These processes are very similar in all living organisms Bacteria and humans have similar ways of producing ATP This means the processes evolved very long ago before simple organisms became more complex
It has six carbon atoms The atoms are held together with strong bonds Cells must use energy to begin the reactions Energy is stored in ATP
A P P P ADENOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE
Breaks glucose down Enzymes rearrange the pieces Two molecules of Pyruvate are formed There is still a lot of energy that has not been released in these two molecules Muscles that don’t get enough oxygen use glycolysis for energy
NADH stands for Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide with a Hydrogen atom. The energy from the glucose is stored in these molecules This energy will be transferred to ATP in The Electron Transport Chain
The Krebs cycle happens in the mitochondria It requires oxygen – so it’s Aerobic Enzymes convert pyruvate to a two carbon molecule by removing a molecule of Carbon dioxide The two carbon molecule enters the Krebs cycle
Aerobic Requires enzymes Rearranges molecules Energy is completely released from Pyruvate Produces ATP Produces NADH – A Hydrogen carrier molecule
Carbon Dioxide which travels to lungs to be exhaled as waste
An energy carrier and a hydrogen carrier Energy in each NADH will be used to make 3 more ATP This will happen in the electron transport chain This is how large amounts of ATP are generated This is how you get most of your energy
Happens in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion There is a series of electron carrier molecules here Hydrogen atoms in NADH are separated into protons and electrons As the electrons move from one carrier to the next they release energy
The energy release from the electrons as the bounce is used to pump protons (H+) across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion The protons build up in the outer compartment of the mitochondrion There is a difference in the number (concentration) of protons between the inside and outside of the inner compartment of the mitochondrion
Is a concentration gradient (like the difference in energy between the top and bottom of a waterfall) This is the source of potential energy The protons diffuse from high concentrations outside to the inner compartment where their concentration is lower.
This flow of protons is used to make ATP from ADP and phosphate This is where the energy from NADH is transferred to ATP The transferred electrons combine with protons (H+) and molecular oxygen O 2 to form water H 2 O
It completes the electron transport system Carbon dioxide and water are the by products of cellular respiration
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