNO 3  Mg(NO 3 ) 2 +H2H2 hydrogen+aluminium nitrate  nitric acid+aluminium 2Al+6HNO 3  2Al(NO 3 ) 3 +3H 2 hydrogen+zinc nitrate  nitric acid+zinc Zn+2HNO 3  Zn(NO 3 ) 2 +H2H2 Metals and nitric acid – equations What is made when each metal reacts with nitric acid? What is the balanced symbol equation for each reaction?

22 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 Metal Reaction with cold acid (HCl) Reaction with hot acid (HCl) magnesium Fizzed rapidly- aluminium -Bubbled quickly copper No reaction iron No reactionSlow bubbling lead No reactionOccasional bubble calcium Really fast- zinc Moderate bubbling- Metals and acid – observations Greg investigated how reactive some metals are with hot and cold acid and made these observations. Which of these metals is the most reactive with acid? Which of these metals is the least reactive with acid?

23 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 calcium magnesium aluminium zinc iron lead copper Metals and acid – order of reactivity Put the following metals in order of reactivity based on their reaction with acid, starting with the most reactive: aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, zinc.

24 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 Metals and acid – reactivity activity

25 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 9F Patterns of Reactivity Metals and acid Summary activities Reactivity series and displacement Metals and water Metals and oxygen Contents

26 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 with oxygen magnesium iron copper with water potassium sodium lithium magnesium copper silver gold with acid calcium magnesium aluminium zinc iron lead copper Comparing orders of reactivity When the orders of reactivity of metals with water, oxygen and air are compared, there is a pattern of results. Combining the information from all the reactions of metals with water, oxygen and air gives an overall order of reactivity called the reactivity series.

27 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 potassium sodium calcium magnesium aluminium zinc iron lead copper silver gold Please send Charlie’s monkeys and zebras inin lead cages securely guarded! The reactivity series The reactivity series is the list of metals placed in order of their reactivity. One way to remember this order is to learn this silly sentence: increasing reactivity

28 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 What is the order of metals?

29 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 Using the reactivity series increasing reactivity The reactivity series can be used to make predictions about the reactions of metals. Predictions can be made about simple reactions of metals with oxygen, water and acids. Predictions can also be made about more complex reactions where one metal is competing with another. potassium sodium calcium magnesium aluminium zinc iron lead copper silver gold

30 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 MetalReact with Prediction goldacid calciumwater sodiumoxygen silveroxygen zincoxygen no reaction fizzing burns vigorously very slow reaction burns moderately Simple reactions – predictions Use the reactivity series to predict if a reaction will take place and how intense the reaction will be. potassium sodium calcium magnesium aluminium zinc iron lead copper silver gold

31 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 If the metal is more reactive than the metal in the compound, it competes with the less reactive metal.  + less reactive metal compound more reactive metal When does displacement happen? The reactivity series can be used to predict if a metal will react with a metal compound (e.g. chloride, nitrate or sulfate). + no reaction  more reactive metal compound less reactive metal If the metal is less reactive than the metal in the compound, it will not compete and so there is no reaction. The more reactive metal pushes out, or displaces, the less reactive metal from its compound. + less reactive metal more reactive metal compound

32 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 copper+magnesium chloride  copper chloride +magnesium no reaction  magnesium chloride +silver Displacement reactions – examples The reactivity series can be used to predict if a metal will react with a metal compound. Will magnesium react with copper chloride? Will silver react with magnesium chloride? Magnesium is a more reactive metal than copper, so magnesium displaces the copper from its compound. Silver is a less reactive metal than magnesium, so silver does not displace the magnesium from its compound.

33 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 Displacement reactions – observation This photograph shows what happens when magnesium reacts with copper sulfate. Why does the blue colour of the coppers sulfate solution gradually disappear during this reaction? before after Magnesium is a more reactive metal than copper and so the magnesium displaces the copper from the copper sulfate solution. This is why the blue colour disappears. copper+magnesium sulfate  copper sulfate +magnesium

34 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 magnesium sulfate zinc sulfate iron sulfate copper sulfate magnesium zinc iron copper = displacement reaction = no reaction       Displacement of sulfates – predictions Use the reactivity series to predict if there is a reaction when these metals are added to different metal sulfate solutions. metal metal sulfate solution 

35 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 copper+magnesium sulfate  copper sulfate +magnesium Mg+CuSO 4  MgSO 4 +Cu zinc+magnesium sulfate  zinc sulfate +magnesium Mg+ZnSO 4  MgSO 4 +Zn iron+magnesium sulfate  iron sulfate +magnesium Mg+FeSO 4  MgSO 4 +Fe Displacement of sulfates – magnesium Does magnesium react with and displace these metal sulfates and if so what products are formed?

36 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 no reaction  magnesium sulfate +zinc iron+zinc sulfate  iron sulfate +zinc Zn+FeSO 4  ZnSO 4 +Fe copper+zinc sulfate  copper sulfate +zinc Zn+CuSO 4  ZnSO 4 +Cu Displacement of sulfates – zinc Does zinc react with and displace these metal sulfates and if so what products are formed? 

37 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 no reaction  magnesium sulfate +iron no reaction  zinc sulfate +iron copper+iron sulfate  copper sulfate +iron Fe+CuSO 4  FeSO 4 +Cu Displacement of sulfates – iron Does iron react with and displace these metal sulfates and if so what products are formed?  

38 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 no reaction  magnesium sulfate +copper no reaction  zinc sulfate +copper no reaction  copper sulfate +copper Displacement of sulfates – copper Does copper react with and displace these metal sulfates and if so what products are formed?   

39 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 iron+ aluminium oxide The more reactive aluminium wins the oxygen from the less reactive iron. The reaction gets so hot that the iron melts! This is the Thermit reaction and is used to weld railway lines. Displacement of oxides Displacement reactions can also occur between a metal and a metal compound that is a solid.  iron oxide +aluminium

40 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 zinc oxide iron oxide copper oxide zinc iron copper    Displacement of oxides – predictions Use the reactivity series to predict if there is a reaction when each mixture of a metal and a metal oxide is heated. metal oxide = displacement reaction = no reaction 

41 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 copper+zinc oxide  copper oxide +zinc Zn+CuO  ZnOCu iron+zinc oxide  iron oxide +zinc 3Zn+2Fe 2 O 3  3ZnO+2Fe Zinc is the more reactive than copper and iron. Displacement of oxides – zinc Does zinc react with and displace these metal oxides and if so what products are formed?

42 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 no reaction  zinc oxide +iron copper+iron oxide  copper oxide +iron 2Fe+3CuO  Fe 2 O 3 +3Cu Iron is less reactive than zinc but more reactive than copper. Displacement of oxides – iron  Does iron react with and displace these metal oxides and if so what products are formed?

43 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 no reaction  zinc oxide +copper no reaction  iron oxide +copper Copper is less reactive than zinc and iron and will not displace either of these metals. Displacement of oxides – copper   Does copper react with and displace these metal oxides and if so what products are formed?

44 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 oxygencalcium sodium chloride calcium iron chloride gold hydrochloric acid potassium zinc copper sulfate magnesiumiron oxide Reaction?Reactants Displacement reactions – activity Use the reactivity series to predict if each mixture will react. potassium sodium calcium magnesium aluminium zinc iron lead copper silver gold  

45 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 aluminium+magnesium oxide  aluminium oxide +magnesiu m iron+magnesium chloride  iron chloride +magnesiu m no reaction  zinc oxide +silver gold+copper nitrate  gold nitrate +copper Displacement reactions – activity Use the reactivity series to predict if each mixture will react and complete the word equation.

46 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 9F Patterns of Reactivity Metals and acid Summary activities Reactivity series and displacement Metals and water Metals and oxygen Contents

47 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50  displaced metal – The metal that is pushed out of a compound by a more reactive metal.  displacement – A reaction in which a more reactive metal replaces a less reactive metal in a compound.  reactive – A substance that reacts quickly or easily.  reactivity – How quickly or easily a substance will react.  reactivity series – The list of metals placed in order of their reactivity starting with the most reactive.  tarnished – A metal that has become dull after reacting with water and oxygen in the air.  Thermit reaction – The displacement reaction between aluminium and iron oxide that is used to weld railway lines.  unreactive – A substance that reacts very slowly or does not react at all. Glossary

48 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 Anagrams

49 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 True or false?

50 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 50 Multiple-choice quiz


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