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Chris Anderson Randolph-Henry High School.  1775: near Boston, anger and hostilities break out between the colonists and the British  the Bostonians.

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Presentation on theme: "Chris Anderson Randolph-Henry High School.  1775: near Boston, anger and hostilities break out between the colonists and the British  the Bostonians."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chris Anderson Randolph-Henry High School

2  1775: near Boston, anger and hostilities break out between the colonists and the British  the Bostonians were angered by the British govnt.  Port of Boston remained closed  British “red-coats” flooded the city  the Bostonians began spreading may rumors about these soldiers

3  Parliament new that tensions were increasing in Boston and vowed to keep order in the city  Parliament orders the governor of Massachusetts--General Thomas Gage-- to seize and guard the colonial military supplies in Concord, Massachusetts

4 General Thomas Gage

5  April 19, 1775: Gage sends 700 British troops to Concord, Mass. To collect and destroy the colonial weapons Concord was about 18 miles from Boston 2 Colonists learn of Gage’s plan--Paul Revere & William Dawes these two men ward the colonial soldiers of Gage’s plan for the British soldiers to reach Concord, they had to 1st pass through a small town--Lexington when the British reach Lexington, they are met by a group of colonial farmers and villages wielding weapons these villagers were blocking the road to Concord

6  These colonists refused to let the British soldiers pass  eventually a shot was fired--no one knows from which side  the British killed 8 colonists and were able to defend themselves from other colonial attacks  the British troops turned around and marched back to Boston  while retreating, the British were constantly being ambushed by the colonists  in the end--300 British troops were killed; only 100 colonists had been killed  the British were surprised by the colonists’ skills and were embarrassed by the British failure

7 Battles of Lexington and Concord

8 Moving Toward Separation  The rest of the colonies quickly heard about the Massachusetts quarrel and colonial victory  May 1775: the Second Continental Congress met, again, in Philadelphia this Second Continental Congress organized a colonial army and elected George Washington as the commander

9 Second Continental Congress

10 George Washington

11  many colonies still did not believe that going to war with Britain would solve any problems the Second Cont. Cong. Attempted to find a peaceful solution with Britain the peaceful proposition has been called the Olive Branch Petition the Olive Branch Petition was sent straight to King George III Britain refused the petition--a peaceful solution was, thus, unattainable most colonist saw independence as the only solution

12 Olive Branch Petition

13 Thomas Paine  One of the most verbal individuals in favor of independence from Britain was Thomas Paine Paine had only been in the colonies for a short period January 1776: Paine writes a pamphlet called Common Sense this pamphlet urged the colonists to break from Britain and become totally independent many colonists read his pamphlet

14 Thomas Paine

15  Many colonials began asking for a declaration of independence after reading Paine’s work and a declaration of Independence will be authored  the main author of the colonial Declaration of Independence was Thomas Jefferson the colonial Declaration gave reasons by the colonies wanted to bread from GB Jefferson used many ideas from John Locke the Declaration stated that all individuals have certain rights that no government should take away it also urged for a contract to be created between the colonists and the government the document also listed many of GB’s wrong doings last line of Dec. of Ind.: “these United colonies are and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States.”

16 Thomas Jefferson

17  July 4, 1776: the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration Of Independence

18 War for Independence  Once the Declaration of Independence was signed, war was certain  by signing the Dec. of Ind., the colonists were declaring war on GB  the colonists who headed the revolution knew that losing the war would mean the loss of their life  the very early battles of the American Revolution occurred in New York and New Jersey

19  Great Britain wanted to control the Middle Colonies  if they could control the Middle Colonies, then they could separate the Southern Colonies from the New England Colonies  by separating the colonies, GB believed they would have an easier fight

20 British Forces  Great Britain had one of the most powerful forces in the world GB had well trained and disciplined soldiers GB also had a very good navy--the most powerful navy in the world  GB also hired German mercenaries to fight against the colonists

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22 Colonial Forces  The colonists were not as prepared for war as the British soldiers were not well trained no colonial navy not enough food, money, or weapons no uniforms for the soldiers and officers  it would seem that the colonists would not have a chance, but they made the best of what they had

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24  General George Washington was a good and experienced leader  the colonial forces also received help from the French--the French wanted to retaliate against the British over the French losses incurred in the French and Indian War the French will give the colonists much needed weaponry and ammunition

25 The Fighting  In the very beginning, the British won many battles against the inexperienced colonists  slowly, the colonists began to strike their own victories the colonists used ambush tactics to surprise the “red-coats” the British were at a disadvantage because they had to wait months for supplies to come from overseas

26  October 1777: the colonials get a major victory at Saratoga, New York the colonists will make 6,000 British soldiers surrender  this victory showed the French that the colonists did have a chance against the British  the French will formally enter the war on the side of the American Colonists the colonials now had enough troops and supplies to drive the British out

27  1779: the colonists get more help from another European nation--Spain  Spain will declare war on Great Britain  both Spain and France will used their navies to help the colonists  1780: the Netherlands also join in and declare war against Great Britain

28  October 1781: the American Colonists were finally able to defeat the British  the British surrendered to Washington  the war was now over  the colonists now had the problem of creating a new government

29 British Yorktown

30 Creating a new Govnt.  1783: the British finally admit defeat and recognize their former colonies as an independent nation--the United States of America  the colonists now had to create a government for their new nation the Americans wanted a government that would unite the separate states and one that would not be too centralized no one wanted an all powerful central government  the 1st U. S. government was a confederation--a league of independent states  this new government was set up under the Articles of Confederation

31 The Articles of Confederation  The government under the Articles of Confederation was very weak national government could not collect taxes could not force the states to pay national debts could not raise armies could not regulate states’ economies ○ different states could compete with one another ○ states began arguing with one another over trade  a new type of government needed to be created

32  A stronger central government would be needed to totally unite the different states  1787: a convention was called to make some changes to the Articles of Confederation  eventually, the Articles were thrown away and a new constitution was written  1788: the U. S. Constitution was ratified  1789: the U. S. Constitution was put into action

33 U. S. Constitution  The constitution created a federal system-- power shared by a central government and the states governments  central government was divided into 3 branches--executive, legislative, and judicial- -and a system of checks and balances was established  the new constitution turned the U. S. into a republic

34  1789: elections were held and George Washington was elected the 1st President under this new constitution  Congress soon developed a Bill of Rights and added these rights to the constitution freedom of religion freedom of speech trial by jury protected individual states’ rights


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