Presentation on theme: "Napoleon’s Empire Collapses Napoleon made 3 mistakes 1 st : the Continental System—In November of 1806, Napoleon called for a blockade of all ports."— Presentation transcript:
Napoleon’s Empire Collapses Napoleon made 3 mistakes 1 st : the Continental System—In November of 1806, Napoleon called for a blockade of all ports to limit Great Britain’s influence. This was called the Continental System. Its goal was to destroy GB’s economy and make Europe self-sufficient. GB made its own blockade and with its stronger navy, it had better luck. This hurt France’s economy.
2 nd : The Peninsular War—1808-Portugal was ignoring the Continental System, so Napoleon sent an army through Spain to invade Portugal. This upset the Spanish, so Napoleon kicked out their King and appointed his brother. Napoleon also outlawed the Spanish Inquisition For 5 years, Spanish guerillas struck at French armies in Spain (the Peninsular War). Napoleon lost 300,000 men. In Spain and across Europe, nationalism (loyalty to one’s own country) was becoming a powerful weapon against Napoleon
3 rd : Invasion of Russia—1812:Russia and Napoleon both wanted Poland, and Russia refused to stop selling grain to Great Britain. June 1812: Napoleon invaded Russia. The Russians retreated, burning their own lands as they went. How would the burning of Russian lands affect the French?
Napoleon reached Moscow, but the Russians burned it down too Napoleon turned around, but the Russians attacked his weak, cold, and starving army the whole way back to France. By the end, Napoleon had 10,000 men left out of an original 690,000
Napoleon’s Downfall Napoleon’s enemies took advantage of his weak army. Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Sweden joined forces and defeated Napoleon. April 1814: Napoleon surrendered his throne. He was given a small pension and banished to Elba.
Is Napoleon Back? We left Napoleon in Elba France is being ruled by Louis XVI’s brother, but he is hated by his people The Congress of Vienna is meeting to discuss the redrawing of Europe Napoleon hears this, and escapes his prison to try and take back his throne He ruled for 100 days before losing to the British at the Battle of Waterloo Napoleon was sent to St. Helena, where he died six years later of a stomach illness.
Effects of Napoleon Rise of nationalism in European countries Napoleonic Code: one unified code of law for all men and the giving up of individual rights for the good of the nation Unsuccessful attempt to unify Europe under French domination
What do we do now? Napoleon has been kicked out of France, but who is to lead? What will happen to France’s territories? The heads of government in Europe wanted to establish long-lasting peace and security on the continent after so many years of warfare
The Congress of Vienna A set of meetings where leaders from European nations met in 1815 to discuss their situation and decide what to do next. The Congress of Vienna wanted to go B.A.C.K. to before 1789 What happened in 1789?
B: Balance of Power—no country in Europe too powerful Who had gotten too powerful between 1789 and 1814? A: A new map of Europe drawn that made France weaker C: Congress of Vienna (1815) Peace conference after Napoleon Klaus von Metternich the leader K: Kings restored to power (the principle of legitimacy)
Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) European monarchs sought to turn back the clock to 1789 and restore Europe’s Old Regime Members included the “Big Four” and France Austria – Prince Metternich England – Duke of Wellington and Lord Castlereagh France – Talleyrand Prussia – Frederick William III, Hardenberg, and Humboldt Russia – Tsar Alexander I
Metternich (1773- 1859) Opposed democracy and nationalism Proposed principles of compensation and legitimacy
Metternich’s Three Goals 1.First, he wanted to make sure that the French would not attack another country again 2. Second, he wanted a balance of power in which no one nation was too strong 3.Third, he wanted to put kings back in charge of the countries from which they had been removed
Europe 1812 What do you notice about the map? How much territory is under Napoleon? How do you predict that the map will change after the Congress of Vienna?
Effects of the Congress of Vienna Emergence of new political philosophies: Liberalism: wanted the governments to be based on a constitution Conservatism: wanted to return to absolute monarchies Rise of Nationalism: the loyalty of people to their values, traditions, and geographic regions The enforcement of absolute monarchies led to discontent in Europe (especially Italy and the German states) and caused revolutions in 1848 that were unsuccessful but increased nationalism.
Fate of Nationalism People had no say over territorial changes Language, nationality, and religion weren’t taken into consideration Ideas of democracy and self-government were rejected by European leadership Soon enough, concessions were made
Results of the Congress of Vienna Concert of Europe – group of leading nations which periodically met to discuss issues regarding stability Temporary suppression of democratic and nationalistic ideals International peace – no general war in Europe until World War I a hundred years later Crimean War (1854-1856) Austro-Prussian War (1866) Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)