Presentation on theme: "The Tragical History of Christopher Marlowe February 1564-May 30, 1593."— Presentation transcript:
The Tragical History of Christopher Marlowe February 1564-May 30, 1593
Of “Common Stock” Parents John and Katherine Marlowe Father shoemaker Canterbury, England Scholarship to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge University
Education & Religion B. A. in 1584; M. A. in 1587 Scholarships were with understanding that he would take holy orders in Anglican church Cambridge battlefield for Calvinists and anti- Calvinists in 1580s; difference was damnation Religious convictions? Anglican? Catholic? Atheist?
Arrests for Fights & Religion Arrested 1589, brawl resulted in homicide; poet Thomas Watson self-defense; both released 1593 his roommate, dramatist Thomas Kyd arrested for inciting riots against Flemish Protestants; officers found papers denying deity of Christ; Kyd said they were Marlowe’s; Marlowe had to report daily to Privy Council-- like house arrest
More on Marlowe’s “Reputation” Kyd reported on Marlowe’s “monstrous opinions,” saying he would “gybe at praiers, & stryve in argument to frustrate & confute what hath byn spoke or wrytt by prophets & such holie men.” Bains, a former fellow prisoner and possible informer, accused Marlowe of “Damnable Judgement of Religion, and scorn of gods word” and of saying “the first beginning of Religion was only to keep men in awe.”
More on Reputation Bains also accused Marlowe of saying that if there is “any god or religion, then it is in the papistes.... [A]ll protestantes are Hypocritical asses....” Why would this be alarming in 1593? What reasons would Kyd and Bains have had for lying about Marlowe’s beliefs?
Work History 1587 Cambridge first refused to grant his master’s because of Marlowe’s absences from college, but Queen Elizabeth’s Privy Council sent a letter stating “that in all his accions he had behaved him selfe orderlie and discreetlie wherebie he had done her Majestie good service, & deserved to be rewarded for his faithful dealinge....” Frequent trips to Rheims, France--to visit or spy on Catholics?
Work History, cont. Other unexplained absences Espionage for Sir Thomas Walsingham, head of Elizabeth’s secret service? 1592 letter from prison governor describes Marlowe as “by his profession a scholar.”
Performance of Plays Dido Queen of Carthage (1586) Tamburlaine, I and II (1587-88) The Jew of Malta (1590) The Massacre at Paris (1590) Edward II (1592-93) Dr. Faustus (1594)
Translations of Latin Poetry & Writing English Lyric Poetry Certain of Ovid’s Elegies & Amores (1595 with John Davies) Lucan’s First Booke (1600) “Hero and Leander” (1598; unfinished) “Passionate Shepherd to His Love” (1600)
Importance to Poetry A. C. Swinburne, critic: Marlowe was “the father of English tragedy and the creator of English blank verse.” Tamburlaine Prologue shows Marlowe’s contempt for stage verse of the period: “jygging vaines of riming mother wits” presented the “conceits [which] clownage keepes in pay.” Dramatic poets of 16 th c followed where Marlowe led; lyric poets of 17 th c imitated him.
Importance to Tragedy Episodic treatment of events Multi-dimensional protagonists Humorous subplots that parallel larger themes Poetic language Blank verse
Death as Reported at Inquest Died May 30, 1593 at age of 29, before all reports got to authorities. Spent day with 3 men in a house leased for meetings Fight over “le recknynge”; Marlowe pulled his dagger, Ingram Frazir got it away and stabbed Marlowe over right eye 2” deep and 1” wide; died instantly.
Cover up or not? Some scholars argue that the Earl of Essex ordered murder of Marlowe because he was an associate of Sir Walter Raleigh, Essex’s rival. Walsingham ordered murder because Marlowe was becoming a liability to the privy Council? Just typical Marlowe “rashness in attempting sudden privy injuries to men”?
Wacko Theory Marlovians assert that Marlowe really didn’t die in 1593 but lived to write Shakespeare’s plays, which couldn’t have been written by someone who wasn’t university-educated!! Or that Marlowe was a nom de guerre assumed by Shakespeare during the “lost years”!
Changes in Dramatic Productions Professional actors who attached to powerful patron for protection from vagrancy laws Professional theatres move outside London to avoid official sanctions Universities produce Latinate comedies: Ralph Roister Doister, Grammar Gurton’s Needle (1550s)
Humor & Subplots Parts modeled on Roman comedies of Terence and Plautus. Puns, slapstick, irony—it’s got it all! Action of the comic characters parallels the action in the main plot. Example: Faustus gets a servant; Wagner gets a servant. Faustus learns to conjure; Wagner learns to conjure and teaches his servant. This also develops the themes of power and submission and knowledge.
Attitudes toward Witchcraft To Elizabethans, witchcraft was very real. Malleus Maleficarum Plague Burnings; religious persecutions What replaces scientific cause and effect when disease and natural disaster strike? http://virtual.park.uga.edu/cdesmet/tiffany/faustus.htm
Humanism Included study of classics and theology Interest in education for public service Distrust of vernacular languages because wanted eternal fame for writings; English too changeable—who could read in 200 years? Latin and Greek eternal(?!) National pride eventually legitimizes vernacular English. Erasmus
Reformation Martin Luther originally intended simply to pose questions for discussion (1517). Issue: Bible translated into vernacular so people could decide for themselves. Issue: individual should believe and do what his personal reading of Bible and personal enlightened conscience tell him to—not what church leaders say. English Reformation was forced by dynastic concerns not religious ones.
English Protestantism Henry VIII executed Wm. Tyndale for translating the Bible into English. After splitting with the Catholic church to get a divorce and remarry for an heir, he authorizes an English translation of the Bible! Queen Mary-Bloody Mary, Spanish Catholic Queen Elizabeth I – the Politique, middle ground; beliefs ambiguous to accommodate individual conscience. Prohibited controversial preaching.
The Great Chain of Being Universal Catholicism Agriculture Anointed Kings Preparing for Imminent Death Nobility The Individual Reformation Humanism Manufacturing Queen Elizabeth-the Politique Living for worldly accomplishments Rise of Middle Class Medieval Renaissance
Medieval or Renaissance ? 1. London cultural center 2. Scientific experimentation 3. Change social class 4. Some religious freedom 5. Land/feudal obligations 6. Writers had to have noble patrons or be nobles themselves 7. Challenge; ask questions 8. Could not change social status 9. Professional writers 10.Follow tradition and authority completely
Theatres and Free-thinking Avoidance of authority, discuss anything that could escape censors QE I seeing Richard II after Essex revolt: “I am Richard II, know ye not that?” Marlowe’s view of man: “...But his dominion that exceeds in this / Stretcheth as far as doth the mind of man” (Faustus.1.1.57-58).
Act of 1545 classed any person not a member of a guild as a vagabond and subject to arrest Patronage of an important person, a servant and not charged with being a vagabond. QE1 gave permission to perform in London in spite of local rules if met the approval of the Master of the Revels Highly operatic with flamboyant expressions stylized according to certain rhetorical traditions
Themes Individualism Ambition, power Good and evil Knowledge and ignorance Choices and consequences Appearance and reality Success and failure The human condition or meaning of life Manipulation/Machiavellian action
Marlowe’s Over-reachers “Ah, but a man’s reach should exceed his grasp, Or what’s a heaven for?” --Robert Browning (1812–1889)
Sources Barnet, Sylvan, ed. “Introduction.” Doctor Faustus. Christopher Marlowe. New York: Signet Books, 1969. vii- xix. Bevington, David. “General Introduction.” The Complete Works of Shakespeare. New York: HarperCollins, 1992. Rpt. in Doctor Faustus: Divine in Show. Ed. McAlindon, T. Twayne’s Masterworks Studies. New York: Twayne, 1994. 152-170. Duncan-Jones, Katherine. “Devil May Care.” New Statesman 131 (1996): 42-44. McAlindon, T. Doctor Faustus: Divine in Show. Twayne’s Masterworks Studies. New York: Twayne, 994. “The Sixteenth Century I1485-1603): Introduction.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 6 th ed. Ed. M. H. Abrams. New York: W. W. Norton,1996. 253-273. Stenning, Rodney. “The ‘Burning Chair’ in the B-text of Doctor Faustus.” Notes and Queries 43 (1996): 144-145. Stumpf, Thomas A. “Images and Music.” Freshman Seminar: Visits to Hell. (2001). 29 Sept. 2004. Walton, Brenda. Lessons for Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus. Orlando, FL: Network for Instructional TV, 1998. 12 Oct. 2004..http://www.unc.edu/courses/2001fall/engl/006m/005/thumbnails.html.http://www.teachersfirst.com/lessons/marl.htm