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Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–1 Planning Defined Defining the organizations objectives or goals Establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals Developing a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities Planning is concerned with ends (what is to be done) as well as with means (how it is to be done).
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–2 Reasons for Planning Exhibit 3.1
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–3 Criticisms Of Formal Planning Planning may create rigidity. Plans cant be developed for a dynamic environment. Formal plans cant replace intuition and creativity. Planning focuses managers attention on todays competition, not on tomorrows survival. Formal planning reinforces success, which may lead to failure.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–4 Planning and Performance Formal planning generally means higher profits, higher return on assets, and other positive financial results. Planning process quality and implementation probably contribute more to high performance than does the extent of planning. When external environment restrictions allowed managers few viable alternatives, planning did not lead to higher performance.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–5 Types of Plans Exhibit 3.2 BREADTH TIME SPECIFICITYFREQUENCY OF USE FRAME OF USE StrategicLong termDirectionalSingle use TacticalShort termSpecificStanding
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–6 Planning: Focus and Time Strategic plans Plans that are organization-wide, establish overall objectives, and position an organization in terms of its environment Tactical plans Plans that specify the details of how an organizations overall objectives are to be achieved Short-term plans Plans that cover less than one year Long-term plans Plans that extend beyond five years
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–7 Strategic Planning Strategic plans Apply broadly to the entire organization. Establish the organizations overall objectives. Seek to position the organization in terms of its environment. Provide direction to drive an organizations efforts to achieve its goals. Serve as the basis for the tactical plans. Cover extended periods of time. Are less specific in their details.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–8 Tactical Planning Tactical plans (operational plans) Apply to specific parts of the organization. Are derived from strategic objectives. Specify the details of how the overall objectives are to be achieved. Cover shorter periods of time. Must be updated continuously to meet current challenges.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–9 Directional versus Specific Plans Exhibit 3.3
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–10 Specific and Directional Plans Specific plans Plans that have clearly defined objectives and leave no room for misinterpretation. What, when, where, how much, and by whom (process-focus) Directional plans Flexible plans that set out general guidelines. Go from here to there (outcome-focus)
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–11 Single-Use and Standing Plans Single-use plans A plan that is used to meet the needs of a particular or unique situation Single-day sales advertisement Standing plan A plan that is ongoing and provides guidance for repeatedly performed actions in an organization Customer satisfaction policy
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–12 Management by Objectives Management by Objectives (MBO) A system in which specific performance objectives are jointly determined by subordinates and their supervisors, progress toward objectives is periodically reviewed, and rewards are allocated on the basis of that progress. Links individual and unit performance objectives at all levels with overall organizational objectives. Focuses operational efforts on organizationally important results. Motivates rather than controls.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–13 Cascading of Objectives Exhibit 3.4
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–14 Elements of MBO Goal specificity Participative decision making Explicit time period for performance Performance feedback
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–15 Setting Employee Objectives Identify an employees key job tasks. Establish specific and challenging goals for each key task. Allow the employee to actively participate. Prioritize goals. Build in feedback mechanisms to assess goal progress. Link rewards to goal attainment.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–16 GoalDifficulty Is There a Downside to MBO? GoalSpecificity TopManagementParticipation
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–17 Strategic Management Strategic Management Process A nine-step process that involves strategic planning, implementation, and evaluation Exhibit 3.5
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–18 The Organizations Current Identity Mission statement Defines the present purpose of the organization. Objectives Specific measures (milestones) for achievement, progress, and performance. Strategic plan A document that explains the business founders vision and describes the strategy and operations of that business.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–19 Analyze the Environment Environmental scanning Screening large amounts of information to detect emerging trends and create a set of scenarios Competitive intelligence Accurate information about competitors that allows managers to anticipate competitors actions rather than merely react to them
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–20 SWOT: Identifying Organizational Opportunities SWOT analysis Analysis of an organizations strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in order to identify a strategic niche that the organization can exploit Exhibit 3.6
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–21 SWOT Analysis Strengths (strategic) Internal resources that are available or things that an organization does well. Core competency: a unique skill or resource that represents a competitive edge. Weaknesses Resources that an organization lacks or activities that it does not do well. Opportunities (strategic) Positive external environmental factors. Threats Negative external environmental factors.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–22 Grand Strategies Growth strategy A strategy in which an organization attempts to increase the level of its operations. Stability strategy A strategy that is characterized by an absence of significant change. Retrenchment strategy A strategy characteristic of a company that is reducing its size, usually in an environment of decline. Combination strategy The simultaneous pursuit by an organization of two or more of growth, stability, and retrenchment strategies.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–23 Growth Strategies Direct Expansion Involves increasing a companys size, revenues, operation, or workforce. Merger Occurs when two companies, usually of similar size, combine their resources to form a new company. Acquisition Occurs when a larger company buys a smaller one and incorporates the acquired companys operations into its own.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–24 Competitive Strategies Strategies that position an organization in such a way that it will have a distinct advantage over its competition: Cost-leadership strategy Becoming the lowest-cost producer in an industry. Differentiation strategy Attempting to be unique in an industry within a broad market. Focus strategy Attempting to establish an advantage (such as cost or differentiation) in a narrow market segment.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–25 Sustaining a Competitive Advantage Competitive advantage counts for little if it cannot be sustained over the long-term. Factors reducing competitive advantage Evolutionary changes in the industry Technological changes Customer preferences Imitation by competitors Defending competitive advantage Patents, copyrights, trademarks, regulations, and tariffs Competing on price Long-term contracts with suppliers (and customers)
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–26 Evaluating Strategy Strategy Formulation Evaluation Implementation and Execution
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–27 Quality as a Strategic Weapon Benchmarking The search for the best practices among competitors or noncompetitors that lead to their superior performance. ISO 9000 series Standards designed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that reflect a process whereby independent auditors attest that a companys factory, laboratory, or office has met quality management requirements.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–28 Attaining Six Sigma Quality Six Sigma A philosophy and measurement process developed in the 1980s at Motorola. To design, measure, analyze, and control the input side of a production process to achieve the goal of no more than 3.4 defects per million parts or procedures. A philosophy and measurement process that attempts to design in quality as a product is being made.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–29 Six Sigma 12-Process Steps Select the critical-to-quality characteristics. Define the required performance standards. Validate measurement system, methods, and procedures. Establish the current processes capability. Define upper and lower performance limits. Identify sources of variation. Screen potential causes of variation to identify the vital few variables needing control. Discover variation relationship for the vital variables. Establish operating tolerances on each of the vital variables. Validate the measurement systems ability to produce repeatable data. Determine the capability of the process to control the vital variables. Implement statistical process control on the vital variables. Exhibit 3.7 Source: Cited in D Harold and F. J. Bartos, Optimize Existing Processes to Achieve Six Sigma Capability, reprinted from Control Engineering Practice, © 1998, p. 87, with permission from Elsevier Science.
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–30 Identifying A Competitive Advantage Environmental sources of entrepreneurial opportunity The unexpected The incongruous The process need Industry and market structures Demographics Changes in perception New knowledge
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–31 Web Links Visit the Robbins/DeCenzo companion Website At for this chapters Internet resources, including chapter quiz and student PowerPoints.www.prenhall.com/robbins Diversity Perspectives Log onto and assume the role of a manager in the Bureau of Children with Disabilities as it struggles to obtain information vital to its planning efforts.www.prenhall.com/onekey
Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.3–32 Video Case Application Whirlpool Puts a New Spin on Productivity and Quality Insert Video Link Here (Size to this window)
Part 2: Planning PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 3 Foundations of Planning.
PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 3 Foundations.
PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama C H A P T E R 3 Part II: Planning Fundamentals of Management Sixth Edition Robbins.
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