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Turn in your psychoanalytic perspective…………….put in the tray

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Presentation on theme: "Turn in your psychoanalytic perspective…………….put in the tray"— Presentation transcript:

1 Turn in your psychoanalytic perspective…………….put in the tray
Get out your vocab HW

2 Warm Up Come up with 5 words that are central to the psychoanalytic perspective List 3 tactics Freud used to try to reach someone’s unconscious List 3 criticisms of Freud If someone is fixated in the Oral stage, how will they behave? If someone is fixated in the Anal Stage, how will they behave? What happens in the Phallic stage? What is the point of Defense Mechanism? List and explain 3 defense mechanism Who are Neo-Freudians? What is the difference between the Id, Ego and Superego. List 2 projective tests

3 Chapter 15 pt. 2: Personality and the Trait, Humanistic, and Social Cognitive Perspectives
Pg. 513 picture

4 The Trait Perspective The father of the trait perspective of personality is Gordon Allport. The trait perspective looks to DESCRIBE personality in terms of fundamental traits: pattern of behavior or disposition to feel or act as assessed by self-reported inventories or peer reports.

5 Myers –Briggs Type Indicator
126 questions which ask patients for preferences Example- Feeling or Thinking Type Used in the business world



8 Method used For Measuring Personality for Trait Perspective
Personality Inventory: a questionnaire that is usually true/false in which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits. Weakness of This Measuring Device?

9 Example of Personality Inventory
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: most widely used personality test. Purpose was to identify emotional disorders but is also now used for screening purposes for employment. Test is an example of being empirically derived test: having pool of test questions that discriminate between groups. (Ex: Certain questions Depressed vs. Normal were likely to answer differently)

10 Self Reports Most widely used method
Simply asking friends and family about you

11 Dimensions of Personality
UNSTABLE STABLE choleric melancholic phlegmatic sanguine INTROVERTED EXTRAVERTED Moody Anxious Rigid Sober Pessimistic Reserved Unsociable Quiet Sociable Outgoing Talkative Responsive Easygoing Lively Carefree Leadership Passive Careful Thoughtful Peaceful Controlled Reliable Even-tempered Calm Touchy Restless Aggressive Excitable Changeable Impulsive Optimistic Active Through factor analysis, the Ensencks identified dimensions of personality were as introverted (keep to yourself)/ extroverted (outgoing) and stable/unstable.

12 The Big Five Expands Upon The Dimensions of Personality
The “Big Five” Personality Factors Trait Dimension Description Emotional Stability Calm versus anxious Secure versus insecure Self-satisfied versus self-pitying Extraversion Sociable versus retiring Fun-loving versus sober Affectionate versus reserved Openness Imaginative versus practical Preference for variety versus preference for routine Independent versus conforming Agreeableness Soft-hearted versus ruthless Trusting versus suspicious Helpful versus uncooperative Conscientiousness Organized versus disorganized Careful versus carel Disciplined versus impulsive

13 Big 5 Research Explores These Questions
1. How Stable are these Traits? In adulthood quite stable 2. How heritable are they? About 50% 3. How well do they apply to other cultures? Reasonably well 4. Do the Big Five traits predict other personal attributes? Yes Highly conscientious people tend to also be morning people

14 Evaluating the Trait Perspective
Person-Situation Controversy Traits exist. We differ. And our difference matter Averages in traits are consistent Consistency of Expressive Style Traits ( level of expressiveness) can remain hidden But in most situations a person’s true personality will come through

15 The Humanistic Perspective
The two founders of the Humanistic Perspective are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. The Humanistic Perspective focuses on the growth potential of healthy people. They focus on the power of free will and how people view themselves as a whole in pursuit of growth. Maslow Rogers

16 Maslow’s Main Idea 1. Self Actualization: ultimate goal in hierarchy of needs; meet one’s potential.

17 Carl Rogers’ Person Centered Approach
Believed all humans had potential for growth; just need climate that has: Genuineness (truthful/sincere) Acceptance (unconditional positive regard) Empathy (try to understand others) Unconditional Positive Regard: attitude of total acceptance towards another person.

18 Humanistic Perspective’s Central Concept to Understanding Personality
Self-Concept: all thoughts and feelings about ourselves: “Who am I?” Related terms to understand Self Concept: Self Esteem: feelings of self-worth. Self-Serving Bias: a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.

19 Criticism of Humanist Perspective
Maslow’s concepts are vague and might just be his own values. Too much focus on individual. Ignores human capacity for evil.

20 Warm Up 1. Describe the Trait Theory
2.Describe the MMPI Test (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) 3.Describe the Myers Brigg Test 4. List one criticism of the Trait Theory 5.Describe the Humanistic Perspective 6. What does it mean to be self-actualized? 7.Describe Unconditional positive regard 8. List one criticism of the humanistic perspective

21 Astrology and Palm Readings
million dollars on psychic hotlines Palm reading, horoscopes and handwriting analysis DO NOT WORK

22 Astrology and Palm Readings
How do they do it? 1. People are similar in many ways – “ I sense you’re nursing a grudge against someone” 2.The Barnum Effect-ppl have a strong tendency to believe that traits apply specifically to them especially if these traits are favorable and stated in a general way 3. They read our clothing, physical features, nonverbal gestures and reactions to what we say 4. John Edwards- “Throws many things at the wall, sees what sticks and goes with it”

23 Social –Cognitive Approach

24 Social Cognitive Perspective
Father of Social Cognitive Perspective is Albert Bandura. Social Cognitive Perspective: emphasizes the importance of external events (society) and how we interpret them (cognition). Conditioning Modeling

25 Personality is Made Up of Interlocking Forces
Reciprocal Determinism: is the idea that environment influences personality AND personality influences the environment. Same environment can have completely different effects on different people because of how they interpret and react to external events. You choose your environment and it then shapes you

26 Social Cognitive Perspective Focuses on Personal Control
Personal Control: sense of controlling the environment rather than feeling helpless. Study Personal Control in 2 ways: 1. Correlates ppls feelings of control with their behaviors and achievements 2. Experiment- raise and lower ppls sense of control and rate the effects

27 Locus of Control Achievement is highest when people have:
Internal Locus of Control: idea that one control’s their own destiny.

28 External Locus of Control Can Lead to Learned Helplessness
External Locus of Control: perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determines one’s fate. Learned Helplessness: hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. Ex: Dog being uncontrollably shocked for period; will not later escape when time arrives.

29 Optimism Do you view yourself as optimistic or pessimistic?
Optimistic ppl are more productive, health and happy Excessive optimism can be bad

30 Evaluating the Social Cognitive Perspective
Most widely accepted approach by current psychologists since it takes aspects from learning and cognition. Criticized by some because it fails to consider possible unconscious motives and focuses too much on environment not enough on inner traits.

31 Exploring the Self Possible Selves
Visions and goals we have for ourselves Dreams led to achievements Spotlight Effect PPl are less aware of us than we think Self Esteem- PPl who feel good about themselves are better off Low Self Esteem comes in a variety of forms

32 Exploring the Self Self Serving Bias
Our readiness to perceive ourselves favorably People accept more credit for goods things more than bad things Most ppl see themselves as better than average Survey Question: Who is most likely to go to heaven? Who beats out Princess Diana, Gandhi, MLK Jr., and Mother Theresa?

33 Exploring the Self If Self Serving Bias prevails why do ppl put themselves down? 1. Strategy for compliments 2. Prepare for possible failure 3. Pertains to “old” self

34 Individualism vs. Collectivism
giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications Collectivism giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly

35 Value Differences

36 Know Summary of Perspectives:

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