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The ONLY game show that helps you learn your fun cell facts.

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Presentation on theme: "The ONLY game show that helps you learn your fun cell facts."— Presentation transcript:


2 The ONLY game show that helps you learn your fun cell facts


4 How are cells and atoms related? What is different about them? What is similar about them?

5 How are cells and atoms related? Atoms form to make molecules, molecules form to make cells What is different about them? Cells are much larger. Cells are composed of millions of molecules. Cells are essential to all life What is similar about them? Atoms are the building blocks for chemistry and cells are the building blocks for life


7 What is the relationship between cells and carbon atoms? Who cares about carbon? Why?

8 What is the relationship between cells and carbon atoms? Cells are composed of atoms, and carbon atoms are essential in cells. Who cares about carbon? Why? We do. Carbon is essential to life

9 Carbon Nitrogen Silicon Oxygen Helium Uranium Sodium Glue Calcium Gum Phosphorus Hydrogen Sulfur

10 Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Hydrogen Phosphorus Sulfur

11 What are four important types of organic molecules? Define and Describe Examples Similarities and Differences

12 What are four important types of organic molecules? Carbohydrates: an organic compound made of C, H, and O. Examples are sugars, starches, and cellulose. Lipids: fat, oil, fatlike compound usually has fatty acids in its molecular structure. Most important in plasma membrane Proteins: composed of one or more polypeptide chains of amino acids. Most structural materials and enzymes in a cell are proteins. Nucleic Acids: Describes DNA or RNA. Composed of nucleotides are in important for coding instructions for the cell processes. Large.

13 What are lipids? Starches? What advantage do lipids have over starches?

14 What are lipids? essential for cell growth. combine with carbohydrates and proteins to form the majority of all plant and animal cells. The three major purposes of lipids in the body are storing energy, aiding the development of cell membrane Advantage: Lipids store more energy in their molecular bonds than proteins or carbohydrates Starches Starches are complex carbohydrates which are produced by green plants in order to store energy.

15 How do so many proteins exist?

16 Each protein serves a specific purpose in our bodies, so many proteins have evolved to fit all the different roles


18 Prokaryotes: Definition Eukaryotes: Definition

19 Prokaryotes: simple organism without nucleus: an organism whose DNA is not contained within a nucleus, e.g. a bacterium Eukaryotes: organism with visible nuclei: any organism with one or more cells that have visible nuclei and organelles

20 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Similarities and Differences

21 Bigger ProkaryotesEukaryotes Smaller Membrane Bound Nucleus and Nucleolus Unbound Nucleoid Complex Appendages Simple Appendages Cell Wall Simple when present Cell Wall Complex No Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton No Membrane Bound Organelles Membrane Bound Organelles Flagella Plasma Membrane Cell Division Cytoplasm Ribosome Chromosome

22 Animal cells and Plant Cells Similarities and Differences


24 Movement Through Membranes

25 Osmosis and Diffusion Similarities and Differences

26 DiffusionOsmosis Molecules go through a semipermeable membrane. Just add water Molecules spread over a large area Everything but water Molecules move around to create an equilibrium. Move from High to Low concentrations

27 What determines rate of diffusion?



30 Thin structure forming the outer surface of a cell's protoplasm. Regulates passage of materials into and out of the cell. Holds the cell together. Made of a double layer of phospholipids with proteins that stretch though the phospholipid layers on the inside, outside, or both layers together.


32 Hypotonic: Concentration of water INSIDE cell is greater Isotonic: Concentration of water is EQUAL Hypertonic: Concentration of water OUTSIDE cell is greater


34 Concentration Gradient?

35 The concentrations of molecules at various points separate high concentrations from low create a boundary called a concentration gradient There is a concentration gradient because of the differences in concentration



38 Active and passive transport Are biological processes that move oxygen, water and nutrients into cells and remove waste products. Active transport : Requires ENERGY because it is the movement of molecules from areas of LOWER concentration to areas of HIGHER concentration. Uses Protein synthesis to aid Passive transport : Moves molecules from areas of HIGH concentration to areas of LOW concentration; so it DOES NOT require energy. Diffusion Osmosis Facilitated Diffusion

39 Glucose? Water? Oxygen? Sodium? Starch?

40 Glucose Cannot move easily because it is large. But can pass through with Passive Transport with the facilitated diffusion Water Can move easily because it is small. Uses Osmosis, which is Passive Transport Oxygen Can move easily because it is small and moves through diffusion (Passive Transport) Sodium Use Active Transport, requiring Energy to move against the concentration gradient as well as with it. In animal cells the concentration of sodium ions is greater outside the cell


42 There is more water in your cells compared to the external environment with salt water solution. Creating a hypotonic state with a higher concentration gradient of water from cells moving outward through osmosis. Water will leave the cell through passive transport leaving the cell to contract or shrink. You will become dehydrated, if the dehydration continues you could die. “because you can’t pull the water from the salt for your body to use and it just builds up until you go insane and talk to volleyballs”

43 Cell Division

44 Why must cells divide and grow? Why is this so important?

45 Why must cells divide in order to grow? Why is this so important? Cells must divide in order to reach maximum efficiency for molecular transport, and maintain the functions of the cell. There are upper limits to how large a cell can become, so when those limits are reached the cells divide. They divide to replace old cells that are worn down or damaged Divide to specialize through differentiation in multicellular organisms to become different in appearance and function


47 Bacterial chromosome replicates leading to two identical chromosomes attached to separate points of attachment. The cells begin to divide each cell with an identical chromosome. Prokaryotes duplicate faster: have only one large, circular chromosome. Eukaryotes (human) 46 chromosomes. Two identical daughter cells

48 Why do cells need to divide?

49 Why do cells need to divide? Cells divide in order to reproduce (mitosis) Cells divide because other cells get old, die, we get sick or get cuts and need to heal.



52 Definition : Is the precise distribution of DNA to daughter cells IPMAT

53 Differentiation? What is that?

54 Differentiation: Process by which new cells specialize and become different in appearance and function from their parent cells. Change and become specialized according to a genetically determined plan Occurs as a result of a combination of signals that cause different cells to activate different portions of their genetic information Differences in how cells look and behave reflect differences in how they use the genetic information they have

55 What is Interphase? What does it do?

56 Interphase: Long and active cycle DNA and chromosomes are duplicated in the nucleus Mitochondria are made in the cytoplasm Cell grows

57 Prophase? What is prophase?

58 Prophase: Chromosomes coil and become shorter. Each Chromosome appears as a double structure joined at the centromere Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell (except in plants, there are no centrioles, but these events still occur as described here)

59 Metaphase. Describe.

60 Metaphase: Doubled chromosomes line up Cytoplasmic fibers are now attached to each doubled chromosome at the centromere

61 Anaphase?

62 Anaphase : Doubled chromosomes separate New chromosomes are pushed and pulled to the opposite ends of the cell by the cytoplasmic fibers

63 Telophase?

64 Telophase : Chromosomes approach the ends and group together New nuclear membrane Cytoplasm divides New cell membrane forms (cell wall laid between new cells in plants) The new cells enter interphase


66 There is absolutely no difference in DNA between the parent cell and daughter cell in mitosis. During mitosis, the DNA is copied exactly and transferred, so the DNA is exactly the same in both cells.

67 Atom: Atoms to cells: Prokaryotes Vs. Eukaryotes: Plant Cell Vs. Animal Cells: Rates of Diffusion: Hypotonic Isotonic Hypertonic: Active Vs. Passive Transport Cell Division Cartoon: Binary Fission Cell Cycle Anaphase Picture: Cell Cycle: Stages of Mitosis: Interphase Animal Cell: Prophase: Metaphase: Anaphase: Parent and Daughter cells:

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