Presentation on theme: "Parts of Speech Nouns A noun is a word that names: Persons Places Things Ideas."— Presentation transcript:
Parts of Speech
Nouns A noun is a word that names: Persons Places Things Ideas
Nouns Types A sentence may contain a noun of any particular type: Singular or Plural Possessive Concrete Abstract Proper Common Collective
Singular and Plural Nouns 402 Nouns can be singular or plural, depending upon whether they name one person, place, thing, or idea or more than one. To make most nouns take the plural form, add “s.” Other plural nouns are formed in different ways. For nouns ending in s, ch, sh, x or zz, add “es” to form the plural. For nouns ending “y” change the “y” to “I” and add “es.” For most nouns ending in “f” or “fe”, change f to “v” and add “es.”
Singular and Plural Nouns Other nouns have irregular plurals (eg. Woman/women). Examples of singular and plural nouns: Singular: boy, body, watch wife, ox Plural: boys, bodies, watches, wives, oxen
Possessive Nouns 403 The possessive form of a noun can show possession, ownership, or the general relationship between two nouns. Add a apostrophe and “s” to form the possessive of a singular noun, even one that already ends with “s.” Use an apostrophe alone to form the possessive of a plural noun that ends in “s.”
Possessive Nouns 403 Singular possessivePlural possessive The car’s hood. A baby’s bottle. The dish’s pattern. A valley’s towns. The calf’s mother. The business’s payroll. The cars’ hoods. The babies’ bottles. The dishes’ patterns. The valleys’ towns. The calves’ mother. The businesses’ payrolls.
Concrete and Abstract Nouns 404 A Concrete noun names an object that occupies space or that can be known by the senses. Petal Smoke Cough Orange Nook An Abstract noun names an idea, a quality, or a characteristic. Motion Humor Quantity Tact Rudeness
Proper and Common Nouns 405 Common: A general noun-not particular-name of a person Proper: the name of a particular person, place, thing or idea. Person: actor, uncle, poet Place: country, lake, canyon, store Thing: statue, book, holiday Idea: movement, era, religion Person: Sean Connery, Uncle Peter Place: Mexico, Holston River, Grand Canyon Thing: Statue of Liberty, Great Expectations, Christmas Judaism, Romanticism
Collective Nouns 406 A collective noun names a group Family (the) Public Team (the) Press Audience Senate Choir
Pronouns 408 A Pronoun is a word that takes the place of: a noun a group of words acting as a noun or another pronoun. The word or group of words that to which a pronoun refers is called its Antecedent.
Personal Pronouns 408 A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing by indicating the following: The person speaking (1 st person). The person being addressed (2 nd person). Any other person or thing being discussed (3 rd person). Personal pronouns also express number, they are either singular or plural.
Personal Pronouns 408 SingularPlural First PersonI, MeWe, Us Second PersonYou Third PersonHe, She, It-Him, HerThey, Them Third Person Pronouns also express Gender.
Possessive Pronouns 409 A possessive pronoun shows ownership SingularPlural First PersonMy, mineOur, Ours Second PersonYour, yoursYour, Yours Third PersonHis, her, hers, itsTheir, theirs
Reflexive and Intensive 410 Reflexive and Intensive pronouns are formed by adding-self or –selves to certain personal and possessive pronouns. SingularPlural First PersonMyselfOurselves Second PersonYourselfYourselves Third PersonHimself, herself, itself Themselves
Reflexive Pronouns A reflexive pronoun refers, or reflects back, to a noun or pronoun earlier in the sentence. It always adds information to a sentence. You out did yourself when you wrote that song. Cathy always timed herself when jogging. In dancing class we watch ourselves in the mirror. The basketball players prepared themselves for the game.
Intensive Pronouns An intensive pronoun adds emphasis to another noun or pronoun in the same sentence. If it is left out of the sentence, the sentence will still have the same meaning. I myself ate the pizza. The team itself chose the captain. Maria herself opened the door. George and Pedro planned the party themselves. What pattern do you recognize?
Demonstrative Pronouns 411 A demonstrative points out specific persons, places, things or ideas. SingularThisThat PluralTheseThose This is your homework. These are your textbooks. That will be your seat. Carla’s desk is cleaner than those.
Interrogative Pronouns 412 Interrogatives are used to form questions! Who? What? Whose? Whom? Which? Whoever, whomever? Whichever, whatever?
Who will lead the way? What makes a good leader? Whom would you choose? Which of these paths is easiest? Whose is the lightest pack? Whoever could have broke the window?
Relative Pronouns 412 A relative pronoun is used to begin a subordinate clause. The people who invented Monopoly were surprised by its success. Dominoes is a game that many Texans play. Mary, whose maiden name is Smith, married a Greene. They collected a large amount of money, which helped to find a cure.
Indefinite Pronouns 413 Indefinites refers to persons, places, or things in a more general way than a noun does. Exp: Everyone needs food. (Ind. Pronoun refers to people in general.) Exp: Did you get enough to eat? ( Ind. Pronoun refers to a general, non specific, amount.) Exp: After two hamburgers he did not want another. (Ind. Pronoun refers to hamburgers.)
Indefinite Pronouns All Another Any Anybody Anyone Anything Both Each Either Enough Everybody Everyone Everything Few Many Most Much Neither Nobody None No one Nothing One Other Others Plenty Several Some Somebody Someone Something These pronouns are the most commonly used.
Verbs 414 A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being and is necessary to make a statement. The violinists begin. Rehearsals are important. A flutist entered late. The conductor seems enthusiastic.
Verbs 414 The primary characteristic of a verb is its ability to express time- past, present, and future. Verbs express time by means of tense forms. Present TenseThey walk home together. Past TenseThey walked home together. Future TenseThey will walk home together.
Action Verbs 415 TransitiveIntransitive An action verb that is followed by a word or words that answer the question what and whom? It must transmit information to the direct object. It can not stand alone! An action verb that is not followed by a word that answers what or whom? The verb does not need to transmit information for the sentence to be understood. It can stand alone! Action verbs tells what someone or something does, hence “action.”
Transitive Verbs Cats see their prey in the dark. (what) Tom left Mike a PC. (whom) Jerry went to the store for milk. Hope has a cold. Mary runs track for the school. Notice how the sentences depend upon words following the verbs for clarity.
Intransitive Verbs Cats see well in the dark (how/where). Jesus wept. Some soldiers returned. He gave (Tran) Lewis and Clark the horses they needed. After roll call, Samuel left. Notice that the subject and verb contain enough information to make a sensible sentence.
Linking verbs 417 Linking verbs link, or join, the subject of a sentence with a word or expression that identifies or describes the subject. They can be identified as “be” in its forms: Am, is, are, was, and were are the most common linking verbs. Several other forms other than “be” can act as linking verbs. LookStayTasteRemain GrowSmellSeemappear FeelBecomeSound
Verb Phrases 419 A verb phrase consists of a main verb and its auxiliary or helping verbs. The most common auxiliary verbs are the forms of be and have. They help the main verb express the various tenses. We are working in the yard. We have worked for the past two weeks. We had been working for an hour before the storm.
Verb Phrases 419 The other auxliary verbs are not used primarily to express time. They are often used to emphasize meaning. I should be leaving. Could he have finished? Luisa may already be waiting.
Verb Phrases 419 Below is a table of commonly used auxiliary verbs. Forms of Be Am, is, are, was, were, being, been Forms of Have Has, have, had Other auxiliaries Can, could, may, might, must, do, does, did, shall, should, will, would
Adjectives 423 An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun by answering the questions of what kind, which one, how many, or how much. Nouns can also be used as adjectives. They tell what kind or which one. Exp: afternoon class, music lesson football practice Possessive pronouns such as, our, his, her, their, my can be adjectives too. Exp: our house, his car, their toys, my hands
Adjectives 423 Many adjectives have different forms to indicate degree of comparison. PositiveComparativeSuperlative Light Heavy Funny Sad Practical Good Much Bad Lighter Heavier Funnier Sadder More practical Better More Worse Lightest Heaviest Funniest Saddest Most practical Best Most worst
Articles 426 A and An The “A” and “An” are indefinite articles. They can refer to any one of a kind of person, place or thing. “The” is a definite article. It refers to a specific person, place, or thing. INDEFINITE She found a ring. I bought a used mask. They spotted an iceberg. He was an honorable choice. DEFINITE She found the ring. I bought the used mask. They spotted the iceberg. He was the best choice.
Proper Adjectives 427 A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun with a capital letter. Rembrandt was a Dutch painter. Arthur was an English king. The president must be an American citizen. Mom makes wonderful Russian tea.
Adverbs 429 Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs by making their meaning more specific. Adverbs answer the questions of: when?, where?, how?, to what degree? An easy clue to identify an adverb is that most of them end with “ly.”
Adverbs 429 I will call tomorrow. When? His phone rings often. To what degree? The speaker will stand here. Where? Kim carefully polished the car. How/degree? We were truly sorry. What degree?
Negative words as Adverbs 430 The word not and its contraction (n’t) are considered adverbs. Other negative words can function as adverbs of time and place. The plane has not landed. The plane is nowhere in sight. They have hardly boarded. I have never flown.
Adverbs that compare 431 Like some adjectives, some adverbs have different forms to indicate degree of comparison. PositiveComparativesuperlative Runs fast Arrived late Works hard Walks quickly Reads carefully Calls often Feels well Behaves badly Cares little Throws far Runs faster Arrived later Works harder Walks more quickly Reads more carefully Calls more often Feels better Behaves worse Cares less Throws farther Runs fastest Arrived latest Works hardest Walks most quickly Reads most quickly Calls most often Feels best Behaves worst Cares least Throws farthest
Prepositions 435 Prepositions are words that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to some other word in a sentence. Prepositions begin phrases that must end with a noun or pronoun that is called the object of the preposition. Just remember the rabbit and log theory to remember prepositions.
The Rabbit can do anything with the log, he can: Go in Go over Go under Go around Go through Go above Be from beside against with on behind
Prepositions A compound preposition is made up of more than one word. According to Ahead of Along with Apart from Aside from As to Because of By means of In addition to In front of In spite of Instead of Next to On account of On top of Out of Owing to
Conjunctions 437 A conjunction is a word that joins single words or groups of words. A coordinating conjunction joins words or groups of words that have equal grammatical weight in a sentence. Think of them as the “FANBOYS.” FANBOYS ForAndNorButOrYetSo
Conjunctions 437 Two and two are four. She is good at algebra but not at English. We must leave now, or we will be late. The bell rang, yet everyone remained seated. He could not sleep, nor would he eat. When used as a coordinating conjunction, for means “for the reason that” or “because.” The children were tired, for they had run a long distance.
Correlative conjunctions 438 Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to join words and groups of words of equal weight in a sentence. Both she and I were there. Either she or I can go. Neither she nor I can go. I met not only Jean but also Ed. Both….and Either….or Just as…..so Neither….nor Not only….but (also) Whether….or
Subordinating Conjunctions 439 A subordinating conjunction joins two clauses, or ideas, in such a way as to make one grammatically dependent upon the other. The idea, or clause, that a subordinating conjunction introduces is “dependent” because it can not stand alone as a sentence.
Subordinating Conjunctions 439 We rake the leaves because so many had fallen. We raked the leaves before we had lunch. When more leaves fall, we will rake again. We will go to the store after we finish. If you get a new car, we will go to the beach. Until the roof is repaired, we will have to use another location.
Subordinating Conjunctions 439 The following table has commonly used Subordinating Conjunctions. After Although As as far as As if As long as As soon as As though Because Before Considering that If Inasmuch In order that Provided that Since So long as So that Than Through Unless Until When Whenever Where Where as Wherever while
Conjunctive Adverbs 441 Conjunctive adverbs join two independent sentences together. The adverb must be used in coordination with a comma and a semicolon. Exp: Most people think of deserts as very hot places; however, desert nights can be quite cool. Mark can cook well; moreover, his campfire cooking skills are excellent.
Interjections 443 An interjection is a word or phrase that express emotion or exclamation. An interjection has no grammatical connection to other words. Oh, I didn’t know that.Whew, it’s hot. Ouch, That hurts!Hey, look out!