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XII ENANCIB, Brasilia, October 23, 2011 XII ENANCIB, Brasília, 23 de outubro de 2011 © Copyright Dr. Chaim Zins, Jerusalem, 2011. All rights reserved Permission.

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Presentation on theme: "XII ENANCIB, Brasilia, October 23, 2011 XII ENANCIB, Brasília, 23 de outubro de 2011 © Copyright Dr. Chaim Zins, Jerusalem, 2011. All rights reserved Permission."— Presentation transcript:

1 XII ENANCIB, Brasilia, October 23, 2011 XII ENANCIB, Brasília, 23 de outubro de 2011 © Copyright Dr. Chaim Zins, Jerusalem, All rights reserved Permission granted to use only for activities directly related to Chaim Zins’ visit in Brazil in 10/ Photographs and illustrations are copyright protected by their respective owners. To the best of my knowledge I have the right to use the images for this presentation, and is considered a fair use. If you have any questions or claims regarding copyright issues, please contact me in person and we will sort it out. Chaim Zins, Ph.D / / Tel:

2 1 The Wanderer above the Mist, Caspar David Friedrich ; Kunsthalle Hamburg, Hamburg FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS Dear Friends, I invite you to join me on an intellectual journey aimed at mapping human knowledge. Prolog

3 2 Human knowledge is growing as we invent new technologies, improve scientific methods, and conquer new worlds. Prolog Astronaut in Space, 1984, Courtesy of NASA FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

4 3 Prolog The Copernican model, the Harmonia Macrocosmica by Andreas Cellarius, FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS Yet we want to see "the whole picture" and the logical relations among the main fields.

5 4 Prolog On our journey we will map human knowledge, define basic concepts that underlie science and culture, and look at the core fields of contemporary knowledge. Cabinet of Curiosities, Domenico Remps, ca. 1690, Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Florence. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

6 5 "Knowledge" is a common word. We intuitively use it in daily life. We discover and create, communicate and receive, store and retrieve, use and abuse knowledge. Human Knowledge / Conhecimento Humano The School of Athens (detail), Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino), ; Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

7 6 We focus on propositional knowledge. Propositional knowledge is the content of what we know. It expressed in sentences (propositions). For example, "It is stormy weather," or "The boat might sink." Christ in the Storm on the Sea of Galilee, Rembrandt van Rijn, 1633; Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston (stolen in 1990). FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS Human Knowledge / Conhecimento Humano

8 7 Propositional knowledge is the basis of academic literature. Every publication is composed of sets of arguments. It starts with opening propositions and ends with final conclusions. Human Knowledge / Conhecimento Humano The Writing Master, Thomas Eakins, 1882; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS.

9 8 Propositional knowledge is the basis of academic disciplines. An academic discipline is the product of social construction. It is grounded in fundamental publications and is developed layer upon layer until it reaches its most recent state of the art. Human Knowledge / Conhecimento Humano The Writing Master, Thomas Eakins, 1882; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS.

10 9 Propositional knowledge has two faces, internal (subjective) and external (universal). It is a thought in the mind of the knowing person (subject), and it is an independent object published in book and digital libraries, and accessible to all. Human Knowledge / Conhecimento Humano The Librarian, Giuseppe Arcimboldo, 1566; Skokloster Castle, Stockholm. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS.

11 10 Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) (detail), Leonardo da Vinci, ; Musée du Louvre, Paris FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS. Subjective knowledge can be private or public. Private knowledge is the individual's intimate thoughts that one keeps to oneself. Human Knowledge / Conhecimento Humano

12 11 Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) (detail), Leonardo da Vinci, ; Musée du Louvre, Paris FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS. Public knowledge is thoughts that the individual believes are known to other people as well, for example, "2+2=4,“ and "The Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci." Human Knowledge / Conhecimento Humano

13 12 Still, what is knowledge? Knowledge is a justified true belief. This classical definition was presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in the dialogue Theaetetus, and is generally accepted. Human Knowledge / Conhecimento Humano The Greek philosopher Plato in the School of Athens (detail), Raphael Sanzio, 1511; Vatican. Note that the image is of Leonardo da Vinci. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

14 13 Subjective knowledge is a thought that the knowing person justifiably believes is true. When this thought is expressed and documented it becomes universal. Universal knowledge mirrors subjective knowledge. Human Knowledge / Conhecimento Humano Louis Pasteur in his laboratory, Albert Edelfelt, 1885; Musée d'Orsay, Paris FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

15 14 The knowing person is certain that his thought is true, but he might be wrong. We are exposed to misinformation, manipulation, and illusions. Maybe we are dreaming while we are thinking that we know. Human knowledge is imperfect. Human Knowledge / Conhecimento Humano Landscape with the Dream of Jacob, Michael Lukas Leopold Willmann, ~1691Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (Gemäldegalerie), Berlin FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

16 15 Propositions differ from their meanings. Universal knowledge is the meaning that is represented by the written and spoken propositions. Human Knowledge / Conhecimento Humano Open Book, Scuola Tedesca, ca. 16 th century; Uffizi Gallery, Florence. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

17 16 Since we cannot perceive with our senses the meaning itself, it is more useful to relate to the visible propositions that represent it. Human Knowledge / Conhecimento Humano Open Book, Scuola Tedesca, ca. 16 th century; Uffizi Gallery, Florence. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

18 17 Human knowledge is embodied in the collection of books stored in the reader's library. But only the meaning formulated in his mind brings it to life again. Human Knowledge / Conhecimento Humano The Bookworm by Carl Spitzweg, 1850; Museum Georg Schäfer, Schweinfurt, Germany. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

19 18 Metaphorically, human knowledge is embodied in the collection of all publications stored in libraries worldwide: all types of libraries, physical and digital, public and private, well known and secret. Human Knowledge / Conhecimento Humano Biblioteca Nacional do Brasil, 2007 FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS.

20 19 Cognitive knowledge shape the way see the world and act in it. Published maps affect our cognitive maps and thus affect the way we learn and use knowledge. World map, Gerard van Schagen, Amsterdam 1689 FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS. Knowledge Maps / Mapas do Conhecimento

21 20 Knowledge maps are published in scientific books, textbooks, encyclopedias, educational posters, geographical maps, historical timelines, family trees, library classification systems, and the like. Knowledge maps map all fields of knowledge. World map, Gerard van Schagen, Amsterdam 1689 FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS. Knowledge Maps / Mapas do Conhecimento

22 21 This conception of the Milky Way is an exemplary knowledge map in astronomy. Knowledge Mapping / Mapas do Conhecimento The Milky Way Galaxy, an artist conception, NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt, FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

23 22 The Periodic table of the chemical elements is an example of a scientific knowledge map in chemistry. It was formulated by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, and has been revised over time, as new elements have been discovered, and new theoretical models have been developed. Knowledge Mapping / Mapas do Conhecimento The Periodic table of the chemical elements; inventor: Dmitri Mendeleev, 1869 FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS.

24 23 This modern phylogenetic tree of life is an exemplary knowledge map in evolutionary biology. It shows the relationship among species. Knowledge Mapping / Mapas do Conhecimento A phylogenetic tree of life, Author: Ivica Letunic, [The tree shows the relationship between species whose genomes have been mapped by humans. The very center represents the last universal ancestor of all life on earth. The different colors represent the three domains of life: pink represents eukaryota (animals and plants); blue represents bacteria; and green represents archaea. Note the presence of homo sapiens (humans) second from the rightmost edge of the pink segment. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

25 24 Blind Monks Examining an Elephant is a notable parable. It tells of a group of blind monks who examine an elephant. Each monk reaches a different conclusion based on which part of the elephant he has examined. They then compare their findings, and learn that they totally disagree on the shape and nature of elephants. Knowledge Mapping / Mapas do Conhecimento Blind monks examining an elephant“, Itcho Hanabusa, 1888; Library of Congress FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS.

26 25 Human knowledge – like elephants – can be viewed from different perspectives. Very often what seems the absolute truth is incomplete and deceptive. Knowledge Mapping / Mapas do Conhecimento Blind monks examining an elephant“, Itcho Hanabusa, 1888; Library of Congress FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS.

27 26 Knowledge Mapping / Mapas do Conhecimento We need a systematic map that meets 3 conditions: Exclusivity. (1) Exclusivity. The categories are mutually exclusive (meaning, they do not overlap). Exhaustiveness (2) Exhaustiveness. The categories are collectively exhaustive (meaning, together they include all the relevant categories). Adequacy (3) Adequacy. The map can represent all the relevant fields without exception (meaning, every field can be placed in at least one category). 10 Pillars of Knowledge meets the 3 conditions. Bookshelves, Giuseppe Maria Crespi, 1725; Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicale, Bologna FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

28 27 Knowledge Mapping / Mapas do Conhecimento There are different models for mapping knowledge. They differ in their structures and contents. They differ in their impacts on our cognitive maps. They differ by their rationales. A systematic map has to meet the 3 conditions: its categories are (1) mutually exclusive, (2) collectively exhaustive, and (3) adequate. 10 Pillars of Knowledge meets the 3 conditions. Bookshelves, Giuseppe Maria Crespi, 1725; Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicale, Bologna FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

29 28 10 Pillars of Knowledge: Map of Human Knowledge; Chaim Zins, Scientific poster, Pillars of Knowledge is a hierarchical, systematic and comprehensive map of human knowledge. 10 Pilares do Conhecimento Princípios

30 29 10 Pillars of Knowledge: Map of Human Knowledge; Chaim Zins, Scientific poster, The 10-pillar structure maps 200 core fields (e.g., medicine) that embody 600 main fields (e.g., surgery) that embody 2000 fields (e.g., neurosurgery). The 2000 fields were extracted from nearly 10,000 terms that were drawn from diversified resources, among them websites of national academies of sciences, notable universities, library classification schemes, and encyclopedias. 10 Pilares do Conhecimento Princípios

31 30 The 200 fields are set in 10 groups. The grouping is based on the common general phenomenon that each group explores: foundations, supernatural, matter and energy, space and earth, non-human organisms, body and mind, society, thought and art, technology, and history. 10 Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

32 31 The 10 pillars are organized into four groups, which explore four super-phenomena: knowledge (pillar 1), supernatural (pillar 2), universe (pillars ), and humans (pillars ). Knowledge Supernatural Universe Humans 10 Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

33 32 On top of the intersection between the universe and humans a fifth super-phenomenon emerges, the living world (pillars 5-6). Living World Knowledge Supernatural Universe Humans 10 Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

34 33 The order of the 10 pillars makes it possible to represent the religious approach, which separates apes and humans, and the scientific approach, which treats both of them as part of the living world. Living World Knowledge Supernatural Universe Humans 10 Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

35 34 10 Pillars is a hierarchical system. The 10 pillars are the first-level categories of the hierarchical structure. They are divided into main sub-categories that are divided into sub-categories. Technology 1. Theory 2. Professions 3. Technologies 3.1 Sciences 3.2 Needs & Activities 3.3 Materials 3.4 Processes Space & Earth 1. Theory 2. Space 3. Earth 3.1 Surface & Substance 3.2 InterrelationsSupernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheist 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic 10 Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

36 35 Metaknowledge – subject-based knowledge Human knowledge follows a metaknowledge – subject-based knowledge structure implemented on the map level, the pillar level, and the field level. 10 Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

37 36 Metaknowledge is knowledge about the body of knowledge itself. Subject-based knowledge is knowledge about the explored phenomena. 10 Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

38 37 On the map level, pillar 1 represents the metaknowledge of human knowledge. Pillars 2 – 10 represent the subject-based knowledge of human knowledge. 10 Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

39 38 The grouping of the phenomena that are subject to human exploration into three super-phenomena (supernatural, universe, and humans) is based on the distinction among God, the world, and man that goes back to Greek philosophy. Images: (1) I The Creation of Adam, Michelangelo, (2) Geocentric Universe (the Copernican Model), Andreas Cellarius, (3) The Vitruvian Man, Leonardo da Vinci, Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

40 39 The addition of the living world super-phenomenon arises from modern biology; especially the theory of evolution. Images: (1) I The Creation of Adam, Michelangelo, (2) Geocentric Universe (the Copernican Model), Andreas Cellarius, (3) The Vitruvian Man, Leonardo da Vinci, Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

41 40 Theory – embodiment Human knowledge follows a theory – embodiment structure. It is implemented on the map level, the pillar level, and the field level. 10 Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

42 41 On the map level, pillar 1 is the "theory" part of human knowledge, and pillars 2 – 10 are the "embodiment" part. 10 Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

43 42 On the pillar level, the first category, theory, is the "theoretical" part of the pillar, which presents fields that focus on general theoretical issues of the explored phenomena. 10 Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

44 43 The other categories embody our knowledge of the explored phenomena. 10 Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

45 44 On the field level, the "theory" part is implemented in the theory of the field. In the example of medicine, it is philosophy of medicine. Philosophy of Medicine Internal MedicinePediatricsSurgery Images: (1) Greek Physician treating a patient, ca BC; Louvre Museum, Paris; (2) Self-Portrait with Doctor Arrieta (detail), Francisco Goya, 1820, Minneapolis Institute of Arts; (3) The Sick Child, Gabriel Metsu, 1660; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. (4) The Agnew Clinic, Thomas Eakins, Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

46 45 The other parts embody our knowledge of the explored phenomena. In the example of medicine, these are internal medicine, pediatrics, and surgery. Philosophy of Medicine Internal MedicinePediatricsSurgery Images: (1) Greek Physician treating a patient, ca BC; Louvre Museum, Paris; (2) Self-Portrait with Doctor Arrieta (detail), Francisco Goya, 1820, Minneapolis Institute of Arts; (3) The Sick Child, Gabriel Metsu, 1660; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. (4) The Agnew Clinic, Thomas Eakins, Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

47 46 Distinction between categories and fields The fields are not part of the hierarchical structure. The distinction between categories and fields is essential. It is a central paradigm shift – "the Copernican Revolution" – of knowledge mapping. 10 Pilares do Conhecimento Princípios Space & Earth 1. Theory - Cosmological Theory 2. Space - Astronomy 3. Earth 3.1 Surface & Substance - Physical Geography - Geology 3.2 Interrelations - Agriculture - Environmental Sciences - Natural Hazards

48 47 10 Pillars is valid and adequate since every field can be placed in at least one category. 10 Pilares do Conhecimento Princípios Space & Earth 1. Theory - Cosmological Theory 2. Space - Astronomy 3. Earth 3.1 Surface & Substance - Physical Geography - Geology 3.2 Interrelations - Agriculture - Environmental Sciences - Natural Hazards

49 48 Imagine that the map mirrors a library. In the Library of Human Knowledge the pillars are bookcases, the categories are shelves, and the fields are books. 10 Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

50 49 The Library of Human Knowledge is composed of 10 bookcases that are divided into shelves, which store an impressive collection of books that establish our cultural and scientific heritage. We continue our journey by zooming into the ten pillars. 10 Pilares do Conhecimento: Princípios

51 50 Pillar 1 studies the foundations of human knowledge. It is composed of four categories: theory, context, methodology, and mediation. Diderot and D'Alembert's Encyclopédie, Marie-Lan Nguyen, 2010, CC BY-SA 2.0 Pillar 1: Foundations / Pilar 1: Fundamentos Foundations 1. Theory 2. Context 3. Methodology 4. Mediation FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

52 51 Pillar 1: Foundations / Pilar 1: Fundamentos 1.1 Theory Theory is focused on the philosophical basis of knowledge and science. It contains two fields: philosophy of knowledge (epistemology), and philosophy of science. Plato, copy of portrait bust by Silanion, ca 370 BC; Capitoline Museums, RomePhotographer Marie-Lan Nguyen, 2009, CC BY-SA 2.5 Foundations 1. Theory 2. Context 3. Methodology 4. Mediation FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

53 52 Science in the broadest sense refers to all fields. It is any body of knowledge achieved by systematic and justifiable methods. Science in the narrowest sense refers to natural and life sciences. It is any body of knowledge that explores the physical phenomena, and is achieved by impartial empirical observation and systematic experimentation. Bust of Aristotle. Marble, Roman copy of a Greek bronze by Lysippos from 330 BC (the alabaster mantle is a modern addition); National Museum of Rome, Palazzo Altemps, Rome. Pillar 1: Foundations / Pilar 1: Fundamentos Foundations 1. Theory 2. Context 3. Methodology 4. Mediation FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

54 Context The context category studies the historical and sociological perspectives of knowledge. It has two fields: history of science and sociology of knowledge. Science is progressive. It has been developed layer upon layer till reaching its current state. Pillar 1: Foundations / Pilar 1: Fundamentos Foundations 1. Theory 2. Context 3. Methodology 4. Mediation Galileo Galilei, Justus Sustermans, 1636, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

55 54 Science is affected by social conditions. Scientists live and work in specific societies and are bound by social limitations. They rely on research grants. Their publications and academic promotion depend on peer review. They are connected in social networks that affect their scientific ideologies. Pillar 1: Foundations / Pilar 1: Fundamentos Marie Skłodowska-Curie Nobel Prize Diploma in chemistry, 1911 Foundations 1. Theory 2. Context 3. Methodology 4. Mediation

56 Methodology Scientific exploration depends on reliable and valid scientific research methodologies. Methodology has one field, methodology of science, which seeks to improve and develop reliable and valid research methodologies in all fields. The Geographer, Johannes Vermeer, ; Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt. Pillar 1: Foundations / Pilar 1: Fundamentos Foundations 1. Theory 2. Context 3. Methodology 4. Mediation FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

57 Mediation We live in the Information age. We widely use information resources and need efficient ways to connect resources and users. Information science is placed in this category. It studies the mediating aspects of knowledge. The library at Château de Chantilly Château de Chantilly, Tango7174, 2008 CC BY-AS 3.0 Pillar 1: Foundations / Pilar 1: Fundamentos Foundations 1. Theory 2. Context 3. Methodology 4. Mediation FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

58 57 Museology (museum studies) studies the organization and management of exhibitions and museums of all kinds. Design for the Grande Galerie in the Louvre, Hubert Robert, 1796; Musée du Louvre, Paris. Pillar 1: Foundations / Pilar 1: Fundamentos Foundations 1. Theory 2. Context 3. Methodology 4. Mediation FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

59 58 We encounter the supernatural in everyday life while we see the birth of a child, face the sudden death of a friend, witness the devastating power of nature, and stare at the sky on dark nights. The quest for the supernatural arises from the limitations of reason. The Creation of Adam, Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1511; the Sistine Chapel ceiling, Vatican Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

60 59 We are curious to understand the "main events," and eager to answer the "big questions of life." The supernatural is embodied in the "main events" and in "the details." “The supernatural” is any “thing” that is beyond the empirical visible universe. The Creation of Adam, Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1511; the Sistine Chapel ceiling, Vatican Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

61 60 White Rose, an illustration by Gustave Doré, 1892, to the Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri (ca ). Pillar 2 studies the supernatural phenomena. Pillar 2 is composed of theory, mysticism, and religions. Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

62 Theory Theory studies the philosophical, religious, cultural, sociological, psychological, and historical aspects of the supernatural phenomena Pieta, Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1499; Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican, Stanislav Traykov, 2008, CC BY-AS 3.0 Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural Supernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheism 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

63 62 It is composed of religious studies; an academic field of multidisciplinary, secular study of religious beliefs, practices, and institutions. Pieta, Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1499; Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican, Stanislav Traykov, 2008, CC BY-AS 3.0 Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural Supernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheism 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

64 Mysticism Mysticism studies the mystic phenomena. The term “mysticism” refers to beliefs and practices that ascribe meaning, power and qualities, which cannot be explained by empirical scientific exploration, to supernatural phenomena, natural objects, and human activities. Zodiac Mosaic, 6 th century, Beit Alpha Synagogue, Israel, courtesy of NASA. Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural Supernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheism 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

65 64 Praying Hands (Study of an Apostle's Hands), Albrecht Dürer, ca. 1508, Graphische Sammlung, Albertina, Vienna. Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural Supernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheism 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic 2.3 Religions The term “religion” has diverse definitions but the established religions have common characteristics: FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

66 65 Religions are systems of beliefs and practices. They shape the believers’ life stance by ground their binding power on the supernatural, generally through authoritative leaders and scriptures. Still life with bible, Van Gogh, 1885, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural Supernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheism 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

67 66 The religious experience can be entirely intimate: the intimate relations of a person with God through meditation and contemplation, or as a cry for help in times of deeply emotional stress. In many cases the religious experience is organized by religious establishments. People join in collective activities and identify with the community that shares the same religious beliefs. First Mass in Brazil, Victor Meirelles, 1860, Museu Nacional de Belas Artes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural Supernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheism 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

68 67 Moses, Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1515; San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome. Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural Supernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheism 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic Religions differ from humanistic philosophies in the source of their authoritativeness. While a humanistic life stance is based on human reason and emotion, a religious life stance is grounded in the supernatural (God). FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

69 68 Religions strive to shape the believers’ life stance. Religious life tends to be total. Nevertheless, religious people differ in the intensity of their piety and commitment. Sacrifice of Isaac, Rembrandt van Rijn, 1635; Hermitage, St. Petersburg Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural Supernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheism 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

70 69 Pope John Paul II pray and inserting a prayer into the Western Wall in Jerusalem, Photographer: Avi Ohayon, National Photo Collection, Israel Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural Supernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheism 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic Throughout history religion has been the main cause of human conflict and hatred. Anti-Semitism (hatred of Jews) is a typical example of religion-based hatred. In March 2000 Pope John Paul II visited the Holy Land (Israel). During his visit he paid tribute to the Jewish people and prayed at the Western Wall in Jerusalem for reconciliation with the Jewish people: FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

71 70 Religious symbols (from left to right): Bahism, Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, Shinto, Sikhism, Taoism, Zoroastrianism. Religions explores the world religions and spiritual systems. On our voyage we are focused on major and exemplary religions. Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural Supernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheism 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic

72 Ancient The ancient sub-category is composed of religions practiced in the past; among them are Mesopotamian mythology, Egyptian mythology, and Greek and Roman mythology. Tuthankamen's burial mask, the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Bjørn Christian Tørrissen, 2003, CC BY-AS 3.0 Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural Supernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheism 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

73 Monotheism The sub-category is composed of the three major historic monotheist religions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam that are based on the belief in one God. Ancient of Days, William Blake, 1794; British Museum, London.. Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural Supernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheism 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

74 Asian The Asian sub-category encompasses religions originated in Asia. Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, and Sikhism originated in India. Confucianism and Taoism originated in China. Shinto originated in Japan. Bahaism and Zoroastrianism originated in Persia (Iran). Kala, a mythical creature, at the Banteay Srei Hindu temple in Angkor Cambodia. Photographer: Manfred Werner, 2001, CC BY-AS 3.0 Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural Supernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheism 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

75 Modern The modern sub-category is focused on new religions, cults, and spiritual movements; among them Cao Dai, New Age, and Scientology. Cao Dai temple outside Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Simon Gurney, 2004, CC BY-AS 3.0 Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural Supernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheism 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

76 Ethnic The ethnic sub-category represents ethnically based religions, among them Shamanism and Voodoo. Shaman from an equatorial Amazonian forest, Brazil, Veton PICQ, 2006, CC BY-AS 3.0. Pillar 2: Supernatural / Pilar 2: Supernatural Supernatural 1. Theory 2. Mysticism 3. Religions 3.1 Ancient 3.2 Monotheism 3.3 Asian 3.4 Modern 3.5 Ethnic FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

77 76 Pillar 3 explores the basics of the physical universe. It is divided into three categories: theory, principles, and substances. The Sun. courtesy of NASA. Pillar 3: Matter and Energy / Pilar 3: Matéria e Energia Matter & Energy 1. Theory 2. Principles 3. Substances FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

78 Theory Theory has two interrelated and partially overlapping fields: philosophy of physics and philosophy of space and time. Frontispiece of Eléments de la philosophie de Newton (Elements of Newton's Philosophy), Voltaire and Émilie du Châtelet, 1738 Pillar 3: Matter and Energy / Pilar 3: Matéria e Energia Matter & Energy 1. Theory 2. Principles 3. Substances FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

79 78 Philosophy of physics explores the philosophical aspects of the physical universe and establishes the scientific foundations of modern physics. Frontispiece of Eléments de la philosophie de Newton (Elements of Newton's Philosophy), Voltaire and Émilie du Châtelet, 1738 Pillar 3: Matter and Energy / Pilar 3: Matéria e Energia Matter & Energy 1. Theory 2. Principles 3. Substances FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

80 79 The flow of sand in an hourglass demonstrates the elapsed time. The present is constantly changing and illusive. It is the intermediate state between the future – the sand in the upper chamber – and the past – the sand in the lower chamber. Matter & Energy 1. Theory 2. Principles 3. Substances Pillar 3: Matter and Energy / Pilar 3: Matéria e Energia An hourglass. Photograph: S. Sepp, 2007, CC BY-AS 3.0 FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

81 Principles Principles deals with the principles and laws of the physical universe. Currently it represents a major discipline, physics. The goal of physics is to discover and formulate the principles and laws that govern the material universe and explain the faces of the physical phenomena. The Einstein's famous equation, E=mc 2, on the background of the image of the sun, NASA. Matter & Energy 1. Theory 2. Principles 3. Substances Pillar 3: Matter and Energy / Pilar 3: Matéria e Energia FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

82 Substances Substances is focused on the substances of the physical universe. It represents chemistry. The Periodic Table on the background of the image of the sun, NASA. Matter & Energy 1. Theory 2. Principles 3. Substances Pillar 3: Matter and Energy / Pilar 3: Matéria e Energia FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

83 82 Solar System Montage, NASA, Pillar 4: Space and Earth / Pilar 4: Espaço e da Terra The outer space and the earth are represented in pillar 4, space and earth, which is divided into three main categories: theory, space, and earth. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

84 Theory What is the nature and origin of the physical universe? The theory category is focused on these questions. It includes the field of cosmological theory. Pillar 4: Space and Earth / Pilar 4: Espaço e da Terra Space & Earth 1. Theory 2. Space 3. Earth 3.1 Surface & Substance 3.2 Interrelations Artist's view of a star birth in the Lynx Arc (NASA, ESA, and Robert A. E. Fosbury). FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

85 84 Cosmological theory aimed at providing an overall explanation of the nature and origin of the physical universe based on scientific theories and evidence. Pillar 4: Space and Earth / Pilar 4: Espaço e da Terra Artist's view of a star birth in the Lynx Arc (NASA, ESA, and Robert A. E. Fosbury). Space & Earth 1. Theory 2. Space 3. Earth 3.1 Surface & Substance 3.2 Interrelations FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

86 85 The most recent theory is the Big-Bang model, which is supported by scientific evidence. The universe emerged from a state of extremely high temperature and density around 13.7 billion years ago, and it continues to expand to this day. Pillar 4: Space and Earth / Pilar 4: Espaço e da Terra Artist's view of a star birth in the Lynx Arc (NASA, ESA, and Robert A. E. Fosbury). Space & Earth 1. Theory 2. Space 3. Earth 3.1 Surface & Substance 3.2 Interrelations FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

87 Space The space category represents outer space. It contains the field of astronomy. Astronomy is the scientific study of the origin, evolution, composition, distance, and motion of all celestial bodies and scattered matter in the universe. Hot Stuff (a sunspot), NASA/TRACE, September 2008 Pillar 4: Space and Earth / Pilar 4: Espaço e da Terra FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

88 Earth The Earth category is divided into sub-categories: surface and substance and interrelations. The “Blue Marble (The Earth) Photo taken by either Harrison Schmitt or Ron Evans (of the Apollo 17 crew), December 7, 1972, NASA. Pillar 4: Space and Earth / Pilar 4: Espaço e da Terra FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

89 Surface and Substance Surface and substance focus on the surface and the substance of the earth. The category includes three fields: physical geography, geology, and soil sciences. The Sea of Ice (Polar Sea) also known as The Wreck of Hope in reference to an early North Pole Expedition, Caspar David Friedrich, ; Kunsthalle, Hamburg. Pillar 4: Space and Earth / Pilar 4: Espaço e da Terra FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

90 89 Geography is the study of the surface of the earth. It is composed of two main branches: Physical geography and human geography. Physical geography studies the natural aspects of the earth. Human geography studies the human aspects of geography and is part of the social sciences. The Sea of Ice (Polar Sea) also known as The Wreck of Hope in reference to an early North Pole Expedition, Caspar David Friedrich, ; Kunsthalle, Hamburg. Pillar 4: Space and Earth / Pilar 4: Espaço e da Terra FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

91 90 Geology explores the composition, structure, physical properties, processes, and history of the earth Old Faithful Geyser (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA), Albert Bierstadt, c Pillar 4: Space and Earth / Pilar 4: Espaço e da Terra Space & Earth 1. Theory 2. Space 3. Earth 3.1 Surface & Substance 3.2 Interrelations FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

92 Interrelations The relations between humans and the earth can best be described in terms of use, abuse and control. Humans use the earth, abuse it, or try to control its devastating powers, and face their devastating effects. The Icebergs, Frederic Edwin Church, 1861; Dallas Museum of Arts, Dallas. Pillar 4: Space and Earth / Pilar 4: Espaço e da Terra FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

93 92 Agriculture centers on using the earth. It explores the cultivation of the earth. The Harvesters, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, 1565; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Pillar 4: Space and Earth / Pilar 4: Espaço e da Terra FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

94 93 Environmental sciences centers on protecting the earth from misuse and abuse. Air pollution, global warming, soil and water contamination, protecting endangered species. These are some of the environmental problems and challenges that we face. Trouée de soleil dans le brouillard, Houses of Parliament, London, Sun Breaking Through the Fog, Claude Monet, 1904; Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Pillar 4: Space and Earth / Pilar 4: Espaço e da Terra FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

95 94 Natural hazards centers on facing the earth’s devastating power. It explores efficient ways to control the devastating power of nature and to survive catastrophes. Behind the Great Wave off Kanagawa, , Katsushika Hokusai. Pillar 4: Space and Earth / Pilar 4: Espaço e da Terra FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

96 95 Pillar 5 explores the non-human living world. It is composed of three main categories: theory, basic sciences, and health and wellbeing. Koala and baby on back, Benjamint444, c. 2010, CC BY-AS 3.0 Pilar 5: não-humanos Organismos Organisms 1. Theory 2. Basic Sciences 3. Health & Wellbeing FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

97 Theory Theory explores the philosophical aspects of biological phenomena and the ethical issues that arise from human interactions with the non-human living world, especially the animal kingdom. Olive Baboon, Gary M. Stolz, Courtesy of USFWS Pilar 5: não-humanos Organismos Organisms 1. Theory 2. Basic Sciences 3. Health & Wellbeing FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

98 97 The category includes three interrelated and partially overlapping fields: philosophy of life, philosophy of biology, and bioethics. Olive Baboon, Gary M. Stolz, Courtesy of USFWS Pilar 5: não-humanos Organismos Organisms 1. Theory 2. Basic Sciences 3. Health & Wellbeing FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

99 98 What is life? The concept of “life” has meanings that go beyond the realm of the biological sciences. It relates to epistemological, linguistic, metaphysical, religious, social, and the biological perspectives. Currently, there is no a single definition of “life” acceptable to all scholars. Grapevine snail (Helix pomatia), Jürgen Schoner, 2005, CC BY-AS 3.0 Pilar 5: não-humanos Organismos Organisms 1. Theory 2. Basic Sciences 3. Health & Wellbeing FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

100 99 Scholars disagree on life's basic properties. They disagree on its origin. Scientists disagree on the beginning of life. They can describe the process, but they cannot fully explain why chemical substances turn into a living being. They disagree about the end of life – death. They can describe the process, but they cannot fully explain why a living being turns into lifeless chemical substances. Grapevine snail (Helix pomatia), Jürgen Schoner, 2005, CC BY-AS 3.0 Pilar 5: não-humanos Organismos Organisms 1. Theory 2. Basic Sciences 3. Health & Wellbeing FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

101 100 Still, what is life? Life is a state of existence of an organism. Life is always associated with a specific organism, which demonstrates all or most of 7 conditions: cell-based structure, homeostasis, metabolism, growth, adaptation to environmental conditions, response to internal or external stimuli, and reproduction. This conception of life is debatable, but currently it is the best we can get. Grapevine snail (Helix pomatia), Jürgen Schoner, 2005, CC BY-AS 3.0 Pilar 5: não-humanos Organismos Organisms 1. Theory 2. Basic Sciences 3. Health & Wellbeing FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

102 Basic Sciences Basic sciences explores the diversified non-human biological phenomena. It is composed of biology, or rather biological sciences. Hummingbirds (a color plate illustration from Kunstformen der Natur (Art Forms of Nature)), Ernst Haeckel, Pilar 5: não-humanos Organismos Organisms 1. Theory 2. Basic Sciences 3. Health & Wellbeing FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

103 102 Humans and chimpanzees share the same kingdom (Animalia), phylum (Chordata), class (Mammalia), order (Primates), family (Hominidae, sub-family: Homininae), and tribe (Hominini). We differ in genus (chimpanzees: Pan; humans: Homo) and species (chimpanzees: Pan troglodytes; humans: Homo sapiens). This is the big difference that makes us who we are. Front: Biological Classification – Main classes, by Peter Halasz, Background: a phylogenetic tree of life, Author: Ivica Letunic, Pilar 5: não-humanos Organismos Organisms 1. Theory 2. Basic Sciences 3. Health & Wellbeing FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

104 Health and Wellbeing Health and wellbeing is focused on the welfare of animals. It contains the field of veterinary medicine. Love Me, Love My Dog, Joshua Reynolds ( ) (?) Pilar 5: não-humanos Organismos Organisms 1. Theory 2. Basic Sciences 3. Health & Wellbeing FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

105 104 Pillar 6 explores the human body and mind. It includes three categories: theory, basic sciences, and health and wellbeing. Newborn infant, (girl) just seconds after delivery, Ernest F, 2006, CC BY-AS 3.0 Pillar 6: Body and Mind / Pilar 6: Corpo e Mente Body & Mind 1. Theory 2. Basic Sciences 3. Health & Wellbeing 3.1 Medical Sciences 3.2 Paramedical Studies 3.3 Complementary Medicine FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

106 Theory Theory explores the philosophical foundations of the human body and mind diversified phenomena. The category includes four interrelated and partially overlapping fields: philosophy of life, philosophy of mind, philosophy of biology, and bioethics. The Girl with a Pearl Earring, Johannes Vermeer, ca. 1665, Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis The Hague. Pillar 6: Body and Mind / Pilar 6: Corpo e Mente FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

107 Basic Sciences Basic sciences explores human biological and psychological phenomena. The category is composed of four interrelated fields: human biology, psychology, neuroscience, and cognitive science. The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, Rembrandt van Rijn, 1632, Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis, the Hague Pillar 6: Body and Mind / Pilar 6: Corpo e Mente FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

108 Health and Wellbeing Health and wellbeing explores the human physical and mental condition. The category is composed of three sub-categories: medical sciences, paramedical studies, and complementary medicine. Care of the Sick, Domenico di Bartolo, , Fresco, Spedale di Santa Maria della Scala, Siena. 3. Health & Wellbeing 3.1 Medical Sciences 3.2 Paramedical Studies 3.3 Complementary Medicine Pillar 6: Body and Mind / Pilar 6: Corpo e Mente FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

109 Medical Sciences Medical sciences is composed of two fields: medicine and dentistry. In universities worldwide dentistry and medicine are distinct fields. Nevertheless, in essence dentistry is a branch of medicine rather than an independent field. 3. Health & Wellbeing 3.1 Medical Sciences 3.2 Paramedical Studies 3.3 Complementary Medicine The Dentist (detail), Gerrit van Honthorst, 1622; Gemäldegalerie, Dresden Pillar 6: Body and Mind / Pilar 6: Corpo e Mente FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

110 109 Medicine is the science and art aimed at promoting health, preventing illness, treating diseases, and relieving pain. The Agnew Clinic by Thomas Eakins, 1889; Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia. Pillar 6: Body and Mind / Pilar 6: Corpo e Mente FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

111 110 Medicine embraces a wide range of sub-fields, which are grouped in two main fields: foundational fields, and medical fields. The Agnew Clinic by Thomas Eakins, 1889; Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia. Pillar 6: Body and Mind / Pilar 6: Corpo e Mente FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

112 111 The foundational fields study the philosophical, historical, social, and methodological foundations of medicine; among them philosophy of medicine, history of medicine, and medical ethics. The Agnew Clinic by Thomas Eakins, 1889; Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia. Pillar 6: Body and Mind / Pilar 6: Corpo e Mente FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

113 112 Medicine is more than a profession – it is a way of life. Upon graduation medical students swear an oath that states their commitment to humanitarian goals. The Agnew Clinic by Thomas Eakins, 1889; Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia. Pillar 6: Body and Mind / Pilar 6: Corpo e Mente FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

114 113 An old joke says: What is the difference between God and a physician? - God knows that he is not a physician. Hubris, greed, and quackery (fraudulent, unproven, and ignorant medical practices) lead to malpractice. The Agnew Clinic by Thomas Eakins, 1889; Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia. Pillar 6: Body and Mind / Pilar 6: Corpo e Mente FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

115 114 The medical fields explore the medical conditions and medical treatments and practices. They cover the broad spectrums of conditions, organs and body systems, treatments and technologies. Self-Portrait with Doctor Arrieta (detail), Francisco Goya, 1820; Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis Pillar 6: Body and Mind / Pilar 6: Corpo e Mente FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

116 115 The medical knowledge is constantly growing. New fields emerge, scientists conquer new horizons, and practitioners implement innovative treatments and technologies. Self-Portrait with Doctor Arrieta (detail), Francisco Goya, 1820; Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis Pillar 6: Body and Mind / Pilar 6: Corpo e Mente FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

117 116 Internal medicine, neurology, pediatrics, surgery, gynecology and obstetrics, psychiatry, and pathology are the backbone of medicine. Self-Portrait with Doctor Arrieta (detail), Francisco Goya, 1820; Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis Pillar 6: Body and Mind / Pilar 6: Corpo e Mente FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

118 Paramedical Studies Paramedical studies represents fields and practices that support medicine, such as nursing, midwifery, pharmacy, physical therapy, and public health. Hospital at Scutari, where the pioneer nurse, Florence Nightingale, worked, 1856, Library of Congress. 3. Health & Wellbeing 3.1 Medical Sciences 3.2 Paramedical Studies 3.3 Complementary Medicine Pillar 6: Body and Mind / Pilar 6: Corpo e Mente FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

119 Complementary Medicine The category represents non-standard medical practices that people use instead of standard ones (alternative medicine) or together with standard ones (complementary medicine) Examples: Ayurvedic medicine, Chinese medicine, and homeopathy. Traditional Chinese Medicine 3. Health & Wellbeing 3.1 Medical Sciences 3.2 Paramedical Studies 3.3 Complementary Medicine Pillar 6: Body and Mind / Pilar 6: Corpo e Mente FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

120 119 Pillar 7 explores human social life. It is composed of four main categories: theory, society at large, domains, and social groups. Rue Montorgueil, Claude Monet, 1878; Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Society 1. Theory 2. Society at-Large 2.1. General 2.2 Area-Based 3. Domains 3.1 Community Communication Contract Codes Conduct 3.2 Needs & Activity 3.3 Management 4. Social Groups 4.1 Gender 4.2 Age 4.3 Ethnicity 4.4 Interest Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

121 Theory Theory explores the philosophical perspectives of human social life and social sciences. It includes two fields: philosophy of social sciences and philosophy of social life. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade Society Theory 1. Theory 2. Society at-Large 2.1. General 2.2 Area-Based 3. Domains 3.1 Community Communication Contract Codes Conduct 3.2 Needs & Activity 3.3 Management 4. Social Groups 4.1 Gender 4.2 Age 4.3 Ethnicity 4.4 Interest Gassed, John Singer Sargent, 1918; Imperial War Museum, London. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

122 121 Philosophy of social sciences studies the rationale and methodology of the social sciences. It questions the validity of scientific laws in social sciences, and aims to establish solid foundations for the social sciences. Society Theory 1. Theory 2. Society at-Large 2.1. General 2.2 Area-Based 3. Domains 3.1 Community Communication Contract Codes Conduct 3.2 Needs & Activity 3.3 Management 4. Social Groups 4.1 Gender 4.2 Age 4.3 Ethnicity 4.4 Interest Gassed, John Singer Sargent, 1918; Imperial War Museum, London. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

123 122 Philosophy of social life studies the meaning of key concepts, and discusses the philosophical basis of social positions and ideologies. Independence or Death (The Ipiranga Shout), Pedro Américo, 1888, Museu Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

124 123 What is a human society? – Any group of interrelated individuals. What is the ‘glue’ of a unified society? – A common cultural heritage. The strength of a society is tested by the commitment of its members to defend their common cultural heritage against cultural oppression. Independence or Death (The Ipiranga Shout), Pedro Américo, 1888, Museu Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

125 124 “Man was born free, and he is everywhere in chains.” Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, People worldwide are victims of tyranny, slavery, abuse, and extreme poverty. Freedom is the state of not being imprisoned and enslaved, thinking without interference, and being able to choose among alternatives. Memorial to Slavery in Zanzibar (the memorial is located near the old slave market), Photograph by Mila Zinkova, 2007, CC BY-SA 3.0. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

126 125 People worldwide are victims of inequality. Equality refers to human conditions, life conditions, legal conditions, and social conditions. There are two basic approaches to defining “equality,” giving the same and having the same. The Potato Eaters, Vincent van Gogh, 1885, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

127 126 Giving the same is focused on the action. Equality is giving the same to all, the poor and the rich. Having the same is focused on the outcome. Equality is achieved by giving more to the poor. Social theorists strive to achieve social equality. Yet they disagree on the meaning of the concept and how it should be implemented in practice. The Potato Eaters, Vincent van Gogh, 1885, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

128 127 Societies are expected to be fair and to implement the concept of social justice as a guiding principle. Social justice is embodied in distributive justice, retributive justice, restorative justice, and procedural justice. Shoemakers, Max Liebermann, 1881 Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

129 128 Distributive justice is the fair distribution of social resources, goods, rights, and duties. Retributive justice is fair punishment for wrongdoing and fair reward for good doing. Restorative justice is fair correction and compensation for damage done to victims. Procedural justice is the fair and transparent processes for making social decisions. Shoemakers, Max Liebermann, 1881 Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

130 129 People worldwide are victims of exploitation and abuse, crime and violence; being treated as disposable means for others. Mother, Honoré Daumier, ca. 1855; National Museum, Belgrade. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

131 130 The concept of human dignity is based on the fundamental moral standpoint that every human is a free rational being; an end in oneself. This status implies that the dignity of every human as an autonomous being must always be respected, in attitude and conduct, by all other people. Mother, Honoré Daumier, ca. 1855; National Museum, Belgrade. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

132 131 Representation of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in 1789, France Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade The concept of human rights is based on the philosophical standpoint that all human beings are born free and equal and are entitled to certain social, political, and legal rights. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

133 132 Representation of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in 1789, France Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade These include the right to life, liberty and security, the right to freedom of movement, the right to a nationality, the right to own property, the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, the right to freedom of opinion and expression, the right to social security, the right to work, and the right to education. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

134 133 Social life is complicated. People love and fight, build and destroy. The quest for a systematic social theory is crucial for better understanding the ever-changing world we live in. The Intervention of the Sabine Women, Jacques-Louis David, 1799, Musée du Louvre, Paris. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

135 134 Along the River During Qingming Festival (detail), Zhang Zeduan, 12th century (1736 reproduction); the National Palace Museum, Taiwan. 7.2 Society at-Large Society at large represents social sciences that cover broad social aspects. The category has two sub- categories: general, and area-based. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade Society 1. Theory 2. Society at-Large 2.1. General 2.2 Area-Based 3. Domains 3.1 Community Communication Contract Codes Conduct 3.2 Needs & Activity 3.3 Management 4. Social Groups 4.1 Gender 4.2 Age 4.3 Ethnicity 4.4 Interest FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

136 135 Maslenitsa, Boris Kustodiyev, 1919; Isaak Brodsky Museum, Saint. Petersburg General The general sub-category is composed of four fields: sociology, anthropology, human geography, and demography. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

137 136 Maslenitsa, Boris Kustodiyev, 1919; Isaak Brodsky Museum, Saint. Petersburg. Culture is a central concept in social sciences and humanities with diversified meanings: 1. Culture = civilization 2. Ethnographic meaning 3. Thought and the arts 4. Social activities related to thought and the arts. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

138 137 Pelé dribbling past a defender during Malmö-Brazil 1–7 in May, Pelé scored 2 goals.. Brazilian culture = Brazilian civilization Broad meaning: civilization. “Culture” is all the abstract and physical products of human creativity and activity. Exemplary fields: mysticism, religion, Medicine, Sociology, Philosophy, Technology, and History. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

139 138 Carnival in Rio de Janeiro, Sergio Luiz, 2006, CC BY-SA 2.0 Brazilian culture = typical to Brazil 2. Ethnographic meaning. “Culture” is all the shared knowledge, beliefs, values, codes (ethics and laws), activities, institutions, and objects typical to specific societies. Exemplary fields: Anthropology. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

140 139 Cultural Complex of the Republic, Roosewelt Pinheiro, Agência Brasil, 2006, CC BY 2.5 Brazilian culture = Brazilian thought and art 3. “Culture” is an area of human creativity related to thought and art. Exemplary fields: philosophy, literature, the arts. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

141 140 Terena people, Valter Campanato, 2007 Agência Brasil, CC BY 3.0 Brazilian culture = social activity related to thought and art 4. “Culture” is an area of social activity related to thought and art. Examples: cultural services (community theater). (Above: a tourist attraction) Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

142 141 Tahitian Women on the Beach, Paul Gauguin, 1891; Musée d'Orsay, Paris Area-Based The area-based category includes hundreds of fields that come under the umbrella title “Area studies.” These are multidisciplinary fields of research and scholarship relating to particular geographical areas. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

143 Domains The domains category represents social sciences that focus on specific areas of social life. The category is composed of three main sub-categories: community, needs and activities, and management. Boys Eating Grapes and Melon, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, ; Alte Pinakothek, Munich Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade Society 1. Theory 2. Society at-Large 2.1. General 2.2 Area-Based 3. Domains 3.1 Community Communication Contract Codes Conduct 3.2 Needs & Activity 3.3 Management 4. Social Groups 4.1 Gender 4.2 Age 4.3 Ethnicity 4.4 Interest FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

144 Community The community category explores the basics of social life. It is composed of four main sub-categories: communication, contract, codes, and conduct. Cliff Dwellers, George Bellows, 1913; Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade Society 1. Theory 2. Society at-Large 2.1. General 2.2 Area-Based 3. Domains 3.1 Community Communication Contract Codes Conduct 3.2 Needs & Activity 3.3 Management 4. Social Groups 4.1 Gender 4.2 Age 4.3 Ethnicity 4.4 Interest

145 144 The Tower of Babel, Pieter Brueghel the Elder,1563; Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna Communication Communication is the essence of social interaction. The communication category explores the processes of transferring, receiving and understanding messages and meanings. It represents the fields of semiotics, linguistics, languages, and communication studies. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

146 145 Banquet of the Officers of the St George Civic Guard, Frans Hals, ca. 1627, Frans-Hals-Museum, Haarlem Contract Contract explores the theory and practice of political systems and the use and abuse of political power. The name of the category comes from the concept of social contract. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

147 146 Banquet of the Officers of the St George Civic Guard, Frans Hals, ca. 1627, Frans-Hals-Museum, Haarlem. “Social contract” is an abstract concept aimed at explaining the raison d'être of national states. The concept implies that the people give up sovereignty to a government or other authority in order to receive, maintain, or improve social order by the rule of law. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

148 147 Legitimate state authority must derive from the consent of the people, and it is bound by law to act on the people's behalf. The Night Watch (The Company of Frans Banning Cocq and Willem van Ruytenburch), Rembrandt van Rijn, 1642 [Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam]. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

149 148 The Ambassadors (Jean de Dinteville and Georges de Selve), Hans Holbein the Younger, 1533; National Gallery, London. The contract sub-category represents two fields: political science and international relations. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

150 149 The frontispiece of Leviathan (detail) by Thomas Hobbes, (The Sovereign is a massive body wielding a sword and crozier and composed of many individual people.) States are the heart of political science. There are three conceptions of “state” based on three conditions: power (who controls the territory?), administration (who runs it?), and services (does it provide basic services?). Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

151 150 The frontispiece of Leviathan (detail) by Thomas Hobbes, (The Sovereign is a massive body wielding a sword and crozier and composed of many individual people.) The first conception stresses the power that controls the territory. The second conception adds the condition of administration, The third conception adds the condition of providing basic services. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

152 151 Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (Bal du moulin de la Galette), Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 1876; Musée d'Orsay, Paris. States differ in their policies. What is the right policy for your country? Should it meet only basic needs? Or should it maximize the quality of life to the highest possible level? Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

153 152 The Emperor, James Carroll Beckwith, 1912; Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC. Governments are the backbone of the sovereign states. Governments take many forms, but democracy is the most progressive. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

154 153 Brazilian National Congress (Architecture by Oscar Niemeyer), Eurico Zimbres, 2006 CC BY-SA 2.5 What is democracy? Formal meaning. The government is elected by the majority of all the citizens by a formal procedure. Normative meaning. The government is based on four moral guiding principles: freedom, equality, sanctity of life, and human dignity. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

155 154 Moses Smashing the Tablets of the Law, Rembrandt van Rijn, 1659; Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin Codes Codes studies the guiding principles and rules (codes) that establish the boundaries of human conduct and social interaction. It includes ethics and law. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade Society 1. Theory 2. Society at-Large 2.1. General 2.2 Area-Based 3. Domains 3.1 Community Communication Contract Codes Conduct 3.2 Needs & Activity 3.3 Management 4. Social Groups 4.1 Gender 4.2 Age 4.3 Ethnicity 4.4 Interest FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

156 Conduct Conduct explores human social behavior. This is a broad subject explored by several fields, among them psychology, sociology, and law. The conduct category includes social psychology and criminology. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade Judgment of Solomon (1 kings 3:16-3:28), Bible with engravings by Gustave Doré, FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

157 156 The Milkmaid (detail), Johannes Veromeer, ca.1660; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam Pillar 7: Society: Needs and Activities I Needs and Activities Needs and activities covers areas of human activity, among them: security, health, economics, education, welfare, transportation, housing, urban planning, recreation, sports, and the like. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

158 157 Defense & Security The innocent drummer boy leads the army. Remember the ‘boys and girls’ who march behind. Front: The Drummer Boy, William Morris Hunt, ca. 1862; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Back: Normandy Invasion, June 1944; Courtesy: US Army. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

159 158 Health and Wellbeing Public Health & Health Education Talita, aged 3, plays in a Wendy house at the Cefran centre in Sao Paulo. Her parents have HIV but Talita is HIV negative. Her mother attends Cefran for psycho-social support and to learn about treatments and her rights, Sarah Hodson, 2008, (© UNICEF UK/Sao Paulo 2008/Sarah Hodson), CC BY-SA 3.0 Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

160 159 King Midas with his daughter, an illustration by Walter Crane, 1893 from A Wonder Book for Boys and Girls by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Library of Congress. Economics The legend says: King Midas was gifted with the golden touch. Everything he touched turned into gold. He was the luckiest man on earth until he touched his daughter... Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

161 160 Kindergarten in Amsterdam, Max Liebermann, 1880; loaned to Alte Nationalgalerie Berlin. Education Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

162 161 Welfare The Soup Kitchen, Fedinand Georg Waldmuller, 1859; sterreichsche Galerie, Vienna. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

163 162 Legal Services & Conflict Resolution Village Lawyer, Pieter Brueghel the Younger, 1621; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

164 163 Culture Culture studies explores the social activities centered on thought, literature, and art. Reading in the Salon of Madame Geoffrin, Anicet Charles Gabriel Lemonnier,1755; Châteaux de Malmaison et Bois-Préeau, Paris. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

165 164 Newspaper Boy, Edward Mitchell Bannister, 1869, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington DC. Communication and Media Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

166 165 Recreation The Lunch of the Boating Party, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 1881, Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland.. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

167 166 The Biglen Brothers Racing, Thomas Eakins, 1873; National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Sports Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

168 167 Syndics of the Drapers' Guild, Rembrandt van Rijn, 1662; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam Management Management studies the theory and practice of management and administration of social activities and organizations. Exemplary fields: business management. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

169 Social Groups Social groups represents group-based social sciences. It is composed of four sub-categories: gender, age, ethnicity, and interest. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade Dance of Italian Villagers, Peter Paul Rubens, 1636; Museo del Prado, Madrid. Society 1. Theory 2. Society at-Large 2.1. General 2.2 Area-Based 3. Domains 3.1 Community 3.2 Needs & Activity 3.3 Management 4. Social Groups 4.1 Gender 4.2 Age 4.3 Ethnicity 4.4 Interest FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

170 169 The Birth of Venus, Sandro Botticelli, 1485; Uffizi Gallery, Florence Gender The gender category is composed of two fields: women’s studies and men’s studies. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

171 170 Portrait of an Old Man in Red (detail), Rembrandt van Rijn, ; Hermitage, Saint. Petersburg Age The age category is composed of two main fields: youth studies and gerontology. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

172 171 Gypsy Girl, Frans Hals, ; Musée du Louvre, Paris Ethnicity The ethnicity sub-category focuses on ethnicity-based groups; among them, for example, Afro-American studies, and Gypsy studies. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

173 172 The Fire, Alexandre Antigna, ; Musee des Beaux-Arts at Orleans Interest The interest sub-category is focused on special interest-based groups, for example, family studies, gay and lesbian studies, and addiction-based fields. Pillar 7: Society / Pilar 7: Sociedade FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

174 173 Pillar 8 deals with the products of the human intellect, and the arts. It is composed of three categories: thought, literary arts, and the arts. The Thinker (detail) Auguste Rodin, 1902; Musée Rodin, Paris. Photography: Innoxiuss Though & Art 1. Thought 1.1 Reason 1.2 Representation 1.3 Relations 2. Literary Arts 2.1 Theory 2.2 Works 3. The Arts 3.1 Theory 3.2 Forms 3.3 Time 3.4 Place 3.5 Ethnicity 3.6 Interest Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

175 : Thought Thought focuses on the products of the human intellect. It is composed of three sub-categories: reason, representation, and relations. The School of Athens (detail), Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino), ; Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte Though & Art Thought 1. Thought 1.1 Reason 1.2 Representation 1.3 Relations 2. Literary Arts 2.1 Theory 2.2 Works 3. The Arts 3.1 Theory 3.2 Forms 3.3 Time 3.4 Place 3.5 Ethnicity 3.6 Interest FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

176 Reason Reason is the "theory" part of the thought category. It is composed of philosophy. The Death of Socrates, Jacques-Louis David, 1787; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

177 176 Philosophy is an academic discipline that seeks truth through reasoning. It studies the essence of human existence and the meaning of life, establishes the foundations of human thought, and discusses the fundamental issues underlying all fields of human knowledge, action and creativity. The Death of Socrates, Jacques-Louis David, 1787; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

178 177 Philosophy is the most important of all disciplines. What is the meaning of life? is the most important of all explorations. The quest for the essence and meaning of life is universal, but the answer is personal. The Scream, Edvard Munch, 1893; The National Gallery, Oslo. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

179 178 Bridge Over a Pond of Water Lilies, Claude Monet 1899, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte The essence of life is embodied in life. The meaning of life is embodied in the quest to know who you are, where you come from and where you are going, and to whom you are accountable for your deeds. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

180 Representation The representation category is centered on the basics of languages. The category represents the fields of philosophy of language and philology. The Rosetta Stone, displayed at the British Museum, is an ancient Egyptian stone bearing inscriptions in three different languages, Hieroglyphs (Egyptian), Demotic (Egyptian), and classical Greek. The three segments have the same meaning. Comparative analysis led to decoding the hieroglyph script. Rosetta Stone, the British Museum. Hans Hillewaert, 2007, CC BY_AS 3.0 Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte Though & Art 1. Thought 1.1 Reason Representation 1.2 Representation 1.3 Relations 2. Literary Arts 2.1 Theory 2.2 Works 3. The Arts 3.1 Theory 3.2 Forms 3.3 Time 3.4 Place 3.5 Ethnicity 3.6 Interest FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

181 Relations Relations is composed of three relation-based fields: logic, mathematics, and statistics. Vitruvian Man, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. 1487; stored in Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte Though & Art 1. Thought 1.1 Reason 1.2 Representation Relations 1.3 Relations 2. Literary Arts 2.1 Theory 2.2 Works 3. The Arts 3.1 Theory 3.2 Forms 3.3 Time 3.4 Place 3.5 Ethnicity 3.6 Interest FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

182 181 In many universities worldwide mathematics is part of natural sciences. In others it is part of humanities. God as Architect, Builder, and Geometer, The Frontispiece of Bible Moralisee, ca. 1250; the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

183 182 Viewing mathematics as a natural science rests on a tradition that goes back to medieval Christian Europe. For most early medieval scholars, mathematics was the key to understanding the created order of the universe. It was embodied in the universe and reflected the divine order. Therefore, mathematics was a natural science. God as Architect, Builder, and Geometer, The Frontispiece of Bible Moralisee, ca. 1250; the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

184 183 However, for centuries the natural sciences have been grounded in empirical evidence, while mathematics is grounded in the human intellect, not in metaphysical and religious standpoints. Mathematics is a construct of the human mind; as such it is part of humanities. Placing it under the umbrella of natural sciences rests on sociological reasons rather than philosophical foundations. God as Architect, Builder, and Geometer, The Frontispiece of Bible Moralisee, ca. 1250; the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

185 Literary Arts An old saying tells that the earliest prehistoric poem starts: “What can we write that has not been written yet?” Literary arts studies the diversified aspects of literary art. It is divided into two parts: theory, and works. Theory represents the field of literary theory art that focuses on the theoretical foundations of literary arts. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Karl Stieler, Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte Though & Art 1. Thought 1.1 Reason 1.2 Representation 1.3 Relations Literary Arts 2. Literary Arts 2.1 Theory 2.2 Works 3. The Arts 3.1 Theory 3.2 Forms 3.3 Time 3.4 Place 3.5 Ethnicity 3.6 Interest FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

186 185 Works represents a generic field: literature. Literature is the study of written works of art. It covers all subjects, forms, genres, languages, eras, and places. Illustration from The Pied Piper of Hamelin, Kate Greenaway ( ), Library of Congress, USA Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

187 The Arts The arts represents fields that study the manifold aspects of non-literary art. It covers all forms of non- literary art worldwide throughout human history. The arts category is divided into two generic parts: art theory, (cat ) and art works (cats ). Art works are classified by form, time, place, ethnicity, and interest. Balinese Topeng (dance masks), Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta, Gunawan Kartapranata, 2009, CC BY-SA 3.0 Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte Though & Art 1. Thought 1.1 Reason 1.2 Representation 1.3 Relations 2. Literary Arts 2.1 Theory 2.2 Works The Arts 3. The Arts 3.1 Theory 3.2 Forms 3.3 Time 3.4 Place 3.5 Ethnicity 3.6 Interest FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

188 187 Black Square, Kazimir Malevich, 1913; State Russian Museum, Saint Petersburg. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte 8.3.1: Theory Theory studies the theoretical foundations of the arts. Its main field is philosophy of art. Philosophy of art, or aesthetics, is the branch of philosophy that explores the philosophical foundations of art. It studies the meaning of key concepts, discusses the criteria for evaluating the quality of art works, and establishes reliable research methodologies. Is Black Square by Kazimir Malevich, which is presented at the State Russian Museum in Saint Petersburg, a work of art? FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

189 188 What is art? Defining “art” is difficult since key characteristics have counter-examples that do not fit the common definition. Art is human-based. Is it? If art is human-based, animal painting is not art. Is it? Congo (1954–1964) was a chimpanzee who had made 400 drawings and paintings that were sold on June 20, 2005 for over US$26,000. Painting by Congo, a chimpanzee, ca Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

190 189 Art is an activity and an artifact. It is the process of creating (e.g., painting) and the product of this activity (e.g., a painting). The Art of Painting, Johannes Vermeer, ca , Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

191 190 Art is intentional. Is it? If art is intentional, improvised music and painting, as well as computer graphics, are not art. Still, if art can be unplanned, what differentiates art from other arbitrary processes and artifacts? Computer-generated image, Chaim Zins, Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

192 191 Art is associated with emotions. Is it? Art was traditionally perceived as aimed at expressing the artist’s emotions or causing emotional responses in the viewer/audience. If this is the case, known artifacts designed to convey ideas rather than emotions (e.g., Melencolia I, by Albrecht Dürer, and the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci) are not works of art. Melencolia I, Albrecht Dürer, 1514; Kupferstichkabinett, Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

193 192 Art has an intrinsic value. Has it? If art has an intrinsic value, rather than being driven by functional purposes architecture is not art. Cathedral of Brasilia, Brazil, Claude Meisch, 2009, CC BY-SA 3.0 Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

194 193 Art is affiliated to art institutions. Is it? Marcel Duchamp argued that the context makes the difference. He took a urinal, titled it Fountain (1917). Fountain is a landmark in 20th-century art. Replicas are now on display in art museums. Graffiti in Olinda, Pernambuco, Brazil, Bjørn Christian Tørrissen, 2008, CC BY-SA 3.0 Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

195 194 Art, in a nutshell, is usually an intentional human- based activity and the products of this activity. It is meant to express the creator’s ideas and emotions and to affect the viewer emotionally and intellectually. Art has an intrinsic value but it can also be designed to achieve functional purposes. Art does not have to be affiliated with art institutions. The definition is imperfect, but it is the best that we can get. The Painter's Atelier (Studio), Courbet, Gustave, 1855; Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

196 195 The Painter’s Studio: A Real Allegory of Seven Years in My Artistic and Moral Life is a masterpiece by the French artist Gustave Courbet. It is an allegory that symbolizes the life of artists. The artist is integrated into is art surrounded by his art works, subjects and models, friends and supporters (on the right), and the masses who do not understand his art (on the left). The Painter's Atelier (Studio), Courbet, Gustave, 1855; Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

197 196 What is the value of a work of art? There are three basic approaches to art evaluation: objective, universal, and relativist. The objective position sees aesthetic quality as an absolute value independent of any human view. Monkeys as Judges of Art, Gabriel Cornelius von Max, 1889; Neue Pinakothek, Munich. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

198 197 The universal position sees aesthetic quality as a universal value, dependent on general human experience, mainly scholars and experts. The relativist approach sees aesthetic quality as dependent on the experience of different humans; the aesthetic value is in the eye of the beholder. Monkeys as Judges of Art, Gabriel Cornelius von Max, 1889; Neue Pinakothek, Munich. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

199 Forms Art works are usually classified by their forms (e.g., painting), media (e.g., fresco,), genres (e.g., landscape, still life), style (e.g., abstract), subjects, time, place, ethnicity, and interests. The art forms emerge as the best criterion and the most inclusive of all criteria. An art form is a type of artistic activity and artifacts involving special materials or techniques. On our journey we focuses on exemplary art forms. The Tribuna of the Uffizi, Johann Zoffany, ; Royal Collection, Windsor. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte Though & Art 1. Thought 1.1 Reason 1.2 Representation 1.3 Relations 2. Literary Arts 2.1 Theory 2.2 Works 3. The Arts 3.1 Theory Forms 3.2 Forms 3.3 Time 3.4 Place 3.5 Ethnicity 3.6 Interest FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

200 199 Music Ludwig van Beethoven Composing the Missa Solemnis, Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820; Beethoven-Haus, Bonn. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

201 200 Dance The Star, Edgar Degas, 1871; Art Institute of Chicago. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

202 201 Theatre Hamlet and Horatio in the Graveyard, Eugène Delacroix, 1839; Musée du Louvre, Paris. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

203 202 Opera Musical fête, Giovanni Paolo Pannini, 1747; Musיe du Louvre, Paris. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

204 203 Theatrical Entertainment Miss La La at the Cirque Fernando, Edgar Degas, 1879; National Gallery, London. Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

205 204 Self-Portrait as a Painter, Vincent Van Gogh, 1888, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. Painting and Drawing Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

206 205 David, Michelangelo Buonarroti,1504; Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence, Rico Heil, 2005, CC BY-SA 3.0 Sculpture Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

207 206 The Unicorn in Captivity, Unknown Flemish weaver, , The Cloisters, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Shooting Brooklyn, 2009 Tapestry Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

208 207 Migrant Mother, Dorothea Lange, 1936; Courtesy of US Government. (Portrait of Florence Owens Thompson with several of her children ) Photography and Printmaking Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

209 208 Architecture Taj Mahal, Agra, India. Yann, 2010, CC BY-SA 3.0 Pillar 8: Thought and Art / Pilar 8: Pensamento e Arte FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

210 209 Space Shuttle Columbia as it lifts off on mission STS-107, NASA, Technology 1. Theory 2. Professions 3. Technologies 3.1 Sciences 3.2 Needs & Activities 3.3 Materials 3.4 Processes Pillar 9: Technology / Pilar 9: Tecnologia The launch of the space shuttle Columbia on January 16 th, 2003 proved that ‘the sky is the limit’. Its tragic loss on returning to the Earth on February 1 st was a reminder that the sky is the limit. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

211 210 Space Shuttle Columbia as it lifts off on mission STS-107, NASA, Technology 1. Theory 2. Professions 3. Technologies 3.1 Sciences 3.2 Needs & Activities 3.3 Materials 3.4 Processes Technology, in its broadest meaning, is the physical objects, methods, and processes created and used by humans for practical and functional purposes. Pillar 9 includes three main categories: theory, professions, and technologies. Pillar 9: Technology / Pilar 9: Tecnologia FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

212 211 Atomic bomb mushroom, nuclear weapon test, the Romero test, part of the Operation Castle, Bikini Island, March 26, Source: DOE/NNSA. Pillar 9: Technology / Pilar 9: Tecnologia 9.1: Theory Most technologies can be wisely used, as well as catastrophically abused and misused. Nuclear power can be used for improving human life, and it can be used for mass destruction. Theory explores the philosophy and history of technology. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

213 : Professions Professions focuses on technology-based professions, mainly engineering. Engineering is the study and practice of discovering, inventing, developing, designing, and utilizing technologies. Horizontal & vertical: Itaipu hydroelectric dam, Brazil, Martin St-Amant, 2007, CC-BY-SA-3.0 Pillar 9: Technology / Pilar 9: Tecnologia Technology 1. Theory Professions 2. Professions 3. Technologies 3.1 Sciences 3.2 Needs & Activities 3.3 Materials 3.4 Processes FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

214 : Technologies Human-based technologies are divided into four main sub-categories: sciences, needs and activities, materials, and processes. Astronaut in Space, 1984, NASA Pillar 9: Technology / Pilar 9: Tecnologia Technology 1. Theory 2. Professions Technologies 3. Technologies 3.1 Sciences 3.2 Needs & Activities 3.3 Materials 3.4 Processes FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

215 : Sciences Sciences explores technologies that are grounded in and centered on specific sciences. These technologies are the technological counterparts of all the natural and life sciences presented in pillars 3-6, and mathematics. An illustration of a modern desktop computer. Pillar 9: Technology / Pilar 9: Tecnologia FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

216 : Needs and Activities Needs and activities explores technologies that center on specific human needs and activities. These technologies are the technological counterparts of the social sciences and humanities presented in pillars 1, 2, 7, 8, and 10. The Gutenberg Bible, Johann Gutenberg, ca. 1455, Mainz; the Lenox Library, New York Public Library, NYC Wanderer, 2009, CC BY-SA 2.0 Pillar 9: Technology / Pilar 9: Tecnologia FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

217 : Materials Not all that is gold glitters, and not all that glitters is gold. Materials explores technologies centered on specific natural or human-made materials that are used for diverse purposes. Golden Cup, treasure of the Cathedral of Reims, 12th century; Palais du Tau, Reims. Pillar 9: Technology / Pilar 9: Tecnologia FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

218 : Processes Processes explores technologies centered on specific processes that are used for diverse purposes. Cooling, heating, freezing, cutting melting, and vitrification technologies are exemplary fields. Vitrification, Courtesy: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Pillar 9: Technology / Pilar 9: Tecnologia FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

219 218 History 1. Theory 2. Universal Memory 3. Relations Pillar 10: History / Pilar 10: História Liberty is the driving force of human existence. It is the essence of the human spirit. Pillar 10 covers recorded human history, which is the culmination of the human experience throughout the ages. The pillar contains three categories: theory, universal memory, and relations. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

220 Theory The theory category contains philosophy of history. Stone of the Sun, named Aztec Calendar Stone, National Museum of Anthropology and History, Mexico City, El Comandante, 2009, CC BY-SA 3.0 Pillar 10: History / Pilar 10: História History Theory 1. Theory 2. Universal Memory 3. Relations FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

221 220 Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. George Santayana, The Life of Reason, Vol 1, Chapter 12, p The Holocaust, the systematic murder of Jews by Nazi Germany ( ) aimed at the total extermination of the Jewish people, was the worst crime in human history. Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, a photo from Jürgen Stroop Report to Heinrich Himmler, May 1943 Pillar 10: History / Pilar 10: História FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

222 221 The Holocaust is a warning signal for humankind: Beware – it can happen again. The murderers were normal people who lost moral limitations and made wrong decisions. Everyone is a potential murderer and a potential victim. Beware. A selection at Birkenau (Aushwitz II), 1944; source: The Auschwitz Album,Yad Vashem, Jerusalem. Pillar 10: History / Pilar 10: História FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

223 222 During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States intensively bombed 67 cities in Japan and gave the Japanese government an ultimatum to surrender. The ultimatum was rejected. As a result the United States conducted two atomic bombings against Japan on the cities of Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) and Nagasaki (August 9, 1945). On August 15, 1945 Japan surrendered. Atomic bombing of Nagasaki on August 9, Pillar 10: History / Pilar 10: História FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

224 223 The two atomic bombing were devastating. The two cities were destroyed. Within six months 200,000– 250,000 people died. Hundreds of thousands of people have suffered from long-term health effects and died from radiation-related diseases and injuries. The atomic bombing of Japan is a warning sign for mankind: Beware. Pillar 10: History / Pilar 10: História Atomic bombing of Nagasaki on August 9, FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

225 224 Terror. The September 11, 2001 terrorist attack was a seminal event that warns the world: Beware – the terror is here. September 11, 2001 – Aftermath, Jim Watson, September 13, 2001: U.S. Navy.. Pillar 10: History / Pilar 10: História FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

226 225 The Good Samaritan, François-Léon Sicard (1862–1934); the Tuileries Gardens, Paris. Photographer: Marie-Lan Nguyen, Pillar 10: History / Pilar 10: História You shall not stand by the blood of your neighbor (Leviticus 19:16) History provides numerous examples of people who risked their lives to help strangers. These people exemplify by their deeds the greatest achievement of humanity. During the dark days of the Holocaust righteous non- Jews risked their lives to save Jews. They were honored with the title “Righteous among the Nations." By January 1, 2010, 23,226 people and organizations had been recognized. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

227 Universal Memory Universal memory explores the collective documented past of mankind, civilizations, nations, and societies. The category represents history and archaeology. Declaration of Independence, the five-man drafting committee (John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert R. Livingston, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson) presenting their work to the Congress, John Trumbull, 1819; Capitol rotunda, Washington, D.C. Pillar 10: History / Pilar 10: História FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

228 Relations The relations category focuses on relations among people. The category includes genealogy, the study of families and their history. The family tree of Herzog Ludwig I of Württemberg (ruled ); source: Wikipedia. Pillar 10: History / Pilar 10: História FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

229 228 Open Book, Scuola Tedesca, ca. 16 th century; Uffizi Gallery, Florence. Human knowledge is grounded in education and reason and sensitivity and curiosity and vision and commitment and integrity. Conclusão FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

230 229 Conclusão 10 Pillars of Knowledge frames contemporary human knowledge. Now we see the whole picture and the meaningful relations among its parts. Still, we cannot be bound by frames. This is the essence of the human existence. Escaping Criticism, Pere Borrell del Caso, 1874; Banco de España, Madrid. FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS

231 230 The Gate in the Rocks, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1818; Staatliche Museen, Berlin. Dear Friends, Our journey comes to an end. The time has come to move on... Conclusão FIGURA PROTEGIDA POR DIREITOS AUTORAIS


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