Inquiry at the Lesson Level: Supporting Students Before, During and After Reading.
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Inquiry at the Lesson Level: Supporting Students Before, During and After Reading
Literacy at the Junior High and High School Level Reading is viewed as a basic set of skills, widely adaptable and applicable to all kinds of texts and reading situations...However, as one moves along the continuum of literacy learning, what is learned becomes less generally useful. (Shanahan, T. & Shanahan, C., 2008) Teaching students how to comprehend and how to monitor their learning cant be left to chance. We have to show them how, through teacher modeling, explanations and guided practice. (Santa et al., 2008).
Assisting Students as They Read A Directed Reading and Thinking Activity (also known as a DRTA or DRA) is a perfect way for guiding reading in the Vygotskian sense. A DRTA is a highly flexible technique that guides students to attend to certain textual features and to make certain moves before, during and after their reading of a particular text or part of a text. (Wilhelm, Baker & Hackett, 2001)
Making Thinking Visible: When Kids Cant Read... What we must do is show [struggling readers] how skilled readers build meaning. That means we must pull the invisible process of comprehension out to the visible leveland that suggests bringing conversation into the classroom as students are reading. That conversation needs to be about readers responses to what they are reading as well as how they make the reading make sense. Consequently, the conversation doesnt focus only on characters or setting or plot development, but also on predictions, clarifications, questions, or connections that readers are making. (Beers, 2003)
Articulating Goals Many studies in cognition highlight the reason its so important for students to realize why we ask them to do what we ask them to do. The purpose of an activity drives our motivation and engagement in the activity. (Smith & Wilhelm, 2010) Conceptual Goal: Characterization and Theme. Procedural Goal: To use clues in the text to make inferences about characters, events and authors purpose. To gather data in exploration of Essential Question: How do We Shape Our View of Others? Reading Focus: Making inferences, reading for theme
Frontloading Research provides evidence that a readers experience with a text is enriched when prior knowledge is activated before engaging with a new and unfamiliar text. One way to understand the need for frontloading is to explore schema theory. A schema is a rich set of understandings around a particular topic. If students do not possess or do not activate the appropriate schema, they will not comprehend a text. (Wilhelm, Baker & Hackett, 2001)
Frontloading Essential Question Specific Does ignorance excuse a person from responsibility? 1. If you sin with a group your responsibility and guilt are as personal as if you had done it alone. 2. You can delegate authority but not responsibility. 3. Ignorance and inconsideration are the 2 great causes of the ruin of mankind. 4. It is okay to cause damage if you don't know you are doing it.
Frontloading Task-Specific Inferencing: What is Happening in the Text? –He put down $10.00 at the window. The woman behind the window gave $4.00. The person next to him gave $3.00, but he gave it back to her. So, when they went inside, she bought him a large bag of popcorn. –From When Kids Cant Read What Teachers Can Do, Kylene Beers
Sharing the Secrets of Expert Readers We argue that we must actively teach reading through all the grade levels by helping kids make meaning with the new text genres, textual conventions, and content to which they are being introduced. (Wilhelm, Baker & Hackett, 2001) While some argue that comprehension strategies cannot be taught directly, others find that struggling readers do benefit from direct instruction...These strategies can be taught directly and explicitly following a process in which the teacher models and explains the strategy, then students apply the strategy by practicing it with a range of texts under the coaching of the teacher or a more skilled reader. (Beers, 2003)
Making Inferences and Reading for Theme Inference Phrases: I bet... I think... This must be... This reminds me of... Theme: Identify Subjects Patterns Consider the Message the Author is Trying to Convey
As we read we will consider... Does ignorance excuse responsibility? o What is our impression of the villagers? o Relationship between characterization and meaning
Assisting Students As They Read Reflecting and Predicting Section 1: What is your impression of the villagers? (character and inferencing) Section 2: What can we conclude about the scientist, the concessionaire, the villagers? (inferencing, theme) Create a frozen tableau of the moment when the villagers, scientist and concessionaire find out what is in the hole.
4 th Facet of Understanding: Perspective Section 3: #1--It is five years later; you are a villager; write a letter to your son or daughter. Begin with "This isn't what I thought..." #2--It is five years later; you are the scientist; write a letter to the editor of the village newspaper. Begin with "It was/wasnt my responsibility... #3It is five years later; you are the concessionaire; write a letter to the villagers. Begin with I cant believe... Trade letters and underline most powerful phrases.
Choral Montage-- Getting at Theme As Wilhelm (2002) suggests, what is particularly compelling about choral montage is the way it makes revision come alive. The ease of moving bodies around is comparable to cut and paste in digital writing, and the improvement that results tends to persuade students that it's worth the effort. They come away with a memorable picture of how collaborative revision works that transfers directly into online environments like a wiki.
After Reading He-y Come on O-ut! 1.How does the author characterize the villagers? How does this characterization contribute to the meaning of the story? What does he suggest about responsibility? 1.With a partner, share your written responses. Together, craft ONE thesis statement addressing the following prompt: 1.Read the short story He-y Come on Ou-t carefully. Then, write an essay in which you discuss how the characterization of the villagers relates to the meaning of the story.