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The Cell. What is a Prokaryote? Prokaryote ?  NO Nucleus or membrane bound organelles.  “Pro” = “No Nucleus”  A single celled organism  DOES have.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cell. What is a Prokaryote? Prokaryote ?  NO Nucleus or membrane bound organelles.  “Pro” = “No Nucleus”  A single celled organism  DOES have."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cell

2

3 What is a Prokaryote? Prokaryote ?

4  NO Nucleus or membrane bound organelles.  “Pro” = “No Nucleus”  A single celled organism  DOES have Cell Membrane, DNA (circular type), Ribosomes, Cytoplasm, and Cilia and/or Flagella Bacteria Cytoplasm Cell Membrane

5 Eukaryote ? What is a Eukaryote?

6 All Plant, Animal, Fungi, Protista Cells!!!  Have NUCLEUS and Membrane bound organelles “Eu” = “Yes Nucleus”

7 What MUST all cells have? Things (Eukaryotes & Prokaryotes)

8 What MUST ALL cells have? (Eukaryotes & Prokaryotes) 4 Things: DNA Cytoplasm Cell Membrane Ribosomes

9 What 3 things does a Plant cell have that an Animal cell does NOT have?

10 Cell Wall Chloroplasts Large Vacuole

11 Name the 3 parts of the Cell Theory Scientists who helped develop the Cell Theory

12 List the 3 parts of the Cell Theory Cells are the basic unit of life Cells come from existing, living cells All living things are made of 1 or more cells

13 Who invented the microscope and saw the first living (live) cells in pond water and called them “wee beasties?”

14 Who invented the microscope and saw the first living cells in pond water and called them “wee beasties?” Leeuwenhoek

15 Who saw cork and named the chambers “Cells”?

16 Hooke Sounds like cork (kind of)

17 What did Schwann say? What did Schlieden say?

18 What did Schwann say? What did Schleiden say? Schwann claimed that all animals are made of cells. Think: Schwann sounds like Swan the animal Schleiden claimed that all plants are made of cells. Think: Schlidin’ down the vine and vines are plants

19 Who claimed that all cells must come from existing cells? Hint: Cows come from cows Cells come from cells

20 Who claimed that all cells must come from existing cells (reproduce)? Way to Remember: Cows come from cows Cells come from cells

21 Who did this experiment and believed in biogenesis?

22 Redi - Biogenesis

23 Who did this experiment and believed in abiogenesis?

24 Who did this experiment and did he believe in biogenesis or abiogenesis? Needham – Abiogenesis (He needed more information on how to do a good experiment)

25 Who did this experiment and believed in biogenesis?

26 Pasteur - Biogenesis Who did this experiment and believed in biogenesis?

27

28 The cell’s FUNCTION!

29 What are the four levels of cell organization starting from the smallest to largest?

30 What are the four levels of cell organization starting from the cell?

31 ___________ is when cells perform a specific function for an organism. Give at 3 least examples

32 Red blood cells blood cells Nerve cells Cell Specialization is when cells perform a specific function for an organism. Give at 3 least examples

33 What is the semi-permeable, phospholipid bilayer that regulates what goes in and out of a cell?

34 Cell Membrane

35

36 Cell Wall

37 What 3 things pass through the cell membrane or cell wall easily?

38 Carbon Dioxide- Diffusion Oxygen - Diffusion H2O- Osmosis

39 What is located in the cell membrane to selectively allow things into and out of the cell?

40 Proteins & Protein Channels

41 What is the jelly-like substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus? ?

42 Cytoplasm

43 What is the control center of the cell?

44 What is the control center of the cell (brain)? NUCLEUS

45 What is the organelle that is inside the nucleus and makes ribosomes?

46 Nucleolus What is the organelle that is inside the nucleus and makes ribosomes?

47 What covers the outside of the nucleus and what are the holes called to allow ribosomes and RNA out?

48 Nuclear Membrane (Nuclear Envelope) and Nuclear Pores

49 What is the genetic material that is inside the nucleus called when it is threadlike? What is the genetic material inside the nucleus called when it has condensed and preparing for cell division?

50 What is the genetic material that is inside the nucleus called when it is threadlike? Chromatin (Hint: looks like spaghetti) What is the genetic material inside the nucleus called when it has condensed and preparing for cell division? Chromosome

51 What is the powerhouse of the cell?

52 Mitochondria What is the powerhouse of the cell?

53 What makes proteins for the cell? Hint: ??????

54 What makes proteins for the cell? Hint: RIBOSOMES

55 What is used for photosynthesis in the plant cell?

56 Chloroplasts What is used for photosynthesis in the plant cell?

57 What are chloroplasts, leukoplasts, and chromoplasts called?

58 Plastids

59 What is the large sac in a plant cell (holds water) and small sac in an animal (used for storage) called?

60

61 What digests food and gets rid of unwanted things in a cell? ?????????

62 What digests food and gets rid of unwanted things in a cell?

63 ______________is a folded membrane and transports materials throughout the cell.

64 Transportation of Proteins Transportation of Lipids & Carbs ______________is a folded membrane and transports materials throughout the cell.

65 ____________ is used in packaging and transport out of cell? Hint: Think of sending a gold necklace to your friend through the mail.

66 Golgi Bodies or Golgi Apparatus ____________ is used in packaging and transport out of cell? Hint: Think of sending a gold necklace to your friend through the mail.

67 What are the microtubules covering the cell like hair used for movement? What are the microtubules that are whip-like and used for movement?

68 What are the microtubules covering the cell like hair used for movement? What are the microtubules that are whip-like and used for movement? Cilia Flagella

69 The movement of any molecule from HIGH → LOW concentration is called ________?________

70 The movement of any molecule from HIGH → LOW concentration is called Diffusion

71 Movement of water across the membrane from High to Low is called ________.

72 Movement of water across the membrane from High to Low is called Osmosis.

73 What is movement of high to low concentration that needs a protein but DOES NOT need energy?

74 Facilitated Diffusion What is movement of high to low concentration that needs a protein but DOES NOT need energy?

75 What is movement of high to low concentration that needs a protein and needs energy?

76 ACTIVE TRANSPORT What is movement of high to low concentration that needs a protein and needs energy?

77 __________________ is when a large food particle is moved into the cell.

78 ___Endocytosis________ is when a large food particle is moved into the cell.

79 __________________ is when a large particle is moved out of the cell.

80 ___Exocytosis_________ is when a large particle is moved out of the cell.

81 Endocytosis and Exocytosis (moving big particles in or out of the cell) is also called _______ ________.

82 Bulk Transport

83 When the solute concentration inside and outside of the cell is equal. This is called______ and the cell (shrinks, swells, or stays the same)?

84 Isotonic Cell stays the same When the solute concentration inside and outside of the cell is equal. This is called______ and the cell (shrinks, swells, or stays the same)?

85 When the solute concentration outside the cell is higher than inside the cell it is called______ and the cell shrinks, swells, or stays the same?

86 Hypertonic Cell shrinks

87 When the solute concentration inside the cell is higher than outside the cell it is called______ and the cell shrinks, swells, or stays the same?

88 Hypotonic Cell Swells and could Burst

89 What happens to the cell in this situation? Where does water move in this situation? 75% H2O 93% H2O

90 What happens to the cell in this situation? Cell Shrinks Where does water move in this situation? Water moves out 75% H2O 25% Solute 93% H2O 7% Solute Water goes out You need to understand what happens when given water concentrations instead of solute concentrations. Hypertonic Solution

91 Name the 2 reasons cells cannot be the size of a basketball. Red Blood Cell

92 Name the 3 reasons cells cannot be the size of a basketball. 1.Geometry: Volume increases faster than surface area which makes it hard for membrane to keep up with needs of the cell 2.Practical aspects: Nucleus can’t handle that big of a job.

93 Be able to identify which organelles belong to Plant, Animal, or Prokaryotic Cells ! ORGANELLEPLANTANIMALProkaryote Cell WallYesNoYes Cell MembraneYes NucleusYes No Nuclear Membrane Yes No CytoplasmYes Endoplasmic Reticulum Yes No RibosomeYes MitochondriaYes No LysosomeNo (uncommon)YesNo ChloroplastYesNo VacuoleYes (Large)Rare- very smallNo Golgi apparatusYes No CiliaNo Yes

94 Be able to identify the organelles in plant and animal cells from various pictures in our notes and Trade & Grade review!!!!

95 Understand the diffusion lab that we conducted in class. Iodine diffuses into bag because iodine is smaller than bag pores and stains starch black Starch too big to diffuse through bag pores so it stays in bag. You know this by the iodine/water in the cup not turning black. Water


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