Presentation on theme: "Unit V: Darwin’s Voyage and the Theory of Evolution Ms. Buechler Int.Sci. 4/Biology."— Presentation transcript:
Unit V: Darwin’s Voyage and the Theory of Evolution Ms. Buechler Int.Sci. 4/Biology
EW 3/27 What do you know about Charles Darwin? What theory did he come up with? What’s the name of famous island that he made many of his observations that lead to this theory?
Bill Nye: Evolution Old School Bill Nye the Science Guy: Evolution Old School Bill Nye the Science Guy: Evolution Bill Nye Great Discoveries: Evolution
Darwin’s Voyage Book Resources Life and Times of Charles Darwin Life and Times of Charles Darwin http://topics.nytimes.com/ topics/reference/timestopi cs/people/d/charles_rober t_darwin/index.html http://topics.nytimes.com/ topics/reference/timestopi cs/people/d/charles_rober t_darwin/index.html http://www.aboutdarwin.c om/voyage/voyage04.html http://www.aboutdarwin.c om/voyage/voyage04.html http://evolution.berkeley.e du/evolibrary/article/0_0_ 0/history_14 http://evolution.berkeley.e du/evolibrary/article/0_0_ 0/history_14 Videos Darwins' Voyage Revisted in 2014 Darwins' Voyage Revisted in 2014 Darwin v. Lamarck's view of Natural Selection Darwin v. Lamarck's view of Natural Selection
Vocab for Darwin Book Adaptive Radiation- when a species derived from a common ancestor (like with Darwin’s Finches) adapts to the environment by natural selection, causing a change in the gene pool of a population. Evolution- biological change in a population’s gene pool over time… Natural Selection- process in which organisms adapt to their environment: ◦ Species tend to produce more offspring than what will survive. ◦ Variations are found among individuals of a species. ◦ Some variations enable members of a population to survive and reproduce better than others… they are better suited for survival in the given area. ◦ Over time, offspring of individuals with helpful variations make up more and more of a population… they have adapted to the environment.
Vocab for Darwin Book Selective Pressures- changes in resources, mates, and/or environment that lead to a change in allele frequency in a population. ◦ Ex> change in climate and the wooly mammoth to modern elephants Species- smallest level of classification, in which organisms can mate and produce viable offspring. Speciation- formation of a new biological species Variation- unique qualities of individuals of the same species in a given population. Acquired Characteristics- traits that develop after birth… like Lamarck’s explanation of how giraffes got long necks. Mutations- permanent changes in the DNA Adaptation-“An alteration or adjustment in structure or behaviors by which a species or individual improves its condition in relationship to its environment” Reproductive Isolation- physical or geographical barriers that restrict the interbreeding of populations.
Natural Selection: Wallace, Lamarck & Darwin EW 4/1 What year did Darwin visit the Galapagos Islands? When was his paper “Voyage of the Beagle” published? 3 Influential Scientists Perspective’s on Natural Selection Into to Theory of Evolution.doc Into to Theory of Evolution.doc http://evolution.berk eley.edu/evolibrary/a rticle/0_0_0/history_ 14 http://evolution.berk eley.edu/evolibrary/a rticle/0_0_0/history_ 14
Lamarck Similar species arose from common ancestor organisms change over time Acquired trait= not determined by genes, but arises during an organisms lifetime in response to behavior and or experiences Acquired traits are then passed onto offspring
Wallace 1 st to propose the theory of “Natural Selection” ◦ Organisms best suited to their environment reproduce more successfully than other organisms ◦ “Intelligent evolution” is a theory of common descent based upon natural selection strictly bounded by the principle of utility Wallace recognized that useful variations allowed organisms to better survive in their environment those successful variations occurred with greater and greater frequency in the population (increase gene frequency)
Darwin Descent with Modification via Natural Selection Newer organisms are modified decedents of older species Natural Selection causes these modifications primary mechanism changing organisms from their origin to a species well adapted to its environment
Summary of Theories on Natural Selection LamarckWallaceDarwin Driving Mechanism for Changing Traits Acquired Traits Organisms changed in response to their environment/habitat Natural Selection- favorable traits are passed onto offspring to increase their chances of survival Descent with Modification via Natural Selection- Newer organisms are modified descendants of a few original organisms this modification occurs via Natural Selection Do Species Change? Yes- individual organisms can change within their lifetime Yes- Populations change over time Yes- Populations change over time End Result: Where to species come from? Common Ancestor? Species created based on environment Common Ancestor- but a product of their environments Common Ancestor all species from one or more original organisms
Principles of Natural Selection Organisms produce more offspring that can survive. Variations are found among individuals of a species. Some variations enable members of a population to survive and reproduce better than others. Over time, offspring of individuals with helpful variations make up more and more of a population