Presentation on theme: "Ch. 15 Notes “Changing Allele Frequencies”. Changing allele frequencies permit both LONG AND SHORT- TERM CHANGES to occur in a species/population. Gene."— Presentation transcript:
Changing allele frequencies permit both LONG AND SHORT- TERM CHANGES to occur in a species/population. Gene frequencies are affected by both NATURAL and UNNATURAL events. Natural events such as severe storms, EARTHQUAKES and DISEASES can shrink the gene pool. Unnatural events (caused by MAN) can also have immediate and lasting affects on the available genes in a population. (wars, DEFORESTATION, nuclear testing, OVER-FISHING)
Nonrandom mating Nonrandom (SELECTIVE) Mating Nonrandom mating indicated individuals of one genotype reproduce more often with each other. May be due to Ethnic or religious preferences Isolated communities Cultures in which consanguinity (marriages between relatives – cousins) is more prominent EX: The males of some bird species must make ELABORATE NESTS to lure in potential female partners.
Sexual selection selects for traits that improve mating success.
Humans choose their mates based on physical appearance, ethnic background, intelligence and shared interests. Some traits ARE RANDOMLY MIXED- MOST BLOOD TYPES are not affected by preferential mating. (Mr. Smith didn't meet Mrs. Smith by asking if they had compatible blood types.) These randomly mixed traits are often considered UNIMPORTANT or are NOT OBSERVED at all.
Examples Arnold Genghis Khan Albanism in Hopi Indians Tay Sachs among Ashkenazim Jews Endogamy or marriage within the community
Migration Individuals migrate and move genes from one area to another. Genetic effects of migration are reflected in current populations. Changes in allele frequency can be mapped across geographic or linguistic regions Allele frequency differences between current populations may be correlated to historical events or cultural differences. Native American alleles started to become MIXED with European and African alleles after the arrival of Columbus in 1492. Migration may also reduce the VARIETY or frequency of alleles in the "HOME" population.
Gene flow moves alleles from one population to another.
A CLINE is a change in allele frequency from one population to a neighboring one. There are linguistic & geographic clues to the gene frequencies. Examples: Along the Nile : genetic variations due to language & cultural barriers in ancient neighboring kingdoms. A mountain range may create a cline.
Genetic Drift The "change in allele frequency that occurs when a SMALL GROUP separates from the LARGER is termed genetic drift." Genetic Drift occurs when a population becomes SUFFICIENTLY SMALL TO CHANGE THE NORMAL allele frequencies. The change in population can be the result of behavior (the AMISH) or natural disasters (the LEMURS in the movie "Dinosaurs").
Genetic drift changes allele frequencies due to chance alone.
FOUNDER EFFECT The founder effect is the result of small groups leaving a population and creating new populations (if those poor lemurs in "Dinosaurs" would have started a new population, it would have suffered from the founder effect). They maintain their original small gene pool. Increases incidence of otherwise rare traits.
Founder Effect Examples: French Canadians lack many breast cancer genes DUNKERS = physical features (attached earlobes) Amish & Mennonites (many recessive disorders)
POPULATION BOTTLENECKS Extreme cases of founder effect are called POPULATION BOTTLENECKS. Large population size is drastically reduced in size. Rebounds in population size occur with descendants of a limited number of survivors. After a population bottleneck occurs there are a very LIMITED NUMBER OF SOME ALLELES and a high frequency of others to pass to the next generation. This can have severe a long-lasting effects. EX: CHEETAHS (can graft skin from one to another without rejection), & EUROPEAN JEWS (Tay Sachs)
Mutation Allele frequencies change in response to mutation. Can introduce new alleles. Can convert one allele to another Mutation has a minor impact unless couple with another effects such as small population size
Mutations produce the genetic variation needed for evolution.
Natural Selection Is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals with a particular phenotype. Natural selection may result in An increase (positive selection) or decrease (negative selection) in the frequency of an allele.
Natural selection selects for traits advantageous for survival.
In nature, populations evolve. –expected in all populations most of the time –respond to changing environments
SPECIATION SPECIATION KEY CONCEPT New species can arise when populations are isolated.