2Changing allele frequencies permit both LONG AND SHORT-TERM CHANGES to occur in a species/population.Gene frequencies are affected by both NATURAL and UNNATURAL events.Natural events such as severe storms, EARTHQUAKES and DISEASES can shrink the gene pool.Unnatural events (caused by MAN) can also have immediate and lasting affects on the available genes in a population. (wars, DEFORESTATION, nuclear testing, OVER-FISHING)
3Conditions That Change Allele Frequencies Nonrandom matingMigrationGenetic driftMutationSelection
4Nonrandom mating Nonrandom (SELECTIVE) Mating Nonrandom mating indicated individuals of one genotype reproduce more often with each other.May be due toEthnic or religious preferencesIsolated communitiesCultures in which consanguinity (marriages between relatives – cousins) is more prominentEX: The males of some bird speciesmust make ELABORATE NESTS to lure inpotential female partners.
5Sexual selection selects for traits that improve mating success.
6Humans choose their mates based on physical appearance, ethnic background, intelligence and shared interests.Some traits ARE RANDOMLY MIXED- MOST BLOOD TYPES are not affected by preferential mating. (Mr. Smith didn't meet Mrs. Smith by asking if they had compatible blood types.) These randomly mixed traits are often considered UNIMPORTANT or are NOT OBSERVED at all.
7Examples Arnold Genghis Khan Albanism in Hopi Indians Tay Sachs among Ashkenazim JewsEndogamy or marriage within the communityArnold = chinese immigrant to south africa with teeth disorder (fall out by age 20). He had 7 wives& now 356 descendents. 70 w/disorderGneghis Khan= 1 – in every 200 males living between afganistan & northeast china share his y chromAlbanism in Hopi Indians = men w/ albanism stay back to help women rather than get sunburned = more contact w/ women = more babiesTay Sachs among Ashkenazim Jews: use disorder databanks to decide not to marryEndogamy or marriage within the community
8Migration Individuals migrate and move genes from one area to another. Genetic effects of migration are reflected in current populations.Changes in allele frequency can be mapped across geographic or linguistic regionsAllele frequency differences between current populations may be correlated to historical events or cultural differences.Native American alleles started to become MIXED with European and African alleles after the arrival of Columbus in 1492.Migration may also reduce the VARIETY or frequency of alleles in the "HOME" population.
9Gene flow moves alleles from one population to another.
10A CLINE is a change in allele frequency from one population to a neighboring one. There are linguistic & geographic clues to the gene frequencies.Examples:Along the Nile : genetic variations due to language & cultural barriers in ancient neighboring kingdoms.A mountain range may create a cline.
11Genetic DriftThe "change in allele frequency that occurs when a SMALL GROUP separates from the LARGER is termed genetic drift."Genetic Drift occurs when a population becomes SUFFICIENTLY SMALL TO CHANGE THE NORMAL allele frequencies. The change in population can be the result of behavior (the AMISH) or natural disasters (the LEMURS in the movie "Dinosaurs").
12Genetic drift changes allele frequencies due to chance alone.
13FOUNDER EFFECTThe founder effect is the result of small groups leaving a population and creating new populations (if those poor lemurs in "Dinosaurs" would have started a new population, it would have suffered from the founder effect).They maintain their original small gene pool.Increases incidence of otherwise rare traits.
14Founder Effect Examples: French Canadians lack many breast cancer genesDUNKERS = physical features (attached earlobes)Amish & Mennonites (many recessive disorders)Dunkers = german immigrants emigrated to germantouwn pennsylvania. Higher incidence of features like attached earlobes, hairy middle fingers, left handedness etc.Amish - polydactyl
16POPULATION BOTTLENECKS Extreme cases of founder effect are called POPULATION BOTTLENECKS.Large population size is drastically reduced in size.Rebounds in population size occur with descendants of a limited number of survivors.After a population bottleneck occurs there are a very LIMITED NUMBER OF SOME ALLELES and a high frequency of others to pass to the next generation. This can have severe a long-lasting effects.EX: CHEETAHS (can graft skin from one to another without rejection), & EUROPEAN JEWS (Tay Sachs)
19Mutation Allele frequencies change in response to mutation. Can introduce new alleles.Can convert one allele to anotherMutation has a minor impact unless couple with another effects such as small population size
20Mutations produce the genetic variation needed for evolution.
21Natural SelectionIs the differential survival and reproduction of individuals with a particular phenotype.Natural selection may result inAn increase (positive selection) ordecrease (negative selection) in the frequency of an allele.
22Natural selection selects for traits advantageous for survival.
23In nature, populations evolve. expected in all populations most of the timerespond to changing environments
24SPECIATION KEY CONCEPT New species can arise when populations are isolated.