Presentation on theme: "TDR Today Current Programs Throughout the U.S.. Thurston County, Washington Pop 245,181 (2008 Census) 1994 TDR Feasibility Study –American Farmland Trust."— Presentation transcript:
TDR Today Current Programs Throughout the U.S.
Thurston County, Washington Pop 245,181 (2008 Census) 1994 TDR Feasibility Study –American Farmland Trust determined demand for TDRs marginal in cities Farmers Decade for market development –Based on study not community planning process 1996 TDR Adopted Survey Requirement Transfer Rate –One TDR per five acres No incentive, no real “bonus” Intermediate Parties –Banked, retired Olympia –Allows density decreases from five to four units per acre Sustainable, no? Desirable, yes! Height and Parking Restrictions Urban Growth Areas –Requires credits Comp. Plan Limiting –Recommendations Inform the Public Working Lands Advocate Mitigation Strategies Purchase of Development Rights (PDR) –Working Lands Strategic Plan more focused on PDR v. TDR Buyers and Sellers –No banking mechanism
King County, Washington Pop. 1,737,034(2000) Origins of program in 1994 Comprehensive Plan 1998 County adopted a 3-year pilot program 2001 County adopted program permanently 2005 County used $22 million of Conservation Futures Tax Revenues to secure 990 TDRs or 90,000 acres in Snoqualmie Forest, thereby preserving the most acreage of any single TDR program in the United States.
King County, Washington County is Facilitator & Broker –Oversee transactions –Track sale prices –Education/Outreach –“Market Maker” –Auctions ??? TDR Bank –Buy, hold, sell TDRs Purchased 1,124 TDRs Holdings 1075 credits Sold 49 tdrs –Create City and County Partnerships Amenity Funding Leverage Public Money (CFT$) County allocates $500,000 for incorporated receiving areas to improve amenities and offset the impacts of increasing density. Sending Sites 1 TDR = 5 Acres of Gross land area R-1 properties = 4TDRs per 1 Acre Receiving Sites 1 TDR = 2 additional units %50 “By Right” density allowance 6 units per acre can increase to 9 Private Market Statistics as of 2008 Current price range $15,000 $26,000 520 Total TDR credits severed 301 TDR credits redeemed 2000 Acres preserved by private TDR market Over 91,000 total Acres of Land Preserved
Calvert County 74,563 Population (2000 Census) Sending Sites: –Agriculture Preservation District (APD) Zoned 1/25 acre Transfer rates 1/5 acre –Difference in Sending Sites Land in APD only at request of owner Receiving Sites: –Farm Communities/ Resource Protection District –Rural Community District 1/10 acre -1/2 acre (Downtown) Agriculture Preservation Advisory Board APD can be removed after 5 years Why It’s Working Profitable People want to farm Purchase and Retirement (PAR) Developable receiving sites Marketing and Educating County participation Unique Feature: TDR sold, entire property under a conservation easement *8,900 Acres Preserved (2001)
TDR Sales 1980-2001
Montgomery County 871,341 Population (2000 Census) 323,000 Acres 1980 TDR Program –Sending: Rural Density Zone (RDT) Zoned 1/25 w/ exceptions –Receiving: Zoning Districts Two density limits –Baseline –Higher limit control Incentives –Speed of Approval –County Development Rights Fund (1982-1990) Savings: 68 million in public expenditures Why It’s Working : TDR main option for exceeding base zoning Location: near Washington D.C. Easy and Predictable –Educating the public What’s Not Working : Approval Process Inequities in Compensation Incorporated Municipalities –No Participation *40,583 Acres Saved (2000)
The Pinelands, New Jersey Seven Counties 53 Municipalities Pop. 700,000 Total 938,000 acres Close proximity to Philadelphia, New York, Atlantic City. 1978 Congress created Pinelands National Reserve 1979 New Jersey passed Pinelands Protection Act 1981 Comprehensive Management Plan enacted
The Pinelands, New Jersey Pinelands Commission 15 member Commission + Executive director of 50 person staff Works on Federal, State, County & Municipal levels Managed CMP, Oversees PDC Banks Comprehensive Management Plan (CMP) Land Use Regulation Land Management Voluntary TDR Program: Pinelands Development Credits (PDCs) Two PDC Banks $5 Million Initial funding from State General Fund Burlington County Pinelands Development Credit Exchange New Jersey Pinelands Development Credit Bank –Responsibilities Program facilitator Administration Public Education Purchase PDRs & PDCs Hold Credits for developers Manage Website PDCs Value and Application 1 PDC = 4 units Can be used as collateral against loans Can be held as investment Used to increase density above current code in receiving areas Since the CMP has been implemented in 1981, PDCs have preserved over 55,000 acres of Environmentally Sensitive Areas and Farmland
Characteristics of Functioning TDR Program Public Education Strong and Dynamic Leadership Consistent regulatory process TDR Bank Ease of use Public accessibility Strong sense of place Resource perceived as valuable Appropriate receiving areas Market Demand
American Farmland Trust "Purchase of Development Rights and Transfer of Development Rights Case Studies" American Farmland Trust (2001). Aken, Jeff, Eckert, Jeremy, Fox, Nancy and Swenson, Skip. Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) in Washington State: Overview, Benefits, and Challenges." Cascade Land Conservancy (2008) Bratton, Nicholas, Eckert, Jeremy and Fox, Nancy. "Alternative Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) Transaction Mechanisms." Cascade Land Conservancy (2008) Jasey, Neil N. "State of New Jersey: Pinelands Development Credit Bank, Annual Report 2009." (August 2009), http://www.njdobi.org/pinelandsbank.htm (accessed March 21, 2010) http://www.njdobi.org/pinelandsbank.htm Kaplowitz, Michael D., Machemer, Patricia, Pruetz, Rick. "Planners' experiences in managing growth using transfeable development rights (TDR) in the United States." Land Use Policy 25 (2008): 378-387. Machemer, Patricia L. and Kaplowitz, Michael D. "A Framework for Evaluating Transferable Development Rights Programmes." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 45(6) (2002): 773-795. Montgomery, Carlton. "State of the Pinelands 2009: Annual Report." Pinelands Preservation Alliance (2009), www.pinelandsalliaance.org (accessed March 21, 2010). Pruetz, Rick. Beyond Takings and Givings: Saving Natural Areas, Farmland, and Historic Landmarks with Transfer of Development Rights and Density Transfer Charges. Marina Del Ray, California: Arje Press, 2003. U.S. Census Bureau. Calvert County Maryland (2000) http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/24/24009.html (Accessed March 25, 2010).http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/24/24009.html U.S. Census Bureau. Montgomery, Maryland (2000) http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/24000.htmlhttp://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/24000.html (Accessed March 25, 2010). Walls, M. 2007 Transfer of Development Rights in U.S. Communities: Evaluating Program Design, Implementation and Outcomes http://www.rff.org/rff/Documents/Walls_McConnell_Sep_07_TD R_Report.pdf http://www.rff.org/rff/Documents/Walls_McConnell_Sep_07_TD
Davis, Jeremy. "2-D Working Lands Staff Report Comprehensive plan Policy Changes" Thurston County Planning Department. January 6, 2010. http://www.co.thurston.wa.us/planning/planning_commission/agenda/1-6- 10/Preliminary%20Working%20Lands%20Staff%20Report.010610.FINAL.pdf (Accessed April 1, 2010).http://www.co.thurston.wa.us/planning/planning_commission/agenda/1-6- 10/Preliminary%20Working%20Lands%20Staff%20Report.010610.FINAL.pdf “A Study of PDR and TDR for Boone County, Kentucky” Boone County Planning Commission. Sept. 2001. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:oHt2hSWhPfcJ:www.boonecountyky.org/PC/PDR_TDR.pdf+thurst on+county+tdr+credits+sold&cd=9&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us (Accessed April 2, 2010). http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:oHt2hSWhPfcJ:www.boonecountyky.org/PC/PDR_TDR.pdf+thurst on+county+tdr+credits+sold&cd=9&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us