2NounsA noun is a word that names:PersonsPlacesThingsIdeas
3Nouns Types A sentence may contain a noun of any particular type: Singular or PluralPossessiveConcreteAbstractProperCommonCollective
4Singular and Plural Nouns 402 Nouns can be singular or plural, depending upon whether they name one person, place, thing, or idea or more than one. To make most nouns take the plural form, add “s.” Other plural nouns are formed in different ways. For nouns ending in s, ch, sh, x or zz, add “es” to form the plural. For nouns ending “y” change the “y” to “I” and add “es.” For most nouns ending in “f” or “fe”, change f to “v” and add “es.”
5Singular and Plural Nouns Other nouns have irregular plurals(eg. Woman/women). Examples of singular and plural nouns:Singular: boy, body, watch wife, oxPlural: boys, bodies, watches, wives, oxen
6Possessive Nouns 403The possessive form of a noun can show possession, ownership, or the general relationship between two nouns.Add a apostrophe and “s” to form the possessive of a singular noun, even one that already ends with “s.”Use an apostrophe alone to form the possessive of a plural noun that ends in “s.”
8Concrete and Abstract Nouns 404 A Concrete noun names an object that occupies space or that can be known by the senses.PetalSmokeCoughOrangeNookAn Abstract noun names an idea, a quality, or a characteristic.MotionHumorQuantityTactRudeness
9Proper and Common Nouns 405 Proper: the name of a particular person, place, thing or idea.Common: A general noun-not particular-name of a personPerson: Sean Connery, Uncle PeterPlace: Mexico, Holston River, Grand CanyonThing: Statue of Liberty, Great Expectations, ChristmasJudaism, RomanticismPerson: actor, uncle, poetPlace: country, lake, canyon, storeThing: statue, book, holidayIdea: movement, era, religion
10Collective Nouns 406 A collective noun names a group Family (the) PublicTeam(the) PressAudienceSenateChoir
11Pronouns 408 A Pronoun is a word that takes the place of: a noun a group of words acting as a nounor another pronoun.The word or group of words that to which a pronoun refers is called its Antecedent.
12Pronouns Types Personal Possessive Reflexive Intensive Demonstrative InterrogativeRelativeIndefinite
13Personal Pronouns 408A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing by indicating the following:The person speaking (1st person).The person being addressed (2nd person).Any other person or thing being discussed (3rd person).Personal pronouns also express number, they are either singular or plural.
14Personal Pronouns 408 Third Person Pronouns also express Gender. SingularPluralFirst PersonI, MeWe, UsSecond PersonYouThird PersonHe, She, It-Him, HerThey, ThemThird Person Pronouns also express Gender.
16Reflexive and Intensive 410 Reflexive and Intensive pronouns are formed by adding-self or –selves to certain personal and possessive pronouns.SingularPluralFirst PersonMyselfOurselvesSecond PersonYourselfYourselvesThird PersonHimself, herself, itselfThemselves
17Reflexive PronounsA reflexive pronoun refers, or reflects back, to a noun or pronoun earlier in the sentence. It always adds information to a sentence.You out did yourself when you wrote that song.Cathy always timed herself when jogging.In dancing class we watch ourselves in the mirror.The basketball players prepared themselves for the game.
18Intensive PronounsAn intensive pronoun adds emphasis to another noun or pronoun in the same sentence. If it is left out of the sentence, the sentence will still have the same meaning.I myself ate the pizza.The team itself chose the captain.Maria herself opened the door.George and Pedro planned the party themselves.What pattern do you recognize?
19Demonstrative Pronouns 411 A demonstrative points out specific persons, places, things or ideas.SingularThisThatPluralTheseThoseThis is your homework.These are your textbooks.That will be your seat.Carla’s desk is cleaner than those.
20Interrogative Pronouns 412 Interrogatives are used to form questions!Who?What?Whose?Whom?Which?Whoever, whomever?Whichever, whatever?
21Who will lead the way?What makes a good leader?Whom would you choose?Which of these paths is easiest?Whose is the lightest pack?Whoever could have broke the window?
22Relative Pronouns 412A relative pronoun is used to begin a subordinate clause.The people who invented Monopoly were surprised by its success.Dominoes is a game that many Texans play.Mary, whose maiden name is Smith, married a Greene.They collected a large amount of money, which helped to find a cure.
23Indefinite Pronouns 413Indefinites refers to persons, places, or things in a more general way than a noun does.Exp: Everyone needs food. (Ind. Pronoun refers to people in general.)Exp: Did you get enough to eat? ( Ind. Pronoun refers to a general, non specific, amount.)Exp: After two hamburgers he did not want another. (Ind. Pronoun refers to hamburgers.)
24Indefinite Pronouns These pronouns are the most commonly used. All AnotherAnyAnybodyAnyoneAnythingBothEachEitherEnoughEverybodyEveryoneEverythingFewManyMostMuchNeitherNobodyNoneNo oneNothingOneOtherOthersPlentySeveralSomeSomebodySomeoneSomethingThese pronouns are the most commonly used.
25VerbsA verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being and is necessary to make a statement.The violinists begin.Rehearsals are important.A flutist entered late.The conductor seems enthusiastic.
26VerbsThe primary characteristic of a verb is its ability to express time- past, present, and future. Verbs express time by means of tense forms.Present TenseThey walk home together.Past TenseThey walked home together.Future TenseThey will walk home together.
27Action VerbsAction verbs tells what someone or something does, hence “action.”TransitiveIntransitiveAn action verb that is followed by a word or words that answer the question what and whom?It must transmit information to the direct object.It can not stand alone!An action verb that is not followed by a word that answers what or whom?The verb does not need to transmit information for the sentence to be understood.It can stand alone!
28Transitive Verbs Cats see their prey in the dark. (what) Tom left Mike a PC. (whom)Jerry went to the store for milk.Hope has a cold.Mary runs track for the school.Notice how the sentences depend upon words following the verbs for clarity.
29Intransitive Verbs Cats see well in the dark (how/where). Jesus wept. Some soldiers returned.He gave (Tran) Lewis and Clark the horses they needed.After roll call, Samuel left.Notice that the subject and verb contain enough information to make a sensible sentence.
30Linking verbsLinking verbs link, or join, the subject of a sentence with a word or expression that identifies or describes the subject.They can be identified as “be” in its forms:Am, is, are, was, and were are the most common linking verbs.Several other forms other than “be” can act as linking verbs.LookStayTasteRemainGrowSmellSeemappearFeelBecomeSound
31Verb PhrasesA verb phrase consists of a main verb and its auxiliary or helping verbs.The most common auxiliary verbs are the forms of be and have. They help the main verb express the various tenses.We are working in the yard.We have worked for the past two weeks.We had been working for an hour before the storm.
32Verb PhrasesThe other auxliary verbs are not used primarily to express time. They are often used to emphasize meaning.I should be leaving.Could he have finished?Luisa may already be waiting.
33Verb Phrases 419 Below is a table of commonly used auxiliary verbs. Forms of BeAm, is, are, was, were, being, beenForms of HaveHas, have, hadOther auxiliariesCan, could, may, might, must, do, does, did, shall, should, will, would
34AdjectivesAn adjective is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun by answering the questions of what kind, which one, how many, or how much.Nouns can also be used as adjectives. They tell what kind or which one.Exp: afternoon class, music lesson football practicePossessive pronouns such as, our, his, her, their, my can be adjectives too.Exp: our house, his car, their toys, my hands
35AdjectivesMany adjectives have different forms to indicate degree of comparison.PositiveComparativeSuperlativeLightHeavyFunnySadPracticalGoodMuchBadLighterHeavierFunnierSadderMore practicalBetterMoreWorseLightestHeaviestFunniestSaddestMost practicalBestMostworst
36Articles 426 A and An The “A” and “An” are indefinite articles. They can refer to any one of a kind of person, place or thing.“The” is a definite article.It refers to a specific person, place, or thing.INDEFINITEShe found a ring.I bought a used mask.They spotted an iceberg.He was an honorable choice.DEFINITEShe found the ring.I bought the used mask.They spotted the iceberg.He was the best choice.
37Proper Adjectives 427A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun with a capital letter.Rembrandt was a Dutch painter.Arthur was an English king.The president must be an American citizen.Mom makes wonderful Russian tea.
38AdverbsAdverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs by making their meaning more specific.Adverbs answer the questions of: when?, where?, how?, to what degree?An easy clue to identify an adverb is that most of them end with “ly.”
39Adverbs 429 I will call tomorrow. When? His phone rings often. To what degree?The speaker will stand here. Where?Kim carefully polished the car. How/degree?We were truly sorry. What degree?
40Negative words as Adverbs 430 The word not and its contraction (n’t) are considered adverbs. Other negative words can function as adverbs of time and place.The plane has not landed.The plane is nowhere in sight.They have hardly boarded.I have never flown.
41Adverbs that compare 431Like some adjectives, some adverbs have different forms to indicate degree of comparison.PositiveComparativesuperlativeRuns fastArrived lateWorks hardWalks quicklyReads carefullyCalls oftenFeels wellBehaves badlyCares littleThrows farRuns fasterArrived laterWorks harderWalks more quicklyReads more carefullyCalls more oftenFeels betterBehaves worseCares lessThrows fartherRuns fastestArrived latestWorks hardestWalks most quicklyReads most quicklyCalls most oftenFeels bestBehaves worstCares leastThrows farthestNote that adverbs with ly has more and most.
42PrepositionsPrepositions are words that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to some other word in a sentence.Prepositions begin phrases that must end with a noun or pronoun that is called the object of the preposition.Just remember the rabbit and log theory to remember prepositions.
43The Rabbit can do anything with the log, he can: Go aroundGo underGo aboveGo inGo throughGo overonBe frombehindbesidewithagainst
44Prepositions Commonly Used Aboard Beneath In Regarding About Beside InsideSinceAboveBesidesIntoThroughAcrossBetweenLikeThroughoutAfterBeyondNearToAgainstBut (except)OfTowardAlongByOffUnderAmidConcerningOnUnderneathAmongDespiteOntoUntilAroundDownOppositeUntoAsDuringOutUpAtExceptOutsideUponBeforeExceptingOverWithBehindForPastWithinBelowFromPendingwithoutCommonly Used
45Prepositions A compound preposition is made up of more than one word. According toAhead ofAlong withApart fromAside fromAs toBecause ofBy means ofIn addition toIn front ofIn spite ofInstead ofNext toOn account ofOn top ofOut ofOwing to
46ConjunctionsA conjunction is a word that joins single words or groups of words.A coordinating conjunction joins words or groups of words that have equal grammatical weight in a sentence. Think of them as the “FANBOYS.”FANBOYSForAndNorButOrYetSo
47Conjunctions 437 Two and two are four. She is good at algebra but not at English.We must leave now, or we will be late.The bell rang, yet everyone remained seated.He could not sleep, nor would he eat.When used as a coordinating conjunction, for means “for the reason that” or “because.”The children were tired, for they had run a long distance.
48Correlative conjunctions 438 Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to join words and groups of words of equal weight in a sentence.Both she and I were there.Either she or I can go.Neither she nor I can go.I met not only Jean but also Ed.Both….andEither….orJust as…..soNeither….norNot only….but (also)Whether….or
49Subordinating Conjunctions 439 A subordinating conjunction joins two clauses, or ideas, in such a way as to make one grammatically dependent upon the other.The idea, or clause, that a subordinating conjunction introduces is “dependent” because it can not stand alone as a sentence.
50Subordinating Conjunctions 439 We rake the leaves because so many had fallen.We raked the leaves before we had lunch.When more leaves fall, we will rake again.We will go to the store after we finish.If you get a new car, we will go to the beach.Until the roof is repaired, we will have to use another location.
51Subordinating Conjunctions 439 The following table has commonly used Subordinating Conjunctions.AfterAlthoughAsas far asAs ifAs long asAs soon asAs thoughBecauseBeforeConsidering thatIfInasmuchIn order thatProvided thatSinceSo long asSo thatThanThroughUnlessUntilWhenWheneverWhereWhere asWhereverwhile
52Conjunctive Adverbs 441Conjunctive adverbs join two independent sentences together.The adverb must be used in coordination with a comma and a semicolon.Exp: Most people think of deserts as very hot places; however, desert nights can be quite cool.Mark can cook well; moreover, his campfire cooking skills are excellent.
53InterjectionsAn interjection is a word or phrase that express emotion or exclamation. An interjection has no grammatical connection to other words.Oh, I didn’t know that. Whew, it’s hot.Ouch, That hurts! Hey, look out!