2Who was Thurgood Marshall? African- American lawyer who led the challenge against segregation in Brown v. Board of Education.1st African American Supreme Court Justice
3What was Brown v. Board of Education? A Supreme Court case in which segregated schools were ruled unconstitutional.Overturned Plessy v. FergusonLed to whites entering private schools and massive resistance from whites.
4What happened at Little Rock High School? 9 African American students desegregated Little Rock High School.Eisenhower had to bring in troops to enforce the Brown v. Board of Education decision.
5Who was Rosa Parks? Woman who started the Montgomery Bus Boycott Sparked the Civil Rights MovementSong: Sister Rosa by the Neville Brothers
6What was the SCLC?Formed in 1957 by ministers and civil rights leaders.Called the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.Led by Martin Luther King Jr.
7What was SNCC?Known was the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.Formed by mostly college studentsLed sit-ins and peaceful protests.
8What were sit-ins?Protest tactic in which blacks occupied whites-only seats at lunch counters.1st sit-in was in Greensboro, North Carolina (February 1960)
9Who were the freedom riders? Name for Civil Rights activists who tried to end segregation on national buses.Many times the freedom riders were harassed, fire bombed, or beaten.
10Who was James Meredith?First African American to enroll in the all-white University of Mississippi.Kennedy sent in U.S. marshals to allow Meredith to attend school.
11Song: We Shall Overcome Song that represented the struggles of the Civil Rights MovementHad been sung in African American churches as early as 1900.Lyndon B. Johnson used the phrase “We Shall Overcome” in a Civil Rights Address to Congress.
12Song: This Little Light of Mine A Negro spiritual that became a Civil Rights anthem in the 1950’s and 1960’s.Has become a very popular children’s song over the years.
13Song: A Change is Gonna Come by Sam Cooke Written in 1963 and released in late 1964 after Cooke’s tragic death.Song was inspired by an incident Cooke and his band tried to register at a "whites only" motel in Shreveport, Louisiana and were summarily arrested for disturbing the peace.Key song of the Civil Rights Movement.
14Black Power MovementBlack Panther Party- founded in Oakland, California by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Other key leader was Stokely Carmichael.Demanded respect and would not turn the other cheek.Controversial group that was investigated by the federal government.
151968 OlympicsTommie Smith won the gold and John Carlos won the bronze in the 200 meters.Received the medals shoeless and with black socks to represent black poverty.Wore beads to represent those killed in the Middle Passage and by lynching.Carlos forgot his gloves so Smith gave him one to wear on his left hand for the salute during the national anthem.Both athletes were sent home and treated terribly until recently.
16Song: Say It Loud I’m Black and I’m Proud by James Brown Recorded in 1968 by James Brown.Black power movement songTalks about prejudice towards blacks and black empowermentSong was recorded in LA and background was sung by mostly White and Asian children.
17Speech: I Have a Dream Given on August 28, 1963 Part of the March on Washington to gain support for JFK’s Civil Rights Bill.What is the dream?As a nation, are we all living the dream?
18Song: Let Freedom Ring (Hip Hop) Brown v. Board of Education- overturns Plessy v. FergusonRosa Parks- sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott of December 1955.Civil Rights Bill of Part of LBJ’s Great Society, outlawed segregation in public places.
19Song: Let Freedom Ring (Hip Hop) Voting Rights Act of outlawed literacy tests. Provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible minority voters registered. Extended by George W. Bush in 2006.
21Watts Riots (1965)Protest turned into rioting after an African-American was pulled over by cops.Escalated into rioting and the National Guard was called in.Lasted 6 days, 34 people killed, 1,000 injured and 100 million dollars of damage.Riots also in Northern cities like Detroit and Newark.
22What was the Kerner Commission? In 1968, issued a study on the cause of urban violence.The main cause of urban violence in the cities was white racism.Does this still hold true today?
23What was the Civil Rights Act of 1968? This law banned discrimination in housing.Are their examples today where discrimination has occurred in housing?
24What is affirmative action? Program that began in the late 1960’s to make special efforts to hire or enroll minorities.Why is this policy controversial?
25Medgar EversAfrican-American Civil Rights Activist from Mississippi was assassinated by a white supremacist in 1963.Byron De La Beckwith was finally convicted of murder in 1994.
26John F. Kennedy President of the United States from 1961-1963 Bays of Pigs-failed attempt to overthrow CastroCuban Missile CrisisAmericans embraced his optimism for a better future.Assassinated in Dallas, Texas by Lee Harvey Oswald in November 1963.
27Malcolm X Spokesperson for Nation of Islam. Left Nation of Islam in 1964 and advocated political and economic black nationalism.Disagreed with Martin Luther King Jr. philosophy of passive resistance.Assassinated by members of the Nation of Islam in 1965.Speech: Malcolm X video
28Martin Luther King Jr. Leader of the American Civil Rights Movement Led non-violent protests and passive resistance (like Gandhi in India)Assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968 by James Earl Ray.
29Robert F. Kennedy Brother of JFK and Attorney General under JFK. Ran for the Democratic Nomination for President in 1968.Assassinated in a California Hotel by Sirhan B. Sirhan because of RFK’s support of Israel in the Six Day War.
30In the Ghetto by Elvis Presley Made popular by Elvis Presley in 1969.Calling public attention to life in the inner cities.Culture of poverty and cycle of violence.How have things changed or have they stayed the same?
31Fast Car by Tracy Chapman Recorded in 1988.Song about the cycle of poverty and how it is so hard to break.What does the fast car represent?What is the singer’s definition of the American dream?
32Essay AssignmentWrite a 1-2 page essay on your idea of the American Dream. Include the following:- Define the American Dream.- What does it take to achieve the American Dream?- What roadblocks are in the way of the American Dream?- Why are many Americans not living the dream?