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Turn in your psychoanalytic perspective…………….put in the tray Turn in your psychoanalytic perspective…………….put in the tray Get out your vocab HW Get out.

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Presentation on theme: "Turn in your psychoanalytic perspective…………….put in the tray Turn in your psychoanalytic perspective…………….put in the tray Get out your vocab HW Get out."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Turn in your psychoanalytic perspective…………….put in the tray Turn in your psychoanalytic perspective…………….put in the tray Get out your vocab HW Get out your vocab HW

3 Warm Up 1. Come up with 5 words that are central to the psychoanalytic perspective 2. List 3 tactics Freud used to try to reach someone’s unconscious 3. List 3 criticisms of Freud 4. If someone is fixated in the Oral stage, how will they behave? 5. If someone is fixated in the Anal Stage, how will they behave? 6. What happens in the Phallic stage? 7. What is the point of Defense Mechanism? 8. List and explain 3 defense mechanism 9. Who are Neo-Freudians? 10. What is the difference between the Id, Ego and Superego. 11. List 2 projective tests

4 Chapter 15 pt. 2: Personality and the Trait, Humanistic, and Social Cognitive Perspectives Pg. 513 picture

5 The Trait Perspective The father of the trait perspective of personality is Gordon Allport. The father of the trait perspective of personality is Gordon Allport. The trait perspective looks to DESCRIBE personality in terms of fundamental traits: pattern of behavior or disposition to feel or act as assessed by self-reported inventories or peer reports. The trait perspective looks to DESCRIBE personality in terms of fundamental traits: pattern of behavior or disposition to feel or act as assessed by self-reported inventories or peer reports.

6 Myers –Briggs Type Indicator 126 questions which ask patients for preferences 126 questions which ask patients for preferences Example- Feeling or Thinking Type Example- Feeling or Thinking Type Used in the business world Used in the business world

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9 Method used For Measuring Personality for Trait Perspective Personality Inventory: a questionnaire that is usually true/false in which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits. Personality Inventory: a questionnaire that is usually true/false in which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits. Weakness of This Measuring Device? Weakness of This Measuring Device?

10 Example of Personality Inventory Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: most widely used personality test. Purpose was to identify emotional disorders but is also now used for screening purposes for employment. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: most widely used personality test. Purpose was to identify emotional disorders but is also now used for screening purposes for employment. Test is an example of being empirically derived test: having pool of test questions that discriminate between groups. (Ex: Certain questions Depressed vs. Normal were likely to answer differently) Test is an example of being empirically derived test: having pool of test questions that discriminate between groups. (Ex: Certain questions Depressed vs. Normal were likely to answer differently)

11 Self Reports Most widely used method Most widely used method Simply asking friends and family about you Simply asking friends and family about you

12 Dimensions of Personality Through factor analysis, the Ensencks identified dimensions of personality were as introverted (keep to yourself)/ extroverted (outgoing) and stable/unstable. Through factor analysis, the Ensencks identified dimensions of personality were as introverted (keep to yourself)/ extroverted (outgoing) and stable/unstable. UNSTABLE STABLE choleric melancholic phlegmaticsanguine INTROVERTED EXTRAVERTED Moody Anxious Rigid Sober Pessimistic Reserved Unsociable Quiet Sociable Outgoing Talkative Responsive Easygoing Lively Carefree Leadership Passive Careful Thoughtful Peaceful Controlled Reliable Even-tempered Calm Touchy Restless Aggressive Excitable Changeable Impulsive Optimistic Active

13 The Big Five Expands Upon The Dimensions of Personality The “Big Five” Personality Factors Trait Dimension Description Emotional Stability Calm versus anxious Secure versus insecure Self-satisfied versus self-pitying Extraversion Sociable versus retiring Fun-loving versus sober Affectionate versus reserved Openness Imaginative versus practical Preference for variety versus preference for routine Independent versus conforming Agreeableness Soft-hearted versus ruthless Trusting versus suspicious Helpful versus uncooperative Conscientiousness Organized versus disorganized Careful versus carel Disciplined versus impulsive

14 Big 5 Research Explores These Questions 1. How Stable are these Traits? 1. How Stable are these Traits?  In adulthood quite stable 2. How heritable are they? 2. How heritable are they?  About 50% 3. How well do they apply to other cultures ? 3. How well do they apply to other cultures ?  Reasonably well 4. Do the Big Five traits predict other personal attributes? 4. Do the Big Five traits predict other personal attributes?  Yes  Highly conscientious people tend to also be morning people

15 Evaluating the Trait Perspective Person-Situation Controversy Person-Situation Controversy  Traits exist. We differ. And our difference matter  Averages in traits are consistent Consistency of Expressive Style Consistency of Expressive Style  Traits ( level of expressiveness) can remain hidden  But in most situations a person’s true personality will come through

16 The Humanistic Perspective The two founders of the Humanistic Perspective are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. The two founders of the Humanistic Perspective are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. The Humanistic Perspective focuses on the growth potential of healthy people. They focus on the power of free will and how people view themselves as a whole in pursuit of growth. The Humanistic Perspective focuses on the growth potential of healthy people. They focus on the power of free will and how people view themselves as a whole in pursuit of growth. Maslow Rogers

17 Maslow’s Main Idea 1. Self Actualization: ultimate goal in hierarchy of needs; meet one’s potential. 1. Self Actualization: ultimate goal in hierarchy of needs; meet one’s potential.

18 Carl Rogers’ Person Centered Approach Believed all humans had potential for growth; just need climate that has: Believed all humans had potential for growth; just need climate that has: –Genuineness (truthful/sincere) –Acceptance (unconditional positive regard) –Empathy (try to understand others) Unconditional Positive Regard: attitude of total acceptance towards another person. Unconditional Positive Regard: attitude of total acceptance towards another person.

19 Humanistic Perspective’s Central Concept to Understanding Personality Self-Concept: all thoughts and feelings about ourselves: “Who am I?” Self-Concept: all thoughts and feelings about ourselves: “Who am I?” Related terms to understand Self Concept: Related terms to understand Self Concept: –Self Esteem: feelings of self- worth. –Self-Serving Bias: a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.

20 Criticism of Humanist Perspective Maslow’s concepts are vague and might just be his own values. Maslow’s concepts are vague and might just be his own values. Too much focus on individual. Too much focus on individual. Ignores human capacity for evil. Ignores human capacity for evil.

21 Warm Up 1. Describe the Trait Theory 1. Describe the Trait Theory 2.Describe the MMPI Test (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) 2.Describe the MMPI Test (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) 3.Describe the Myers Brigg Test 3.Describe the Myers Brigg Test 4. List one criticism of the Trait Theory 4. List one criticism of the Trait Theory 5.Describe the Humanistic Perspective 5.Describe the Humanistic Perspective 6. What does it mean to be self-actualized? 6. What does it mean to be self-actualized? 7.Describe Unconditional positive regard 7.Describe Unconditional positive regard 8. List one criticism of the humanistic perspective 8. List one criticism of the humanistic perspective

22 Astrology and Palm Readings million dollars on psychic hotlines million dollars on psychic hotlines Palm reading, horoscopes and handwriting analysis DO NOT WORK Palm reading, horoscopes and handwriting analysis DO NOT WORK

23 Astrology and Palm Readings How do they do it? How do they do it? –1. People are similar in many ways – “ I sense you’re nursing a grudge against someone” –2.The Barnum Effect-ppl have a strong tendency to believe that traits apply specifically to them especially if these traits are favorable and stated in a general way –3. They read our clothing, physical features, nonverbal gestures and reactions to what we say –4. John Edwards- “Throws many things at the wall, sees what sticks and goes with it”

24 Social –Cognitive Approach

25 Social Cognitive Perspective Father of Social Cognitive Perspective is Albert Bandura. Father of Social Cognitive Perspective is Albert Bandura. Social Cognitive Perspective: emphasizes the importance of external events (society) and how we interpret them (cognition). Social Cognitive Perspective: emphasizes the importance of external events (society) and how we interpret them (cognition). –Conditioning –Modeling

26 Personality is Made Up of Interlocking Forces Reciprocal Determinism: is the idea that environment influences personality AND personality influences the environment. Reciprocal Determinism: is the idea that environment influences personality AND personality influences the environment. Same environment can have completely different effects on different people because of how they interpret and react to external events. Same environment can have completely different effects on different people because of how they interpret and react to external events. –You choose your environment and it then shapes you

27 Social Cognitive Perspective Focuses on Personal Control Personal Control: sense of controlling the environment rather than feeling helpless. Personal Control: sense of controlling the environment rather than feeling helpless. Study Personal Control in 2 ways: Study Personal Control in 2 ways: –1. Correlates ppls feelings of control with their behaviors and achievements –2. Experiment- raise and lower ppls sense of control and rate the effects

28 Locus of Control Achievement is highest when people have: Achievement is highest when people have: Internal Locus of Control: idea that one control’s their own destiny. Internal Locus of Control: idea that one control’s their own destiny.

29 External Locus of Control Can Lead to Learned Helplessness External Locus of Control: perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determines one’s fate. External Locus of Control: perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determines one’s fate. Learned Helplessness: hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. Learned Helplessness: hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. Ex: Dog being uncontrollably shocked for period; will not later escape when time arrives. Ex: Dog being uncontrollably shocked for period; will not later escape when time arrives.

30 Optimism Do you view yourself as optimistic or pessimistic? Do you view yourself as optimistic or pessimistic? Optimistic ppl are more productive, health and happy Optimistic ppl are more productive, health and happy Excessive optimism can be bad Excessive optimism can be bad

31 Evaluating the Social Cognitive Perspective Most widely accepted approach by current psychologists since it takes aspects from learning and cognition. Most widely accepted approach by current psychologists since it takes aspects from learning and cognition. Criticized by some because it fails to consider possible unconscious motives and focuses too much on environment not enough on inner traits. Criticized by some because it fails to consider possible unconscious motives and focuses too much on environment not enough on inner traits.

32 Exploring the Self Possible Selves Possible Selves –Visions and goals we have for ourselves –Dreams led to achievements Spotlight Effect Spotlight Effect –PPl are less aware of us than we think Self Esteem - Self Esteem - –PPl who feel good about themselves are better off –Low Self Esteem comes in a variety of forms

33 Exploring the Self Self Serving Bias Self Serving Bias –Our readiness to perceive ourselves favorably  People accept more credit for goods things more than bad things  Most ppl see themselves as better than average Survey Question: Who is most likely to go to heaven? Who beats out Princess Diana, Gandhi, MLK Jr., and Mother Theresa? Survey Question: Who is most likely to go to heaven? Who beats out Princess Diana, Gandhi, MLK Jr., and Mother Theresa?

34 Exploring the Self If Self Serving Bias prevails why do ppl put themselves down? If Self Serving Bias prevails why do ppl put themselves down? 1. Strategy for compliments 2. Prepare for possible failure 3. Pertains to “old” self

35 Individualism vs. Collectivism Individualism Individualism –giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications Collectivism Collectivism –giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly

36 Value Differences

37 Know Summary of Perspectives:


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