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Test #7 Lecture Notes VUS.11-12. Axis Powers 1.) Italy Mussolini and the Fascist Party 2.) Germany Hitler and the Nazi Party 3.) Japan Emperor Tojo and.

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Presentation on theme: "Test #7 Lecture Notes VUS.11-12. Axis Powers 1.) Italy Mussolini and the Fascist Party 2.) Germany Hitler and the Nazi Party 3.) Japan Emperor Tojo and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Test #7 Lecture Notes VUS.11-12

2 Axis Powers

3 1.) Italy Mussolini and the Fascist Party 2.) Germany Hitler and the Nazi Party 3.) Japan Emperor Tojo and General Hirohito

4 1.) Fascism in Italy Most people in Italy felt dissatisfied after WWI Italy had entered the war late on the side of the Allies during WWI—hoping to gain some land Italy did not get what it had hoped for after the war Italy only received a small piece of Austrian territory This made Italy very bitter with the rest of the Allies

5 Italy also suffered from heavy debts caused by WWI Soldiers coming home could not find work Italian industries had not raw materials Italian industries had no markets for their goods Italy’s largest buyers before the war were Austria and Germany—now they both had been defeated in WWI and had no $ to buy goods from Italy

6 Benito Mussolini: Born in 1883 to a working class family A journalist and very active in socialist politics before WWI After WWI, he left his socialist ideas and became a nationalist 1919: Mussolini created a new political party in Italy— Fasci di Combattimento (Fascist Party)

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8 Mussolini’s Fasci di Combattimento: Glorified the state, a strong single ruler, and totalitarian government The state had absolute authority The party defended private property and class structure War and conquest were glorified to achieve national goals An attempt to recreate the old glory of ancient Rome

9 1920s: Italy experience lots of economic problems Value of the Lira (Italian $) declined Bread prices increased A coal shortage occurred Workers began to strike Peasants started seizing land from the wealthy land owners The Middle and Upper classes feared a communist revolution like that which occurred in Russia

10 Mussolini tried to win the favor of the landowners by vowing to end all of the unrest and protect private property—what the middle and upper classes wanted By 1921: fascism was a major force in Italy Mussolini’s Blackshirts—his followers—physically attacked political opponents and drove officials out of office

11 Mussolini and his Blackshirts

12 The democratic government of Italy did nothing to stop the Blackshirts The government’s apathy caused Mussolini to do more October 1922: the Fascists marched on Rome King Victor Emmanuel II named Mussolini Prime Minister of Italy Mussolini legally assumed power in Italy

13 Mussolini’s Dictatorship: As Prime Minister of Italy, Mussolini quickly put an end to the democracy in Italy In the elections of 1924, the Blackshirts used violence to make people vote for fascist candidates Fascists won the majority of seats in the Italian Parliament The party’s victory gave Mussolini lots of power in Italy

14 With his new power, Mussolini began calling himself “Il Duce”—The Leader He reorganized the government into a cooperate state The majority of people in Italy supported Mussolini Those people that opposed fascism and Mussolini were arrested, assaulted, and murdered The people believed he had done good for Italy He had prevented a communist revolution He had brought order to Italy

15 1935: Benito Mussolini wanted to test his powers He “flexed his muscles” by invading Ethiopia (Africa) Ethiopian soldiers had no chance against Mussolini’s mechanized military Ethiopians were fighting on horseback with outdated weapons By the Spring of 1936, Italy had control over Ethiopia

16 2.) Germany Weimar Republic: The Allies wanted to make sure Germany would never threaten European Peace again The Versailles Treaty put heavy restrictions on Germany Limiting Germany’s size Forced a democratic government on Germany

17 1919: the German people voted for delegates to go into the new democratic national assembly The new assembly met in Weimar, Germany The new assembly drafted a democratic constitution that created a democratic republic in Germany From 1919 to 1933, the Weimar Republic—the assembly—ruled over Germany

18 From very early on, the Weimar Republic met with lots of opposition 1920: nationalist army officers attempted to overthrow the Weimar government by staging a coup d'état The officers believed the Weimar leaders had betrayed Germany by accepting the Treaty of Versailles The Weimar leaders were able to squash the revolt

19 Reparations: The governments of Great Britain and France had promised their citizens that Germany would pay for WWI The Allies set the cost of the war at $35 billion 1922: German government said it could not pay for the war because the nation had NO $ France still insisted that Germany pay off the debt 1923: French troops marched into the Ruhr Valley and took control of the coal and steal mills

20 Inflation: To pay off the war debt, the German government began printing more money—the money had no backing Printing more $ without backing led to high inflation in Germany The German Mark lost nearly all of its value 1923: 1 trillion Marks=$1 (US) German money had no real value at all

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23 France eventually backed off a little from Germany Germany began getting loans from the US, allowing Germany to slowly regain its economic strength This will, of course, end when the US enters a depression and cannot loan money to Germany any longer

24 Nazism & Hitler: Many different political parties began challenging the Weimar Republic One party in particular was the National Socialist Workers’ Party—Nazi Party Adolf Hitler became a member of the Nazi Party Hitler had tried to enter an Austrian art school but failed the entrance exams He had served in the military during WWI—becoming wounded in the war After his failed art career, he decided to go into politics

25 Hitler’s Art Adolf Hitler

26 Hitler formed a private army—Brownshirts The Brownshirts were mostly street thugs and Hitler’s friends 1923: Hitler was arrested and put in jail for a drunken attempt at to create a coup d'état against the Weimar Republic While in jail, he wrote Mein Kampf—”My Struggle” The book outlined Hitler’s views on Germany and why Germany had suffered so greatly during and after WWI He blamed the Jews and Communists for Germany’s defeat in WWI

27 When Germany began to recover some in the 1920s, the Nazi Party began losing power and influence 1929: after the American stock market failure and the stoppage of loans to Germany, the German people were ready for the Nazi message Germans began to believe Hitler’s claims that the Jews were causing Germany’s problems The people believed Hitler could solve all of Germany’s problems

28 1932: the Nazi Party won 229 seats in the Reichstag (German Parliament) The victories made the Nazi Party the largest party in the Reichstag January 30, 1933: the German president—Paul von Hindenburg—asked Hitler to become German Chancellor The Nazi’s and Hitler had gained power in a legal manor Hitler Speech Video Hitler Speech

29 Hitler in Power: Hitler’s Primary goal when he came to power: to create a totalitarian state He wanted the Nazis to have total control over the Reichstag He wanted to hold new elections One week before the elections were held, the Reichstag burned to the ground Hitler blamed the communists for the fire, but Hitler probably had the fire started himself

30 New elections were held Hitler’s Brownshirts forced German voters to vote for Nazi candidates Once the Reichstag was under Nazi control, Hitler then set out to crush his opponents—especially the communists Hitler banned all political parties except the Nazi party Hitler banned freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom of religion, and freedom of the press All labor unions would be placed under Nazi control

31 Hitler and the Jews: Hitler’s most vicious attacks were against the Jews in Germany 1935: Hitler passed the Nuremberg Laws The laws restricted Jews’ freedoms Citizenship was stripped from the Jews Jews were forbidden to hold public office Jewish children could not go to school Jewish businesses were burned Jews were forced to wear yellow badges signifying their being Jewish

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33 Kristallnacht: “the night of broken glass” When Jews and Jewish business were vandalized by the Nazi Party

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35 Gestapo: Hitler’s secret police The Gestapo arrested Jews and Nazi opponents

36 Hitler even feared some of his own supporters He feared the radical members of the Nazi Party 1934: Hitler had hundreds of Brownshirts killed Called Night of the Long Knives Also called Operation Hummingbird

37 Once Hitler believed had had all power, he began calling himself Der Fuhrer (the leader) Hitler called his government the Third Reich He believed his government would last 1000 years Once in power, Hitler began to ignore the Versailles Treaty He began building a massive army and a huge supply of weapons—actually giving many Germans jobs “Today Germany; tomorrow, the World.”—A. Hitler

38 1938: Hitler marched into Austria and proclaimed Austria part of Germany Hitler faced NO opposition in gaining Austria 6 months later, Hitler’s troops marched into the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia This region had a large German population No one in Europe was willing to stand up to Hitler and challenge his taking over of Europe

39 France and Great Britain took on a policy of appeasement toward Hitler France and Great Britain were trying to avoid war with Hitler They would give into Hitler’s demands in an attempt to keep peace

40 September 1938: a conference was held in Munich British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and French Prime Minister Edouard Daladier agreed NOT to oppose Hitler’s advance into the Sudetenland Munich Pact The 3 nations signed the Munich Pact—this allowed Hitler’s conquest of the Sudetenland to stand Chamberlain believed war had been averted by the Munich Pact—”We have secured peace in our time.”

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42 3.) Japan—Prime Minister Hideki Tojo Japan’s government shifted from a civilian controlled government to a military controlled government after the world wide depression struck in the 1920s and 1930s The military government was looking to create an empire for Japan Japan’s growing population placed heavy strains on the nation’s resources Japan needed to find new places to get the resources it needed—especially land and raw materials

43 Japan was also tired of being dependent on other nations for much of the resources they needed A Pacific Empire would make Japan more self- sufficient and less reliant on other nations Japan started their quest for an empire even before their involvement in World War I

44 1895: Japan had gained the island of Taiwan : Japan had gained land in Korea and parts of Manchuria Japan wanted the rest of Manchuria 1931: Japan invaded Manchuria to get its iron and coal Japan also wanted the land in Manchuria so that Japan could colonize the land to produce agricultural and industrial goods By 1932, Japan had control over Manchuria Japan installed a “puppet government” in Manchuria

45 The League of Nations looked down on Japan for Japan’s taking of Manchuria Japan withdrew from the League of Nations 1937: Japan moved its forces into Northern China Japan executed over 200,000 Chinese citizens in their capture of the Chinese capital—called the “China Incident” 1940: Japan signed the Tripartite Pact with Italy and Germany—creating the Axis Powers Each nation pledged to help one another if the U. S. attacked either Japan, Germany, or Italy

46 By the fall of 1941, Hideki Tojo had become Prime Minister of Japan The U. S. had become very upset at Japan’s attacks on China FDR cut off all fuel and metal shipments to Japan

47 Allied Powers 1.) Soviet Union Joseph Stalin and Communism Had a pact with Germany, but the pact was broken when Germany invaded The Soviet Union 2.) Great Britain Neville Chamberlain and Winston Churchill 3.) United States Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman

48 Joseph Stalin

49 Hitler with Neville Chamberlain

50 Winston Churchill

51 Franklin Roosevelt

52 Harry S. Truman

53 Axis Strategy for WWII Germany wanted to invade the Soviet Union to gain access to the Soviet Union’s oil fields Germany planned on defeating the Soviet Union quickly Germany also wanted to avoid a 2-front war—having enemies on both sides Make a pact with the Soviets Concentrate on and defeat France Then attack the Soviets

54 Allied Strategy for WWII First order was to defeat Hitler Most efforts were placed on gaining Europe back from Nazi control Most American military resources (once we enter the war) were targeted toward Europe Settle problems in Pacific Island Hopping—seizing islands closer and closer to Japan

55 The War In Europe

56 Non-Aggression Pact and the Soviet Union 5 months after the signing of the Munich Pact, Hitler took the rest of Czechoslovakia August 29, 1939: Hitler signed the Non-Aggression Pact with Stalin and the USSR The Pact stated that neither nation would attack the other Hitler, could then, avoid a 2-front war—he could concentrate his efforts on the West and France

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58 Invasion of Poland Hitler and Stalin had divided Poland between them in the Non-aggression Pact With Stalin’s approval, Hitler’s mobile army moved into Poland on September 1, 1939 Hitler’s Luftwaffe (air force) bombed Polish cities His Panzer tank divisions stormed into Poland This swift attack style is called Blitzkrieg (lightening) warfare September 3, 1939: France and Great Britain declared war on Germany—World War II had begun

59 Invasion of Poland Video

60 Invasion and Fall of France France had prepared for a German invasion Nearly 1-million French soldiers stood along the French/German border in an attempt to protect France England had also sent supplies and troops to help aid the French in a possible German attack

61 May 1940: German tanks stormed across the French border from Belgium The Germans went north and swept in behind the French troops defending the border The fortified guns of the Maginot Line were never fired The failure of the Maginot Line to defend France sucked the life out of many in France The massive tank attacks and constant bombardment by the Luftwaffe caused the French and British to retreat

62 By the end of the month, many French soldiers had given up the fight The British had retreated all the way to Dunkirk—a port on the English Channel The British were saved by boarding private ships that took them back to England

63 The evacuation of the British left the French to fight alone June 3: Paris was bombed One week later, Italy declared war on France and attacked Southern France June 14: Germans marched into Paris June 22: France surrendered to Hitler Hitler could now focus on Great Britain

64 Battle of Britain Hitler now set out to conquer Great Britain Great Britain was now led by Prime Minister Winston Churchill Hitler attempted to use his Luftwaffe to bomb the British The British conquered with their Royal Air Force The RAF had better planes and pilots The RAF shot down hundreds of German planes

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66 Hitler put a ban on the daytime bombing of Great Britain Hitler started attacked Great Britain at night from Sept until May 1941 Hitler also started using his V-2 rockets to bomb Great Britain Churchill pleaded for the Americans to give the British some aid against the Germans

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68 America’s Response Many in the U. S. felt that the nation should have stayed out of WWI and were in favor of the Neutrality Acts These people were isolationists Others believed in interventionism and believed the U. S. should give all possible support to Great Britain— except a full scale declaration of war

69 FDR remained cautious as not to offend any groups within the United States After the French fell to Germany in 1940, FDR began sending aid to the British September 1940: FDR sent 50 American destroyers to Britain in return for the right to establish U. S. naval bases on British held lands FDR also singed into law the Selective Training and Service Act—the 1 st peacetime draft in history All men between the ages of 21 and 35 were eligible Over 1 million men served 1-year terms, but they only served in the Western Hemisphere FDR was trying to build an American military in case the U.S. got involved in the war

70 In 1941, after his re-election—FDR created the Lend- Lease Bill This was open support for the Allies The president had the right to sell, lend, or lease military supplies to any nations deemed vital to the defense of the U. S. Most Americans supported the Lend-Lease Bill The U. S. was not physically at war with Germany, but was in an economic war with Germany FDR compared Lend-Lease to “lending a garden hose to a next-door neighbor whose house is on fire”

71 March 1941: Congress approved the Lend-Lease bill Summer 1941: German subs sank many American and British ships carrying supplies to Great Britain FDR ordered the US navy to help track German subs The Navy was ordered to escort British ships and destroy any subs trying to sink the ships

72 Fall 1941: a German sub sank an American destroyer FDR ordered the navy to shoot Axis ships on sight October 1941: German subs sank 2 American destroyers killing 100 American sailors Congress responded by repealing the Neutrality Acts

73 FDR and Churchill met to talk about what would happen in the world when and if the war ended The 2 created the Atlantic Charter—becomes the basis for the United Nations

74 German Invasion of the Soviet Union 1939: Germany and the USSR signed the Non- aggression Pact Stalin still did not fully trust Hitler June 22, 1941: Germany invaded the Soviet Union The invasion took Stalin and the Soviets by surprise German troops used Blitzkrieg warfare to take Leningrad and the Crimean Peninsula

75 By November 1941, Germany had the capital of Moscow surrounded The harsh Soviet winter helped the Soviet military push the Germans back Spring 1942: Germans attacked Soviet oil fields in SW Russia September 1942: 300,000 German soldiers were attacking Stalingrad the Battle of Stalingrad lasted 5 months until the Germans surrendered in 1943 The surrender stopped the German’s advance eastward Stalin never forgave the Allies for failing to support the Soviet’s defense—one reason for the Cold War

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77 United States Enters the War Although the US had gone a long ways to help Great Britain, the US had not officially entered the war Japan had started taking steps that made FDR upset Italy—Rome- Tokyo-Berlin Axis FDR placed further embargoes on Japan after Japan made an alliance with Germany and Italy—Rome- Tokyo-Berlin Axis

78 The US continued to use negotiation to deal with the Japanese instead of taking hostile action The US would only reopen trade with Japan if Japan pulled out of China and Indochina By November 1941: war with Japan was just about inevitable—everyone knew it Japan decided it was time to act Most Americans believed the attack would come in Malaysia or the Philippines The Japanese planned to attack the Americans at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

79 December 7, 1941: the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor destroying many American ships and killing thousands of American sailors The attack only lasted 3 hours 19 ships were destroyed 188 planes were destroyed 2400 men were killed December 8, 1941: FDR asked Congress for a declaration of war against Japan A few days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States The US had officially entered WWII WWII had become a true world War

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81 Video on Pearl Harbor

82 The US had to prepare for war on 2 fronts One in Europe One in the Pacific As soon as war was declared, the draft was increased in the United States Thousands of men and women voluntarily enlisted in the military By 1945, the US had 12 million people in the military

83 About 1 million soldiers were African-Americans The military was segregated into black and white units Most black units were commanded by whites Many black soldiers were put into cooking or laboring jobs Racial discrimination existed on most military bases Some African-Americans did get to see some battle action Tuskegee Airmen—an all African American air fighting force

84 Video on teh Tuskegee Airmen

85 Japanese-Americans were the most decorated war heroes in World War II—Nisei Regiments Nisei Regiments were all Japanese American soldiers

86 Other minority groups also contributed to the war effort Hispanic-Americans fought for the US in WWII Fought in non-segregated (integrated) units Communication codes of the Navajo Indians were used The Navajo was an oral, not written, language The Navajo code was impossible for the Japanese to break Minority units usually received very high casualties

87 The Home in the United States: Conflict between the different races was going on in the US while the US was fighting in WWII Segregation was the norm in the southern states

88 1.) African Americans: Many African Americans migrated to the cities to find work in the war plants Segregation was legal in the 1940s The war gave many civil rights groups a reason to protest against segregation A. Philip Randolph led the movement for black equality Randolph was upset that minorities were excluded from the high paying industrial jobs in many wartime plants Randolph organized the March on Washington Movement (MOWM) “We loyal American citizens demand the right to work and fight for our country.”—A. Philip Randolph

89 A. Philip Randolph

90 1943: riots broke out in Detroit Blacks attacked white workers The next day, a mob of whites roamed the streets looking for any blacks they could find 25 blacks and 6 whites were killed

91 2.) Mexican-Americans: Thousands of farm workers form Mexico illegally entered the US to work—American Southwest Many of these workers had children in the US Those born in American were called Chicanos The Chicanos began getting jobs in industry— willing to work for less than poor whites and blacks In Los Angeles, the discrimination against the Chicanos and Hispanic-Americans turned into hatred

92 Many Hispanic teenagers wore “Zoot Suits”—a long jacket with padded shoulders and pleated pants The Zoot Suiters and white sailors squard off in LA The sailors blamed Zoot Suiters for stabbing and robbing a group of white sailors The sailors roamed the Hispanic neighborhoods, beating up any one in a zoot suit The police arrested the zoot suiters, NOT the sailors

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94 3.) Japanese Americans: 1942: many Japanese Americans were taken from their homes and placed in internment camps Many in the US government feared the Japanese Americans were going to try to sabotage the US from within—helping Japan win the war A false belief that the Japanese were aiding the enemy Over 100,000 Japanese Americans were placed in internment camps even though they showed NO signs of disloyalty

95 The people were eventually released and a public apology was given to them by the US government Ironically, Japanese American soldiers were the most decorated of all American soldiers in WWII

96 Video on Japanese Internment Camps

97 Media and Communications in America during the War: The United States government maintained strict censorship of reporting of the war Public morale and ad campaigns kept Americans focused on the war effort The entertainment industry produced movies, plays, and shows that boosted morale and patriotic support for the war effort as well as portrayed the enemy in stereotypical ways

98 How the War Changed Home Life: As soon as the US officially entered the war, the US began to change Factories were converted over to produce materials for war Planes Tanks Weapons Uniforms The War Production Board (WPB) was created to oversee the transformation

99 Production of non-essential materials was cut back The government paid businesses to build new plants and factories to produce war materials Industrial production nearly doubled—helping the economy The war and its need for materials caused the American economy to grow The nations GNP (Gross National Product) rose from $90 billion to $211 billion in 1945

100 17 million new jobs were created Crop prices doubled between 1940 and 1945 With more money, people looked to spend $ on stuff This need to spend caused prices on consumer goods to inflate FDR wanted to stop the inflation in prices FDR began freezing people’s wages FDR created the National War Labor Board (NWLB) to control wages and monitor inflation

101 Workers said that if wages were to freeze, the prices on goods should also freeze 1942: Congress allowed the Office of Price Administration (OPA) to fix a maximum price on goods the OPA instituted rationing—limiting how much of something the people could buy Local rationing boards were created Each family had a quota on their rationing coupons

102 Since most men were out fighting, women were needed to work in the factories (“Rosie the Riveter”) Welding Carpentry Heavy construction The women had a job, but the job security was only temporary The women were paid less than men After the war, most of the women lost their jobs to the soldiers returning home

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104 To help pay for the war, the government began selling war bonds The government was borrowing $ from the US people People would buy a bond and, in a few years, they buyer would get their $ back plus interest The bonds also helped to control inflation

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107 European Front The Allies were in a jam early in the war with France surrendering and Hitler bombing Great Britain The Allies decided they had to fight an offensive war to have any chance of defeating Hitler

108 Allied Offenses: Nov. 1942: the US and Great Britain landed troops in Northern Africa Trying to get Africa so the Allies could enter Europe through the back door The Allies marched into Morocco and Algeria The Allies faced the German tank commander Erwin Rommel Germany was threatening to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal ry The British Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery defeated Rommel at El Alamein the Allied victory marked the turning point in the war The Allies had control over Northern Africa by 1943 Germany’s defeat also kept Hitler from gaining access to Middle Eastern oil fields and attacking the Soviet Union from the South

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110 From North Africa, the Allied launched an invasion of Southern Europe July 1943: the Allies landed in Sicily August 1943: the Allies had driven the Germans out of Sicily Mussolini’s fascist party fell out of power in Italy The Allies invaded Italy from Sicily September 8, 1943: Italy surrendered to the Allies June 4, 1944: the Allies finally liberated Rome

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112 D-DAY: June 6, 1944: General Dwight D. Eisenhower launched the largest land-sea-air attack in history—Operation Overlord 175,000 Allied soldiers came ashore on the coast of Normandy, France The Allies were trying to gain a foothold in Hitler’s Europe The Allies established a beach head, but suffered heavy casualties 2245 killed 1670 wounded From Normandy, the Allies began to launch an invasion into Europe to drive the Germans back to Germany

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117 Near the End: The Allies proved their superiority in the skies over Europe With control over the skies, Allied ground troops could move against the Germans August 25, 1945: Paris was liberated from the Germans By the end of the summer other European nations had been freed from German control France Belgium Luxembourg

118 The Allied navy began using SONAR to track and destroy German U-boats The Allies also used naval convoys to help transport goods across the Atlantic

119 Battle of the Bulge: Hitler launched one last ditch effort to help him win the war He launched a counter-offensive in the Ardennes Forest of Belgium German troops drove a bulge 80 miles long and 50 miles deep into the Allied lines After a week of fighting, the Allies were able to drive the Germans back The Battle of the Bulge was the final German offensive of the war the Allies could now advance toward Germany

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122 Yalta Conference : Just before the end of the war in Europe, the big three nations met at Yalta in the Soviet Union Great Britain—Winston Churchill United States—FDR Soviet Union—Joseph Stalin These nations and their representatives became known as the “Big Three”

123 Churchill wanted to save the British empire Stalin wanted to protect his borders and rebuild the USSR FDR wanted a worldwide spread of democracy and free trade FDR wanted the Soviets to help him defeat Japan The Big Three met for a week in Yalta

124 Stalin agreed to help the US against Japan, but only after the war has been over for 2 or 3 months For his help, Stalin would get some territory in Asia All 3 disagreed on what should be done with Germany after the war Each nation agreed to divide up Germany once the war was over Stalin wanted to have power in Romania Poland Bulgaria Austria Hungary Czechoslovakia

125 Holocaust: After arriving in Germany, the Allies met with something they had never expected The troops witnessed what Hitler was doing with the Jews 1942: Hitler began to round up Jews, 1 st in Germany, then in the rest of Europe Hitler called his attempt at exterminating all European Jews his “final solution” Jews were shipped to concentration camps to do slave labor or face medical experiments Many Jews were beaten or starved or killed The bodies were burned or buried in mass graves

126 1945: the Allied forces liberated many of the concentration camps and were shocked at what they saw About 6 million Jews were killed Hitler also went after the Polish, Slavs, Gypsies, and what he called the “untouchables” (homosexuals, mentally ill, political dissidents) in his attempts at genocide—systemic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group

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130 Victory in Europe: The British and US were moving east through Germany, the Soviets were moving west through Germany April 12, 1945: FDR died leaving VP Harry Truman as president April 30, 1945: Hitler committed suicide May 2, 1945: Berlin fell May 7, 1945: Germany surrendered to the Allies May 8, 1945: V-E day

131 War in the Pacific While the war in Europe was over, it still raged on in the Pacific against Japan The war in the Pacific was fought differently than the war fought in Europe Very early in the Pacific theatre, Japan was victorious May 1942: the Americans were having more success against the Japanese the US kept Japan from taking Australia

132 June 1942: Battle Midway Island The American naval forces defeated a much larger Japanese force If Japan had won at Midway, Japan could have invaded Hawaii The Americans sank 4 Japanese carriers and destroyed 300 Japanese planes A great victory for the US Japan still held a lot of strategically important islands in the Pacific The US adopted a strategy called “island hopping” A way of capturing key islands Once captured, military bases were built on the islands

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134 August 1942: the Marines landed on Guadalcanal The Americans were trying to destroy a Japanese military base Early 1945: the US fought Japan at Iwo Jima and Okinawa the US gained the islands, but suffered heavy losses The US pulled within 700 miles of the Japanese islands—closer than they had ever been to Japan before The battles also proved that an all out assault on Japan would cost millions of American lives The Japanese were willing to commit suicide than surrender Convinced Truman to use the Atomic bomb

135 American Flag being Iwo Jima Iwo Jima Video

136 Atomic Bomb: The US was secretly working on a new weapon— the atomic bomb The name of the project to build the bomb was called the Manhattan Project the project was led by J. Robert Oppenheimer Truman had scheduled an invasion of Japan for late in 1945 July 16, 1945: scientists successfully detonated the 1 st atomic bomb in New Mexico

137 Oppenheimer First Atomic Bomb Test Video

138 Truman decided to use the Atomic bomb instead of sending in millions of Americans to their death with an invasion of Japan August 6, 1945: “Little Boy” was dropped on Hiroshima 100,000 people were killed on impact 100,000 more died from burns, radiation, or wounds The bomb was dropped by the Enola Gay

139 Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Video

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142 August 9, 1945: Japan had still not surrendered The US dropped another atomic bomb on Nagasaki— 40,000 killed instantly

143 August 14, 1945: Japan finally surrendered to the US— V-J Day WWII was now over Now members of both Japan and Germany were placed on trial for war crimes committed against the Jews and other people in the war

144 Geneva Convention: Created in 1949 Attempted to ensure the humane treatment of prisoners of war (POWs) by establishing rules to be followed by all nations The treatment of POWs in WWII was horrible, especially in the Pacific Theater Examples of mistreatment of POWs Bataan Death March—American and Filipino POWs were brutally treated by the Japanese military after the Philippines surrendered to Japan POWs were forced to march 60 miles and face severe physical abuse

145 Dead soldiers during the Bataan Death March

146 Nuremburg Trials: Nazi leaders and others were placed on trial and convicted of war crimes Emphasized individual responsibility for actions during war, regardless of orders received The Nuremburg Trials increased demand for a Jewish homeland

147 Creation of Israel 1948: The Allies that fought in WWII will complicate problems in the Middle East The nation of Israel was created out of the British mandate of Palestine Starting in the early 1900s, thousands of Jews migrated to British held Palestine Initially, Palestine would be divided among the Jews and Palestinian Arabs (Muslims) Israel was created in 1948 with roughly 650,000 Jews Since the land taken to create Israel at one time belonged to Palestinian Muslims, confrontations broke out between the Muslims and Jews These confrontations are still going on today


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