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Introduction to Comparative Anatomy and Physiology Unit 1.

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1 Introduction to Comparative Anatomy and Physiology Unit 1

2 2 Introduction Comparative Anatomy and Physiology: study of the structure and function of various organisms and their interrelationships and differences Comparative Anatomy and Physiology: study of the structure and function of various organisms and their interrelationships and differences

3 3 Importance of A & P Understand how organisms respond to a stimulusUnderstand how organisms respond to a stimulus Understand basis of diseaseUnderstand basis of disease Essential knowledge for people in biological science careersEssential knowledge for people in biological science careers Improve your understanding of treatments, advertisements, and reports presented within the scientific communityImprove your understanding of treatments, advertisements, and reports presented within the scientific community Understand how organisms respond to a stimulusUnderstand how organisms respond to a stimulus Understand basis of diseaseUnderstand basis of disease Essential knowledge for people in biological science careersEssential knowledge for people in biological science careers Improve your understanding of treatments, advertisements, and reports presented within the scientific communityImprove your understanding of treatments, advertisements, and reports presented within the scientific community

4 4 I.Anatomy Scientific discipline that investigates the structures of an organismScientific discipline that investigates the structures of an organism –Anatomy = to dissect parts of an organism for study Scientific discipline that investigates the structures of an organismScientific discipline that investigates the structures of an organism –Anatomy = to dissect parts of an organism for study

5 5 A.Structure & Function The structure of a body part is closely related to its functionThe structure of a body part is closely related to its function Understanding this relationship makes learning anatomy easierUnderstanding this relationship makes learning anatomy easier The structure of a body part is closely related to its functionThe structure of a body part is closely related to its function Understanding this relationship makes learning anatomy easierUnderstanding this relationship makes learning anatomy easier

6 6 Types of Anatomical Study A.Systemic – by systems (e.g. nervous) B.Regional – body areas (e.g. head) C.Surface – external features (e.g. bony projections) D.Anatomical Imaging – pictures of internal structures (x-rays, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging) A.Systemic – by systems (e.g. nervous) B.Regional – body areas (e.g. head) C.Surface – external features (e.g. bony projections) D.Anatomical Imaging – pictures of internal structures (x-rays, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging)

7 7 II.Physiology The study of natureThe study of nature The scientific discipline that deals with the processes or functions of living thingsThe scientific discipline that deals with the processes or functions of living things The study of natureThe study of nature The scientific discipline that deals with the processes or functions of living thingsThe scientific discipline that deals with the processes or functions of living things

8 8 A.Major goals of physiology 1.To understand and predict the organism responds to stimuli. 2.To understand how the organism maintains conditions within a narrow range of values in the presence of a continually changing environment. 1.To understand and predict the organism responds to stimuli. 2.To understand how the organism maintains conditions within a narrow range of values in the presence of a continually changing environment.

9 9 B.Human Physiology The study of the processes and functions of humansThe study of the processes and functions of humans

10 10 C.Cellular and Systemic Physiology The studies of physiology that emphasize specific organizational levelsThe studies of physiology that emphasize specific organizational levels

11 11 III.Structural and Functional Organization

12 12 A.Six Structural Levels 1.Chemical – interactions among atoms and their combinations into molecules a.H, O, N, C = 96% of human body 2.Cell – basic living units of organisms a.Contain organelles which each have specific functions 1.Chemical – interactions among atoms and their combinations into molecules a.H, O, N, C = 96% of human body 2.Cell – basic living units of organisms a.Contain organelles which each have specific functions

13 13 Structural Levels, continued… 3.Tissue – a group of similar cells and materials surrounding them that act together to perform a common function a.Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous 3.Tissue – a group of similar cells and materials surrounding them that act together to perform a common function a.Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

14 14 Structural Levels, continued… 4.Organ – group of two or more tissue types working together to perform a special function a.Heart, lung, kidney, spleen 4.Organ – group of two or more tissue types working together to perform a special function a.Heart, lung, kidney, spleen

15 15 Organs

16 16 Structural Levels, continued… 5.Organ System – group of organs classified as a unit because of common function or set of functions

17 17 Organ Systems, continued… a.Integumentary System Provides protectionProvides protection Regulates temperatureRegulates temperature Prevents water lossPrevents water loss Produces vitamin D precursorsProduces vitamin D precursors Skin, hair, nails, sweat glandsSkin, hair, nails, sweat glands a.Integumentary System Provides protectionProvides protection Regulates temperatureRegulates temperature Prevents water lossPrevents water loss Produces vitamin D precursorsProduces vitamin D precursors Skin, hair, nails, sweat glandsSkin, hair, nails, sweat glands

18 18 Organ Systems, continued… b.Skeletal System Provides protection & supportProvides protection & support Allows body movementsAllows body movements Produces blood cellsProduces blood cells Stores minerals and fatStores minerals and fat Bones, cartilages, ligaments, jointsBones, cartilages, ligaments, joints b.Skeletal System Provides protection & supportProvides protection & support Allows body movementsAllows body movements Produces blood cellsProduces blood cells Stores minerals and fatStores minerals and fat Bones, cartilages, ligaments, jointsBones, cartilages, ligaments, joints

19 19 Organ Systems, continued… c.Muscular system Produces body movementsProduces body movements Maintains postureMaintains posture Produces body heatProduces body heat Muscles (attached to skeleton by tendons)Muscles (attached to skeleton by tendons) c.Muscular system Produces body movementsProduces body movements Maintains postureMaintains posture Produces body heatProduces body heat Muscles (attached to skeleton by tendons)Muscles (attached to skeleton by tendons)

20 20 Organ Systems, continued… d.Lymphatic system Removes foreign substances from blood and lymphRemoves foreign substances from blood and lymph Combats diseaseCombats disease Maintains tissue fluid balanceMaintains tissue fluid balance Absorbs fats from digestive tractAbsorbs fats from digestive tract Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organsLymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organs d.Lymphatic system Removes foreign substances from blood and lymphRemoves foreign substances from blood and lymph Combats diseaseCombats disease Maintains tissue fluid balanceMaintains tissue fluid balance Absorbs fats from digestive tractAbsorbs fats from digestive tract Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organsLymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organs

21 21 Organ Systems, continued… e.Respiratory system Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and airExchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and air Regulates blood pHRegulates blood pH Lungs and respiratory passagesLungs and respiratory passages e.Respiratory system Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and airExchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and air Regulates blood pHRegulates blood pH Lungs and respiratory passagesLungs and respiratory passages

22 22 Organ Systems, continued… f.Digestive system Performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastesPerforms the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes Mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organsMouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs f.Digestive system Performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastesPerforms the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes Mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organsMouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs

23 23 Organ Systems, continued… g.Nervous system Major regulatory system that detects sensationsMajor regulatory system that detects sensations Controls movements, physiologic processes, and intellectual functionsControls movements, physiologic processes, and intellectual functions Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptorsBrain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors g.Nervous system Major regulatory system that detects sensationsMajor regulatory system that detects sensations Controls movements, physiologic processes, and intellectual functionsControls movements, physiologic processes, and intellectual functions Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptorsBrain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors

24 24 Organ Systems, continued… h.Endocrine system Major regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functionsMajor regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functions Glands (e.g. pituitary) that secrete hormonesGlands (e.g. pituitary) that secrete hormones h.Endocrine system Major regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functionsMajor regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functions Glands (e.g. pituitary) that secrete hormonesGlands (e.g. pituitary) that secrete hormones

25 25 Organ Systems, continued… i.Cardiovascular system Transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout bodyTransports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout body Plays role in immune response and body temperature regulationPlays role in immune response and body temperature regulation Heart, blood vessels, and bloodHeart, blood vessels, and blood i.Cardiovascular system Transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout bodyTransports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout body Plays role in immune response and body temperature regulationPlays role in immune response and body temperature regulation Heart, blood vessels, and bloodHeart, blood vessels, and blood

26 26 Organ Systems, continued… j.Urinary system Removes waste products from bloodRemoves waste products from blood Regulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balanceRegulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balance Kidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts that carry urineKidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts that carry urine j.Urinary system Removes waste products from bloodRemoves waste products from blood Regulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balanceRegulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balance Kidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts that carry urineKidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts that carry urine

27 27 Organ Systems, continued… h.Reproductive System (Female) Produces oocytesProduces oocytes Site of fertilization and fetal developmentSite of fertilization and fetal development Produces milkProduces milk Produces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviorsProduces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviors Ovaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands, and associated structuresOvaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands, and associated structures h.Reproductive System (Female) Produces oocytesProduces oocytes Site of fertilization and fetal developmentSite of fertilization and fetal development Produces milkProduces milk Produces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviorsProduces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviors Ovaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands, and associated structuresOvaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands, and associated structures

28 28 Organ Systems, continued… h.Reproductive System (Male) Produces and transfers sperm cells to femaleProduces and transfers sperm cells to female Produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviorsProduces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviors Testes, accessory structures, ducts, and penisTestes, accessory structures, ducts, and penis h.Reproductive System (Male) Produces and transfers sperm cells to femaleProduces and transfers sperm cells to female Produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviorsProduces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviors Testes, accessory structures, ducts, and penisTestes, accessory structures, ducts, and penis

29 29 Structural Levels, continued… 6.Organism – any living thing considered as a whole a.Unicellular, multicellular b.Human organism is a complex of organ systems that are mutually dependent on one another 6.Organism – any living thing considered as a whole a.Unicellular, multicellular b.Human organism is a complex of organ systems that are mutually dependent on one another

30 30 IV.Characteristics of Life A.Six Essential Characteristics of Life 1.Organization – an organism’s parts are interrelated a.All living things are composed of cells 2.Metabolism (Energy) – ability to use energy to perform vital functions such as growth, movement, and reproduction a.Energy from sun (plants) or food (animals) A.Six Essential Characteristics of Life 1.Organization – an organism’s parts are interrelated a.All living things are composed of cells 2.Metabolism (Energy) – ability to use energy to perform vital functions such as growth, movement, and reproduction a.Energy from sun (plants) or food (animals)

31 31 Six Essential Characteristics of Life, continued… 3.Homeostasis – ability of an organism to sense changes in the environment and make the adjustment that help maintain its life 4.Growth – ability of an organism to increase in size (partially or totally) a.Either by increasing cell number or cell size 3.Homeostasis – ability of an organism to sense changes in the environment and make the adjustment that help maintain its life 4.Growth – ability of an organism to increase in size (partially or totally) a.Either by increasing cell number or cell size

32 32 Six Essential Characteristics of Life, continued… 5.Cells – all organisms are made of one more cells 6.Reproduction – the formation of new cells or organisms a. Sexual or asexual reproduction 5.Cells – all organisms are made of one more cells 6.Reproduction – the formation of new cells or organisms a. Sexual or asexual reproduction

33 33 B.Environmental Requirements of Organisms Organisms require certain factors in their environment or surroundings: 1.Water 2.Foods 3.Oxygen 4.Heat – energy from metabolic reactions 5.Pressure a.Atmospheric  breathing b.Hydrostatic  blood pressure Organisms require certain factors in their environment or surroundings: 1.Water 2.Foods 3.Oxygen 4.Heat – energy from metabolic reactions 5.Pressure a.Atmospheric  breathing b.Hydrostatic  blood pressure

34 34 V.Homeostasis – Maintenance of Life The existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the bodyThe existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body –Narrow range of conditions (variables) Temperature, volume, chemical contentTemperature, volume, chemical content –Set point = ideal normal value –Normal range = range of values in which an organism can operate normally The existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the bodyThe existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body –Narrow range of conditions (variables) Temperature, volume, chemical contentTemperature, volume, chemical content –Set point = ideal normal value –Normal range = range of values in which an organism can operate normally

35 35 Examples: Cold = shiver Hot = sweat Examples: Cold = shiver Hot = sweat

36 36 D.Negative Feedback Maintains homeostasis by resisting deviation from the set pointMaintains homeostasis by resisting deviation from the set point 1.Three components: a.Receptor – monitors the value of a variable b.Control center – establishes the set point around which the variable is maintained c.Effector – can change the variable Maintains homeostasis by resisting deviation from the set pointMaintains homeostasis by resisting deviation from the set point 1.Three components: a.Receptor – monitors the value of a variable b.Control center – establishes the set point around which the variable is maintained c.Effector – can change the variable

37 37 Negative Feedback, continued… Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 8 th ed., Shier, et al, 2003, McGraw-Hill Higher Education 2.Example: Stimulus/Response: exercise increases HR and blood pressure increasesStimulus/Response: exercise increases HR and blood pressure increases Receptor: blood vessels near heartReceptor: blood vessels near heart Control center: brain receives message and sends message to decrease HRControl center: brain receives message and sends message to decrease HR Effector: heart decreases HREffector: heart decreases HR Response: blood pressure decreasesResponse: blood pressure decreases 2.Example: Stimulus/Response: exercise increases HR and blood pressure increasesStimulus/Response: exercise increases HR and blood pressure increases Receptor: blood vessels near heartReceptor: blood vessels near heart Control center: brain receives message and sends message to decrease HRControl center: brain receives message and sends message to decrease HR Effector: heart decreases HREffector: heart decreases HR Response: blood pressure decreasesResponse: blood pressure decreases

38 38 Negative Feedback, continued…

39 39 E.Positive Feedback Mechanism by which any deviation from an ideal normal value or set point is made greaterMechanism by which any deviation from an ideal normal value or set point is made greater –Does not maintain homeostasis Mechanism by which any deviation from an ideal normal value or set point is made greaterMechanism by which any deviation from an ideal normal value or set point is made greater –Does not maintain homeostasis

40 40 Positive Feedback, continued… Example

41 41 VI.Terminology and the Body Plan Etymology = the origin of a word –Example: Dorsal (dorsum, back) Etymology = the origin of a word –Example: Dorsal (dorsum, back)

42 42 A.Directional Terms 1.Anatomic Position – standing erect with the arms at the sides and palms turned forward

43 43 Directional Terms, continued…

44 44 Directional Terms, continued…

45 45 Directional Terms, continued…

46 46 B.Body Parts and Regions Anterior View

47 47 Body Parts and Regions, continued… Posterior View

48 48 Body Parts and Regions, continued…

49 49 C.Planes Imaginary flat surfaces used to “look inside” and observe the body’s structuresImaginary flat surfaces used to “look inside” and observe the body’s structures

50 50 Planes, continued…

51 51 D.Body Cavities 1.Thoracic cavity a.Boundaries: rib cage and diaphragm b.Contains: mediastinum, pericardial cavity (heart), left and right pleural cavities (lungs) c.Mediastinum contains esophagus, trachea, blood vessels, thymus, heart 1.Thoracic cavity a.Boundaries: rib cage and diaphragm b.Contains: mediastinum, pericardial cavity (heart), left and right pleural cavities (lungs) c.Mediastinum contains esophagus, trachea, blood vessels, thymus, heart

52 52 2.Abdominal Cavity a.Boundaries: abdominal muscles b.Contains: stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys 3.Pelvic Cavity a.Bones of pelvis b.Contains: urinary bladder, part of large intestine, internal reproductive organs 4.Abdominopelvic Cavity: abdominal and pelvic cavities 2.Abdominal Cavity a.Boundaries: abdominal muscles b.Contains: stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys 3.Pelvic Cavity a.Bones of pelvis b.Contains: urinary bladder, part of large intestine, internal reproductive organs 4.Abdominopelvic Cavity: abdominal and pelvic cavities D.Body Cavities

53 53 E.Serous Membranes 1.Visceral serous membranes cover organs (the “viscera”) 2.Parietal serous membranes form the outer wall of a fluid-filled cavity 3.A cavity is the fluid-filled space between the serous membranes 1.Visceral serous membranes cover organs (the “viscera”) 2.Parietal serous membranes form the outer wall of a fluid-filled cavity 3.A cavity is the fluid-filled space between the serous membranes

54 54 4.Thoracic Cavity and Membranes a.Pericardial Cavity surrounds the heart i.Visceral pericardium covers heart ii.Parietal pericardium lines pericardial cavity b.Pleural Cavity surrounds each lung i.Visceral pleura cover lungs ii.Parietal pleura line pleural cavity a.Pericardial Cavity surrounds the heart i.Visceral pericardium covers heart ii.Parietal pericardium lines pericardial cavity b.Pleural Cavity surrounds each lung i.Visceral pleura cover lungs ii.Parietal pleura line pleural cavity

55 55 5.Abdominopelvic Cavity and Membranes a.Peritoneal Cavity surrounds the many organs in the abdominopelvic cavity and the inferior surface of the diaphragm i.Visceral peritoneum covers organs ii.Parietal peritoneum lines peritoneal cavity Pleural Cavity surrounds each lungPleural Cavity surrounds each lung i.Visceral pleura cover lungs ii.Parietal pleura line pleural cavity a.Peritoneal Cavity surrounds the many organs in the abdominopelvic cavity and the inferior surface of the diaphragm i.Visceral peritoneum covers organs ii.Parietal peritoneum lines peritoneal cavity Pleural Cavity surrounds each lungPleural Cavity surrounds each lung i.Visceral pleura cover lungs ii.Parietal pleura line pleural cavity

56 56 Abdominopelvic Cavity and Membranes, continued… ii.Mesenteries – 2 layers of fused peritoneum that hold abdominal organs in place; provide passage for blood vessels and nerves iii.Retroperitoneal organs – organs “behind” parietal peritoneum Kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, parts of intestines, and bladderKidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, parts of intestines, and bladder ii.Mesenteries – 2 layers of fused peritoneum that hold abdominal organs in place; provide passage for blood vessels and nerves iii.Retroperitoneal organs – organs “behind” parietal peritoneum Kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, parts of intestines, and bladderKidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, parts of intestines, and bladder


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