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© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Muscular Strength and Endurance Chapter Four Pgs. 97 - 140 Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. Rath.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Muscular Strength and Endurance Chapter Four Pgs. 97 - 140 Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. Rath."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Muscular Strength and Endurance Chapter Four Pgs Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. Rath

2 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Muscular Strength and Endurance pg. 98 Muscles make up more than 40% of your body mass Well-developed muscles can assist with: Daily routines Protection from injury Enhancement of your overall well-being Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort Muscular endurance is the ability to resist fatigue while holding or repeating a muscular contraction 2

3 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Basic Muscle Physiology pg. 98 Muscles consist of individual muscle fibers (cells) connected in bundles Muscle fibers are made up of smaller protein structures called myofibrils sarcomeres (actin and myosin) Myofibrils are comprised of contractile units called sarcomeres (actin and myosin) Proper strength training causes individual fibers to increase the number of myofibrils resulting in hypertrophy Inactivity can reverse this process resulting in atrophy 3

4 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Basic Muscle Physiology pg. 98 / T4-4 Hypertrophy is the development of large muscle fibers Atrophy is the reduction of the size of the muscle fiber due to inactivity or injury Hyperplasia is the increase in the number of muscle fibers. It is not thought that hyperplasia plays a significant role in muscle size in humans. 4

5 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Skeletal Muscle Tissue pg. 98 5

6 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Basic Muscle Physiology pg Slow-twitch (Type I) fibers are: Fatigue resistant Don’t contract as rapidly and forcefully as fast- twitch fibers Rely primarily on the Oxidative Energy System Intermediate (Type II A) fibers: Intermediate in twitch velocity and oxidative capacity. Fast-twitch (Type IIB) fibers: Contract rapidly and forcefully Fatigue more quickly than slow-twitch fibers Rely more on the Phosphagen and Nonoxidative Energy Systems Strength Training can increase the size and strength of both fibers types, although fast-twitch fibers are preferentially increased. 6

7 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Motor Units pg. 99 A motor unit is made up of a nerve connected to a number of muscle fibers –Small motor units contain slow-twitch fibers while large motor units contain fast-twitch fibers Motor unit recruitment happens when strength is required; nerves assist with the action –The number and type of motor units recruited are dependent upon the amount of strength required Muscle learning is the ability to improve the body’s ability to recruit motor units. –What is muscle memory? 7

8 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Benefits of Muscular Strength & Endurance pgs Improved performance of physical activities Injury prevention Improved body composition Enhanced self-image and quality of life Improved muscle and bone health with aging Metabolic and heart health Refer to Table 4.1 Physiological Changes and Benefits from Strength Training 8

9 Types of Strength RelativeAbsolute = Weight lifted Body weight = Weight lifted

10 Types of Muscle Contractions pg. 104 © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 10

11 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Assessing Muscular Strength and Endurance Muscular strength is usually assessed by measuring the maximum amount of weight a person can lift one time (1 RM) –Also can use an estimated maximum test (submaximal lift) –Need to train for several weeks before testing –Retest after 6-12 weeks Muscular endurance is assessed by counting the maximum number of repetitions of a muscular contraction a person can perform to fatigue Refer to Lab 4.1(pg. 129) for guidelines 11

12 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Creating a Successful Strength Training Program pgs Static (isometric) exercise involves a muscle contraction without a change in the length of the muscle or joint angle An example is pushing against a brick wall Considered useful in strength building after an injury/surgery Isometric contractions are usually held for 6 seconds Dynamic (isotonic) exercise involves a muscle contraction with a change in the length of the muscle Two types Concentric Contraction (occurs when the muscle applies enough force to overcome resistance / shortens) Eccentric contraction (pliometric contraction) occurs when the resistance is greater than the force applied by the muscle / lengthens 12 Static vs. Dynamic Strength Training

13 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Comparing Static and Dynamic Exercises pgs Static exercises: Isometric exercise Muscle contraction without a change in the length of the muscle or the angle in the joint Require no equipment Build strength rapidly Useful for rehabilitation Dynamic exercises: Isotonic exercise Muscle contraction with a change in the length of the muscle Can be performed without or with equipment Can be used to develop strength or endurance Use full range of motion Are more popular with the general population 13

14 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Training Methods Other Dynamic Methods –Constant and variable resistance –Eccentric (pliometric) loading –Plyometrics –Speed loading – Kettlebells –Isokinetic Other Training Methods and Types of Equipment –Resistance Bands- Medicine balls –Exercise (stability) balls- Suspension training –Pilates- Stones –No-equipment calisthenics 14

15 Periodization Notes: ppt only Periodization is an organized approach to training that involves progressive cycling of various aspects of a training program during a specific period. It is a way of alternating training to its peak during season. The aim of periodization is to introduce new movements as you progress through the macrocycle to specify your training right up until you start the season. training © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 15

16 Periodization Application Notes: ppt only Strength and power will eventually plateau and even diminish if the same combination of sets and repetitions are followed. The way we avoid this is by applying Periodization or Cycling to our training plans. Cycling uses different combinations of volume and intensity, or phases, each translating into different responses by the body. Traditionally, we begin a cycle with a base phase then progress to a strength phase and finish with a peak phase. Intensity refers to the amount of work required to achieve the activity, and is proportional to the mass of the weights being lifted. Volume refers to the number of muscles worked, exercises, sets and reps during a single session. Frequency refers to how many training sessions are performed per week. workproportionalmassworkproportionalmass

17 Periodization Notes: ppt only Periodization is the practice of varying training stimuli to enhance long- term fitness and performance gains. Traditional Periodization programs varied intensity and volumes between mesocycles. More modern Periodization programs implement variations between microcycles (daily undulating periodized programs) as well, and appear to be more effective (Rhea 2002). It is the practice of splitting a program into distinct time periods, with each period building on the former periods’ progress.

18 Periodization Cycles The three parts of a periodized plan are the macrocycle (the entire year), the mesocycle (3 – 12 weeks with a macrocycle), and a microcycle (the actual training week within a mesocycle). Macrocycle ( The entire year) –Mesocycle (3 – 12 weeks with a macrocycle) Microcycle (week within a mesocycle)

19 Periodization Phases Transitional Phase: Beginning of a Mesocycle. Emphasis on training technique. New exercises are introduced and practiced. Low Intensity and Low Volume. Example: 1 to 2 set per exercise for about 10 to 12 repetitions. Endurance Phase: Muscular & cardiovascular endurance is the focus. Introduction of new movement pattern and exercises. Lower intensity and Higher Volume. Example: 1 to 3 sets per exercise for about 15 to 20 repetitions.

20 Periodization Phases Notes: ppt only Hypertrophy Phase: Muscle Growth. High Intensity and High Volume. Example: 5 to 8 sets per exercise for 8 to 12 repetitions Strength Phase: Greater rest period and slower training tempos to maximizes motor unit recruitment. High Intensity and Low Volume. Example: 5 -8 sets per exercise with 3-5 repetitions per exercise. Power Phase: The speed and rate of force production is important. Faster Tempo. Moderate Intensity / Low Intensity loads and Low Volume. Example: 3-5 sets per exercise with 5 to 10 repetitions of each exercise.

21 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Applying the FITT Principle pgs F requency: 2-3 nonconsecutive days/week allowing 1 day of rest between workouts / or split workouts. –Based on the ACSM guidelines I ntensity: (Amount of Resistance) Strength requires lifting as heavy as 80% of your 1 RM; Endurance requires % of your 1 RM T ime: (Repetitions and Sets) 1-5 reps for strength; reps for endurance; 8-12 for a combination of both, making sure each set leads to overload of that muscle group T ype: (Mode of Exercise) target large muscle groups (8-10 exercises) including opposing muscles (example: free weights, resistance bands, kettlebells). –Agonist muscle groups –Antagonist muscle groups 21

22 Muscular Strength F.I.T.T. pgs Strength Endurance Health Strength Endurance Health F 2-3 days/week every other day 2-3 days/week I 60-80% 1RM 40-60% 1 RM 60-70% 1 RM T 1-3 sets, 1-5 reps 2-5 sets, reps 1 set, 8-12 reps T weight training weight trainingweight training R e 3-5 minutes 1-3 minutes 1-3 minutes st

23 Resistance Training Myths No pain - no gain No pain - no gain Makes you “muscle bound” Makes you “muscle bound” Fat can be converted into muscle Fat can be converted into muscle Muscle turns to fat if not used Muscle turns to fat if not used Has masculinizing effect on women Has masculinizing effect on women Is extra PRO consumption necessary? Is extra PRO consumption necessary?

24 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Warm Up and Cool Down pg Everyone should perform a warm-up prior to each weight training session A general warm-up (like walking or easy jogging) and performing light reps of each exercise is recommended before every training session To cool down after weight training, relax for 5-10 minutes by stretching—which could possibly prevent soreness Refer to Figure

25 Getting Started and Making Progress pg. 110 First few sessions –Should be devoted to learning the movements –Choose a weight you can move easily 8-12 times; 1 set and rest 1-2 minutes between exercise –Goal is to be doing 1-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions Progress –“Two-for-two” rule –General guideline for increasing weight – increase approximately 5% for each 10 pounds you are currently lifting –Your rate of improvement depends on how hard you work and your bodies response to resistance training © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 25

26 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Weight Training Safety pgs Use proper lifting techniques –ACSM recommends a moderate rate for each repetition –Strive to maintain a neutral spine position during each exercise Use spotters and collars with free weights Be alert for injuries –R.I.C.E. principle See the Take Charge box “Safe Weight Training” 26

27 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. A Caution About Supplements and Drugs pgs Supplement manufacturers often make claims that their products will promote or enhance sport performance or physique Most of these substances are ineffective and expensive as well as possibly dangerous Before purchasing and using these products, find other resources that document these dietary aids We will Look into Ergogenic Aids during Lecture 9 Refer to Table

28 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Muscular Strength and Endurance Chapter Four


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