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Chapter 22 The Age of Nation-States Chapter 22 The Age of Nation-States Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The Crimean War War erupts between Russia and Ottoman Empire when Russia attempts to extend its influence into Ottoman territory France and Britain join the Ottomans; to Russia’s surprise and displeasure, the Austrians and Prussians remain neutral Poorly equipped and commanded troops lead to massive suffering on both sides Helped by French and British forces, the Ottomans defeat the Russians Results of war: Russia gives up land around Danube River and Black Sea Russia renounces its claims to protect Orthodox Christians in Ottoman Empire Image of invincible Russia crushed Concert of Europe dissolved Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The Ottomans’ Reforms Make Empire More “European” Tanzimat – reorganization of the empire Liberalized economy Ended tax farming Freedom of religion Hatti-i-Humayun – spelled out rights of non-Muslims Equal chances in the military, state employment, and admission to state schools Abolished torture Gave property rights In some regions of the empire, local rulers made reforms hard to enforce Reforms an attempt to modernize and secularize the empire Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Italian Unification and the Republicans Carbonari – ineffective romantic republicanism society of Italy Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi – Italian nationalists who led guerilla warfare in the 1850s Italian moderates frightened by these uprisings Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Count Camillo Cavour Minister of Piedmont transformed Italy into a nation-state under a constitutional monarchy, rather than a republic Became prime minister under Victor Emmanuel I; advocated: Free trade Railway expansion Agricultural improvements Wanted to defeat Austria, with France’s help, to unite Italy Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Movement Towards Unification French sympathies – Cavour and Napoleon III plot to provoke a war in Italy that would lead to the defeat of Austria War with Austria – the Italians of Piedmont defeat the Austrians, driving the Austrians from Northern Italy, but France betrays Cavour and leaves Lombardy under Austrian control Garibaldi’s campaign – his nationalism overtakes his republicanism and he unites Southern Italy with the Piedmont area under Cavour. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The Italian State Victor Emanuel I is named King of Italy (1861) Tensions high between industrialized Piedmont north and rural, poor Southern Italy Conservative constitutional monarchy put into place, but Parliament is filled with corruption Venetia in 1866 and Rome (minus Vatican City) in 1870 become part of Italy Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
German Unification Created by a conservative army, the monarchy, and the prime minister of Prussia, Frederick William IV Frederick wanted to end the stalemate between him and the liberal Parliament Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Otto von Bismarck Would be more responsible for reshaping European history than anybody else for the next 30 years (1860s–1890s) Because of the idea of German unification, helped Frederick outflank the Prussian liberals of the Parliament Led Prussia into three wars, then spent nineteen years fighting for peace Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Bismarck’s Wars and Government The Danish War (1864) – Prussia together with Austria easily defeats Denmark to take over northern states of Schleswig (Prussia) and Holstein (Austria) Diplomacy Gained Russian sympathy by supporting the suppression of Poland Persuaded Napoleon III to stay neutral in Austrian-Prussian conflicts Promised Italy, Venetia if they supported Prussia The Austro-Prussian War (1866) – Austria defeated – Italy gets Venetia and Austrian Hapsburgs excluded from German affairs The North German Confederation – Prussia now a federation with two houses Bundesrat – federal council composed of members appointed by governments of the states Reichtag – chosen by universal male suffrage; had very little power Nationalism overtakes the concerns of liberalism and Germany, in effect, becomes a military monarchy The Franco-Prussian War – France declares war on Prussia when Bismarck makes it appear that William I of Prussia had insulted France Prussia crushes France and captures Napoleon III William becomes emperor of united Germany German unification a blow to liberalism, France, and the Hapsburg empire Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
France Goes From Empire to Third Republic France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian war spelled the end of the liberal empire The Paris Commune – radicals and socialists attempt to govern Paris away from the rest of France, but are put down by the National Assembly at the cost of 20,000 lives; victory for the nation-state The Third Republic – when quarreling monarchists can’t agree on a new king, the National Assembly turns to a republican system: Chamber of Deputies elected by universal male suffrage Senate chosen indirectly President elected by both legislative houses Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The Dreyfus Affair French Captain Alfred Dreyfus is falsely accused of passing secret information to the Germans (1894) After Dreyfus is sent to Devil’s Island, evidence of forgery comes in, but he is not aquitted Dreyfus, who was Jewish, is still guilty according to the army, French Catholic Church, political conservatives, and anti-Semitic newspapers Liberal novelist Emile Zola, along with numerous liberals, radicals, and socialists, call for a new trial for Dreyfus President of France pardons Dreyfus and the conviction is set aside in 1906 Puts conservatives on the defensive for framing an innocent man and embracing anti-Semitism Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The Hapsburg Empire The empire in the 1840s–1860s remained dynastic, absolutist, and agrarian as compared with the rest of Europe Austria’s defeat by France in 1859 and Prussia in 1866 confirms that a new government is needed Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The Hapsburg Dual Monarchy Francis Joseph issues February Patent, which sets up a bicameral imperial government or Reichsrat Francis Joseph and the Magyars come up with Compromise or Ausgleich of 1867, setting up a dual monarchy known as Austria-Hungary to replace Hapsburg empire Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Nationalism and Unrest The Magyars now had nationality as they basically controlled the Hungary part of Austria-Hungary The Ruthenians, Romanians, Croatians, and especially the Czechs, oppose the Compromise of 1867 Francis Joseph in response makes German and Czech equal languages and enacts universal male suffrage in Austria, but not Hungary, throwing the Reichsrat into chaos Wanting to be linked by a common race and language, Croats, Poles, Ukrainians, Romanians, Italians, Bosnians, and Serbs all look towards nationalism Consequences of nationalism are two World Wars and unrest today Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Russian Reforms under Alexander II Serfdom abolished Positives – serfs gain rights to marry without permission, to buy and sell land, to sue in court and to pursue trades Negatives – over a forty-nine year period, serfs have to pay back, including interest, their landlords in order to receive their land Local government reform – local government run by zemstvos, a system of provincial and county councils, which proved to be largely ineffective Judicial reform – included equality before the law, impartial hearings, uniform procedures, judicial independence, and trial by jury Military reform – service requirements lowered from twenty- five to fifteen years and discipline is relaxed slightly Repression in Poland – Poland basically becomes a Russian province under Russian laws and language Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Russian Revolutionaries – people or groups not satisfied by Alexander’s reforms Alexander Herzen – started a movement called populism, based on the communal life of peasants Vera Zasulich – attempted to assassinate the military governor of St. Petersburg The People’s Will – terrorist group that assassinated Alexander II Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Alexander III Autocratic and repressive Rolled back his father’s reforms Strengthened secret police and censorship of the press Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Great Britain – The Second Reform Act (1867) Surprisingly, the Conservatives in the House of Commons, led by Benjamin Disraeli, allow a large number of working class males to vote The new prime minister elected, however, is a liberal, William Gladstone Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The Great Ministry of Gladstone Freedom of religion and class Competitive exams replace patronage for civil service Voting by secret ballot The Education Act of 1870 – established that the government, not the church, would run the elementary schools Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Disraeli as Prime Minister Public Health Act of 1875 – reaffirmed duty of the state to interfere with private property to protect health and physical well-being Artisan Dwelling Act of 1875 – government becomes actively involved in providing housing for the working class Protection of trade unions and the allowance of picket lines Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The Irish Question Gladstone, again prime minister in 1880, has to deal with the Irish wanting home rule – Irish control of local government Irish Catholics no longer had to pay for the Anglican Church Compensation provided for Irish tenants who were evicted from their land Tenant rights established Coercion Act passed to restore law and order to Ireland Home rule, supported by Gladstone, is defeated over and over again between 1886 and 1914, when the rule was finally passed, but then suspended due to World War I Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The Crimean War War erupts between Russia and Ottoman Empire when Russia attempts to extend its influence into Ottoman territory France and Britain join.
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