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Hess’s Law Germain Henri Hess. Hess’s Law “In going from a particular set of reactants to a particular set of products, the change in enthalpy is the.

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Presentation on theme: "Hess’s Law Germain Henri Hess. Hess’s Law “In going from a particular set of reactants to a particular set of products, the change in enthalpy is the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hess’s Law Germain Henri Hess

2 Hess’s Law “In going from a particular set of reactants to a particular set of products, the change in enthalpy is the same whether the reaction takes place in one step or a series of steps.”

3 Hess’s Law Example Problem Calculate  H for the combustion of methane, CH 4 : CH 4 + 2O 2  CO 2 + 2H 2 O Reaction  H o C + 2H 2  CH 4 -74.80 kJ C + O 2  CO 2 -393.50 kJ H 2 + ½ O 2  H 2 O-285.83 kJ Step #1: CH 4 must appear on the reactant side, so we reverse reaction #1 and change the sign on  H. CH 4  C + 2H 2 +74.80 kJ

4 Hess’s Law Example Problem Calculate  H for the combustion of methane, CH 4 : CH 4 + 2O 2  CO 2 + 2H 2 O Reaction  H o C + 2H 2  CH 4 -74.80 kJ C + O 2  CO 2 -393.50 kJ H 2 + ½ O 2  H 2 O-285.83 kJ CH 4  C + 2H 2 +74.80 kJ Step #2: Keep reaction #2 unchanged, because CO 2 belongs on the product side C + O 2  CO 2 -393.50 kJ

5 Hess’s Law Example Problem Calculate  H for the combustion of methane, CH 4 : CH 4 + 2O 2  CO 2 + 2H 2 O Reaction  H o C + 2H 2  CH 4 -74.80 kJ C + O 2  CO 2 -393.50 kJ H 2 + ½ O 2  H 2 O-285.83 kJ CH 4  C + 2H 2 +74.80 kJ C + O 2  CO 2 -393.50 kJ Step #3: Multiply reaction #2 by 2 2H 2 + O 2  2 H 2 O -571.66 kJ

6 Hess’s Law Example Problem Calculate  H for the combustion of methane, CH 4 : CH 4 + 2O 2  CO 2 + 2H 2 O Reaction  H o C + 2H 2  CH 4 -74.80 kJ C + O 2  CO 2 -393.50 kJ H 2 + ½ O 2  H 2 O-285.83 kJ CH 4  C + 2H 2 +74.80 kJ C + O 2  CO 2 -393.50 kJ 2H 2 + O 2  2 H 2 O -571.66 kJ Step #4: Sum up reaction and  H CH 4 + 2O 2  CO 2 + 2H 2 O-890.36 kJ

7 Calculation of Heat of Reaction Calculate  H for the combustion of methane, CH 4 : CH 4 + 2O 2  CO 2 + 2H 2 O  H rxn =   H f (products) -   H f (reactants) Substance  H f CH 4 -74.80 kJ O2O2 0 kJ CO 2 -393.50 kJ H2OH2O-285.83 kJ  H rxn = [-393.50kJ + 2(-285.83kJ)] – [-74.80kJ]  H rxn = -890.36 kJ


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