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Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa: south of Sahara desert Sub-Saharan Africa: south of Sahara desert –Rainforests –Mtns. –Savannas (grasslands)

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Presentation on theme: "Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa: south of Sahara desert Sub-Saharan Africa: south of Sahara desert –Rainforests –Mtns. –Savannas (grasslands)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Africa

2 Sub-Saharan Africa: south of Sahara desert Sub-Saharan Africa: south of Sahara desert –Rainforests –Mtns. –Savannas (grasslands)

3 Great Rift Valley Great Rift Valley –40 miles wide, 2,000 ft deep –2,000-3,000 miles long

4 Village Life Matrilineal—trace ancestry through mother Matrilineal—trace ancestry through mother Husband’s family gives bride’s family iron tools, animals, & cloth Husband’s family gives bride’s family iron tools, animals, & cloth Boys & girls at 12 take part in adulthood ceremonies Boys & girls at 12 take part in adulthood ceremonies

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6 Africans- polytheists Africans- polytheists –Believe spirits of dead live among them Adopted ideas from Arabs (Islam) & Europeans (Christianity) Adopted ideas from Arabs (Islam) & Europeans (Christianity)

7 Nubia 2000 BC: upper Nile River 2000 BC: upper Nile River Under Egyptian control Under Egyptian control Gold, ivory, pyramids Gold, ivory, pyramids 700s BC: Nubian pharaohs rule Egypt until Axum invaded Nubia 700s BC: Nubian pharaohs rule Egypt until Axum invaded Nubia

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9 Axum 500 BC Traded w/ Rome Traded w/ Rome Ivory, gold, exotic animals Ivory, gold, exotic animals Christian kingdom along Red Sea Christian kingdom along Red Sea Muslim raids forced them to interior--Ethiopia Muslim raids forced them to interior--Ethiopia

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11 Ghana ( AD) Ghana ( AD) –Located between salt & gold mines –Trans-Saharan trade (across the desert) –Salt=most important –Conquered by Muslims

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16 Mali Mali –Small state in Ghana Sundiata Keita Sundiata Keita –1200s took old lands of Ghana –Cleared land for farming=surpluses –Peanuts, rice, sorghum, yams, beans, onions, wheat

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18 Mansa Musa ruled Mansa Musa ruled –Introduced Islam –Built mosques in Timbuktu –Went on hajj

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20 Songhai Songhai –Niger River –1400s Sunni Ali—took over Timbuktu Divided into provinces Divided into provinces Laws based on Islam Laws based on Islam 1589-attacked by Moroccans (w/ firearms) 1589-attacked by Moroccans (w/ firearms)

21 Zimbabwe “Great House of Stone” Between Zambezi & Limpopo Rivers Between Zambezi & Limpopo Rivers Large stone forts Large stone forts 1400s-declined for unknown reasons 1400s-declined for unknown reasons

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23 Great Zimbabwe Ruins

24 The Americas Migrated from Asia 11,500 yrs. ago Migrated from Asia 11,500 yrs. ago –Bering Strait

25 Olmecs 1200 BC – 400 BC 1200 BC – 400 BC “Rubber people” “Rubber people” 1 st Mexicans to build pyramids 1 st Mexicans to build pyramids Jade carvings Jade carvings Colossal heads (large stone heads) Colossal heads (large stone heads) Ball game with rubber ball Ball game with rubber ball

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27 Mayas (until 900 AD) Yucatan Peninsula Yucatan Peninsula Trade- cacao bean used as $ Trade- cacao bean used as $ Agriculture- farmers paid taxes in produce & time Agriculture- farmers paid taxes in produce & time Members of royal family inbreed Members of royal family inbreed Nobles drank hot chocolate (drinking money) Nobles drank hot chocolate (drinking money)

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29 Mothers tied boards to infants heads to flatten skulls (considered beautiful) Mothers tied boards to infants heads to flatten skulls (considered beautiful) Filed down teeth & covered w/ jade Filed down teeth & covered w/ jade Blood rituals & human sacrifices Blood rituals & human sacrifices Observatories – towers to “observe” the night sky Observatories – towers to “observe” the night sky

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32 900s cities abandoned 900s cities abandoned –Invasion? –Famine? –Epidemic? –Peasant revolt?

33 Aztecs Most glorious & goriest Most glorious & goriest Nomads until settled on island in Lake Texcoco– city Tenochtitlan (200,000 people) Nomads until settled on island in Lake Texcoco– city Tenochtitlan (200,000 people) Pyramid-temples Pyramid-temples Chinampas- farming maize (corn), squash, beans, peppers Chinampas- farming maize (corn), squash, beans, peppers Human sacrifices Human sacrifices Warfare- way of capturing sacrifices Warfare- way of capturing sacrifices

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37 1519- Spaniard Hernan Cortes Spaniard Hernan Cortes –Have cannons & firearms –Cortes allied w/ tribes tired of Montezuma –600 Spaniard w/ a few thousand allies conquered Aztecs

38 Incas South America- Andes Mtns. South America- Andes Mtns. Terrace farming Terrace farming Quipus- knots tied in rope for record keeping Quipus- knots tied in rope for record keeping Quechua- language Quechua- language Potatoes Potatoes

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41 Polytheistic- human sacrifices Polytheistic- human sacrifices Conquered by Francisco Pizarro 1533 Conquered by Francisco Pizarro 1533

42 Look at the above picture. How are these customs similar? Look at the above picture. How are these customs similar?

43 China in the Middle Ages

44 Sui Dynasty 500s – 600s Grand Canal Grand Canal –World’s oldest & longest 1,114 mi.

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47 Tang Dynasty 600s – 900s Golden Age Golden Age Zen Buddhism – meditation Zen Buddhism – meditation Confucianism Confucianism Rice & tea Rice & tea

48 Sung Dynasty (900s – 1200s) Wealthy class Wealthy class Foot binding – women of the house didn’t have to work – sign of wealth Foot binding – women of the house didn’t have to work – sign of wealth

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54 Mongols Mounted warriors – cavalry Mounted warriors – cavalry Genghis Khan “Universal Ruler” Genghis Khan “Universal Ruler” –Conquered Beijing Grandson Kublai Khan Grandson Kublai Khan –Conquered the rest of China Grandson Batu Grandson Batu –Invaded Russia & Europe –Golden Horde

55 Marco Polo Merchant & explorer Merchant & 17 left Venice for 17 left Venice for China Traveled around China for 17 yrs. Traveled around China for 17 yrs.

56 Japan

57 Japan Archipelago – island chain Archipelago – island chain Kamikaze “Divine Wind” – typhoon that stopped Mongol invasion Kamikaze “Divine Wind” – typhoon that stopped Mongol invasion heJapanesePoliticalSystem.htm

58 Shinto Only found in Japan Only found in Japan “Way of the kami” – nature spirits “Way of the kami” – nature spirits No scripture or doctrine No scripture or doctrine Prayers & rituals to please “kami” Prayers & rituals to please “kami” Existed alongside Zen Buddhism Existed alongside Zen Buddhism

59 Torii – Shinto shrine Hiroshima_Hiroshima_Prefecture_Chugoku.html

60 Japan’s Feudal System Emperor Emperor Shogun – general controlled military, $, & laws Shogun – general controlled military, $, & laws Daimyo – local lords Daimyo – local lords Samurai – warriors hired by lords for protection Samurai – warriors hired by lords for protection Peasants Peasants

61 Bushido Code of the samurai “way of the warrior” Code of the samurai “way of the warrior” Bravery, loyalty, honor Bravery, loyalty, honor Seppuku or “hara-kiri”– ceremonial suicide to avoid dishonor Seppuku or “hara-kiri”– ceremonial suicide to avoid dishonor

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