3THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE Politics in ActionIn 2010 the British were faced with significant austerity measures:20% reduction in public spendingHalf a million public sector jobs cutA three-strikes-and-you’re-out plan for pressuring the unemployed to accept job offers or face a cut off of benefitsElimination of child benefits for middle-class familiesSharp increases in college tuition
5THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE Geographic SettingGreat Britain includes England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern IrelandOffshore island adjacent to EuropeCreates feeling that Britons are separate from but a part of EuropeComplicates relations with European UnionCritical JuncturesBritish politics evolved consistently.British state was formed through unification of kingdoms by conquest and treaties.In 1236 the term Parliament was first used for gathering of barons.Increasing restraints placed on the monarchy by the barons resulted in a Parliament with the right to make laws by the fifteenth century.
9THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE The Seventeenth-Century SettlementFramework for constitutional monarchy was in place by seventeenth century.Glorious Revolution resolved religious conflict.It established the dominance of the Church of England.Settling of religious differences resulted in secular state.Parliamentary democracy emerged by end of seventeenth century.
10THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE The Industrial Revolution and the British EmpireIndustrial revolution—period of rapid and destabilizing social, economic, and political changes caused by introduction of large-scale factory production.Rapid expansion of manufacturing and technological innovationSocial and economic changesPressure for democratizationIndustrialization disrupted lives.Field laborers lost their jobs.Landholders were squeezed off land.It undermined status of skilled craft workers.
11THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE The British EmpireLeading industrial sector dependent on overseas tradeNapoleonic Wars secured European balance of power favorable for free trade.Britain ruled as a hegemonic power.Hegemonic power —A state that can control the pattern of alliances and terms of international order and often shapes domestic political developments in countries throughout the world.Industrial Change and the Struggle for Voting RightsEconomic power shifted from landowners to commerce and industry.Pressure increased for Parliament to expand franchise.
13THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE World Wars, Industrial Strife, and the Depression (1914–1945)State involvement in economy increased during World War I (1914–1918)Nationalization of industriesPrice settingRestricted capital flow abroadProduction aimed at war effortLimited trade union and worker movementsFree market versus intervention conflict continued through Great Depression (1929 through much of the 1930s) and World War II (1939–1945).
15THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE Collective Consensus (1945–1979)Post war —shared victory, common misery, dreams of new prosperity and securityCollectivism – majority agreement to expansion of state economic responsibility and broad social welfareGovernment should enact policies of welfare state.Welfare state—set of policies designed to provide health care, pensions, unemployment benefits, and assistance to the poor. Also responsible for economic growth, full employment.Consensus unraveled by economic downturn and political stagnation
16THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE Margaret Thatcher and the Enterprise Culture (1979–1990)1970s—economic stagnation; loss of competitive edgeMargaret ThatcherBelieved collectivism led to Britain’s declineCut taxes and reduced social servicesGovernment policy to stimulate competitionThatcher style characterized by some as “authoritarian populism.”Resigned November 1990
17THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE New Labour’s Third WayBlair and Brown modernized Labour Party“Third-way” alternativeRejected interest-based politicsDual executive: Brown in charge of domestic policies; Blair responsible for foreign policiesBlair resigned June 2007; Brown became Prime Minister.
18THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE The Conservative-Liberal CoalitionConservatives held power inDavid Cameron became party leader 2005.Appealed to youth forpolitical support andto champion modernizationand pragmatismConservative-LiberalCoalition core principlesTwo parties together forpartnership governmentAttempted to blend Conservative commitment to the dynamism of free markets with the Liberal Democrat commitment to decentralizationDavid Cameron
19THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE Themes and ImplicationsHistorical Junctures and Political ThemesFirst Theme: Country’s relative world position influences ability to manage domestic and international challengesWeaker international standing means it is more difficult to control international events or insulate from pressuresSecond Theme: Economic strategiesBritish approach to economic governance is laissez-faire—a term that means “to let be,” i.e., to allow to act freely.Third Theme: Political influence of the democratic ideaRenewed questions concerning the role of the monarchy, constitutional form, state unityFourth Theme: Collective identitiesConsiders how individuals define political identity in terms of group attachments, political goals, and political status
20THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE Implications for Comparative PoliticsBritain’s historical firstsIndustrializeParliamentary democracyDominant PowerWestminster model—democracy rests on supreme authority of the legislatureGradual and peaceful evolution of democracy
21SECTION 2 POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT IntroductionNeoliberalism underscores New LabourNeoliberalism—Policies promote free competition, minimize government interference with business, and encourage foreign investment.The State and the EconomyBritish economy has run on “two-track” pattern of growthGrowth in service sector and weak industrial sectorEconomic ManagementGovernment interventions in economy limited to macroeconomic policyMacroeconomic policy—intended to shape the overall economic system by concentrating on policy targets such as inflation and growth.
22POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT The Consensus EraAfter World War II, collectivist consensus crystallized.Followed Keynesian economicsKeynesianism—named after British economist John Maynard Keynes, state economic policies used to regulate economy to achieve stable economic growth.Became unpopular during 1970s with increased labor unrestThatcherite Policy OrientationRejected Keynesianism for monetarismMonetarism—an approach to economic policy that assumes a natural rate of unemployment, determined by the labor market, and rejects the instrument of government spending to run budgetary deficits for stimulating the economy and creating jobs.
23POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT New Labour’s Economic Policy ApproachGordon Brown as chancellor, then primate minister established “platform of stability”Low debt, low deficit, low inflationNew Growth TheoryImprove quality of laborthrough education andtrainingMaintain labor marketflexibilityAttract investment
24POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT The Coalition Government’s Economic Policy ApproachKey cuts in spendingGovernment subsidies for public housingIncreased age for pensionsReduction in child benefits for middle-class familiesReduction by ~ 10% in social protection, welfare benefitsReduction by ~ 20% public spending across the boardSocial PolicyNational Health Service (NHS)Provides comprehensive and universal medical careLow cost medical care to all British citizens as matter of right.Shake-up in January 2011Health care budgets turned over to general practitioners
25POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT Society and EconomyNew Labour focused social policy on training and broader social investment.Emphasized efficiencies and attempted to break welfare dependencyIn a market-driven economy, difficult for governments to effectively pursue targeted goals
26POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT Inequality and Ethnic MinoritiesEthnic minority individuals, particularly young men, are subject to unequal treatment by the police and considerable physical harassment by citizens.Poor rates of economic success reinforce sense of isolation and distinct collective identities.Employment opportunities for women for all minority ethnic groups have been limited.
27POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT Inequality and WomenInequality in labor participation and wagesFull time gender pay gap narrowed to 19.8%Significant increase in women employment over the past thirty yearsHalf of the jobs performed by women, however, were part- time compared to about one-sixth performed by men.Patterns of women’s employment in UK are shaped by the chronic undersupply of affordable child care.
28POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT Britain in the Global EconomyBritain’s economic policies and political climate encourages foreign direct investment .Foreign direct investment (FDI)—ownership of or investment in cross- border enterprises in which the investor plays a direct managerial role.Comparatively strong microeconomic and growth competitivenessAchieved significant competitive success in particular areas of science-based high technology industries.
29SECTION 3 GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING IntroductionBritain’s constitutionNot a formal written documentCombination of statutory law, common law, convention, and authoritative interpretationsCan be dated back to Bill of Rights of 1689Hereditary institutions active government participants (Crown, House of Lords)Governmental power limited by widely supported rules of conductFew absolute principles of government
30GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING Organization of the StateCore of British system is parliamentary sovereigntyParliamentary sovereignty—the doctrine that grants the legislature the power to make or overturn any law and permits no veto or judicial review.Parliament makes and overturns law unrestricted by executive, judiciary, and Crown.In a classic parliamentary democracy, the prime minister is answerable to House of Commons.Parliamentary democracy—chief executive is answerable to the legislature and may be dismissed by it.
31GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING Organization of the State (Cont’d)Britain has long been a unitary state—system in which no powers are reserved for subnational units of government.Britain has fusion of powers at the national level.Fusion of powers—constitutional principle that merges authority of branches of government; contrast to principle of separation of powers.Parliament is the supreme legislative, judiciary, and executive authority; includes monarch, House of Commons and House of LordsThe cabinet government shapes, directs, and takes responsibility.Cabinet government—executive power held by cabinetBritain is a constitutional monarchy.Constitutional monarchy—Crown passes by hereditary succession
32GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING The ExecutiveCabinet governmentKey functions: policy-making, control of government, and coordination between departmentsExecutive influence includes cabinet, ministries, civil service, and Parliament
33GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING Cabinet GovernmentParty with majority seats in House of Commons forms government, serves as Prime Minister.Prime Minister selects and heads cabinet, helps develop policy, coordinates, and serves as liaison with media, the party, interest groups, and Parliament.Cabinet:Member of cabinet must be either a member of parliament (MP) or less commonly, a member of the House of Lords.Serves as check on Prime MinisterUnified by collective responsibilitySignificant decisions require majority supportEasily controlled by strong executive
35GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING Bureaucracy and Civil ServiceIn practice, shares policy-making with cabinetPermanent secretary runs department.Reforms have streamlined and reshaped civil service.Concern that this may be effort to exact controlSpecial advisors undermining civil servantsPublic and Semipublic InstitutionsAdministrative functions beyond core executive functions and agencies; e.g., nationalized industries and nondepartmental public bodies.
36GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING Nationalized IndustriesNationalization key to Labour government’s program through postwar eraLost popularity by end of Thatcher eraUnlikely that New Labour will return to nationalizationMore likely to see semipublic administrative organizations and public/private partnerships
37GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING The JudiciaryRole limited by parliament sovereigntyNo judicial review; i.e., no prerogative of high court to nullify actions by the executive and legislative branches that it deems violate the constitution.Limited to determination of violation of common law or act of ParliamentJurists participate in political issues outside of court.In 2009, creation of UK Supreme CourtRemoved authority from House of LordsAbides by European Court of Justice (ECJ)Passage of Human Rights Act in 1998
38GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING Subnational GovernmentUnited Kingdom is comprised of England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.Reforms introduced a set of power-sharing arrangements, known as “devolution” to govern arrangements among UK Westminster Parliament, the Welsh Assembly, the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the Scottish Parliament.Regional Development Agencies (RDAs) were introduced in 1999 to facilitate economic development at the regional level.May 2000, reform leading to election of mayors and decentralizing of power
39GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING The Policy-Making ProcessPolicy-making from executive with little direct participation by ParliamentStrongly influenced by policy communitiesInformal, knowledgeable, connectedInsider-only processChallenged by European Union authority, process, and constraints
40SECTION 4 REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION IntroductionParliamentary sovereigntyNeither executive nor judiciary can override.Parliament not bound by actions of previous ParliamentIn practice, control exerted by House of Commons is limited.The Legislature
41REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION The House of CommonsLower house of ParliamentThree functionsPass lawsAuthorize taxationReview public administration and government policyLimited legislative function in practiceHighly visible arena for policy debateBalance of power has shifted to governing party and executive.
42REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION The Legislative ProcessBills must be introduced in House of Commons and House of Lords.Approval of House of Lords is not required.Bill comes to the floor three times:First: formally read at introduction, printed, debated in general terms, and after interval, given a second readingSecond: Undergoes detailed review by standing committee; then report stage during which new amendments may be introduced.Third reading: bill is considered final form (and voted on) without debate.Follows parallel path in the LordsFinally, it receives royal assent (which is only a formality) and becomes an Act of Parliament.
43REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION The House of LordsUpper chamber of ParliamentUnelected—hereditary peers, life peers, archbishops of Canterbury and York, senior bishops and archbishops of Church of EnglandServe as chamber of revisionRedraft legislationPower to suggest amendmentsCan debate, refine, and delay—but not block—legislationBills follow parallel path to that of House of Commons
44REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION Reforms in Behavior and StructureBehavioral Changes: Backbench DissentBackbenchers—members of governing party with no governmental office and oppositionTraditionally deferential
45REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION Structural Changes: Parliamentary CommitteesSelect committees revived in 1979Monitor specific policies of administrationHelp exert Parliamentary control over executiveHold hearings, take testimony, issue reportsReform has compelled civil service to testify against ministers
46REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION Political Parties and the Party SystemBritain commonly described as two-partySince 1945 only Labour and Conservative governmentsCenter parties increasing influence since 1980sSeveral national parties also competingThe Labour PartyFounded by trade union representatives and socialist societiesBecame major party with victory in 1945Currently moderate center-leftRe-branded “New Labour” under Tony Blair2010 election won by Ed MilibandTurn party toward more progressive direction
47REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION The Conservative PartyDates to eighteenth centuryOne of most successful parties in EuropeCurrently experiencing internal divisions over Britain’s role in European Union2003 party lead by Michael Howard.2005 Dave Cameron elected by landslide.Reoriented partyRepositioned party as more centrist
48REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION Liberal DemocratsLiberal Party only challenge to Labour and Conservatives through 1970s1981—Social Democratic Party (SDP) formed from split in Labour Party.After 1987 Liberal and Social Democrats merged to form Social and Liberal Democratic Party (now called Liberal Democrats or Lib Dems).After success in 2001 election, positioned as center-left critic of New Labour2007 Nick Clegg took over leadership of Lib Dems.
49REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION ElectionsGeneral elections are held exclusively for seats in House of Commons.Prime minister is not directly elected.Queen invites leader of the party that controls majority to be prime minister.Parliament —maximum life of five years, with no fixed termGeneral elections are held after Crown at the request of Prime Minister has dissolved Parliament .Ability to control timing is a political asset for prime minister.
50REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION The Electoral System and the 2010 ElectionCommonsRepresentatives are called members of Parliament or MPs.First-past-the-post elections/ Single member plurality systemNo requirement for majorityNo element of proportional representationWinner-take-all electoral system exaggerates size of victoryCritics charge that it does not give adequate representation to minority opinion.2010 election resulted in hung parliament—situation after an election when no single party comprises a majority in the Commons.Consideration being given to “The Alternative Vote” (AV)— voters rank preferences among candidates.
52REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION Gender, Ethnicity, and Representation2010 election produced record number of firsts:For Labour:First Muslim female MPFirst African MPFor Conservatives:First Asian woman MPGenerally women and minorities remain substantially underrepresented.Trends in Electoral BehaviorRecent elections have deepened geographic and regional fragmentation.Multiple two-party systemsNational parties challenged since 1970s
53REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION National IdentityDecolonization has created a multiethnic Britain.Ethnic minority communities have experienced police insensitivity, problems in access to the best public housing, hate crimes, criticism directed at immigrants and asylum seekers.Interests, Social Movements, and ProtestsPolitical protest increasingDemands for accountability and transparency in international trade and development agenciesEnvironmental activismFarm and rural protestsWar in Iraq
55BRITISH POLITICS IN TRANSITION Political Challenges and Changing AgendasPolitical issues about democratic governance and citizens’ participation remain unresolved.Constitutional ReformOn political agenda: Role of monarchy and House of Lords, balance of power between institutions, and accountability of British government
56BRITISH POLITICS IN TRANSITION Identities in FluxMinority representation in Parliament lowIssues of immigration, refugees, asylumNew policy limits non-European Union immigration to highly skilledIncreased scrutiny of Muslim communityChallenge to ensure both security and ties of shared political culture and values
57BRITISH POLITICS IN TRANSITION Britain’s Global Connections and the Legacies of EmpireBritain’s role in the world of states has been shaped by its determination to view its “special relationship” with the United States.Special relationship—refers to relations between the United States and Britain—not only largely positive and mutually beneficial but also the common heritage and shared values.Britain has since also forged a new special relationship with India
58BRITISH POLITICS IN TRANSITION British Politics, Terrorism, and Britain’s Relationship with the United States and the Rest of the WorldImmediate support after September 11 erodedBush became a liability because of unknown impact of foreign policy.Blair refused advice to make support of war conditional on achievement of ends.Complicated by fallout of July 7 London bombingsBrown distanced himself by foreign policy appointments.Appointed Mark Malloch Brown and David Miliband
59BRITISH POLITICS IN TRANSITION British Politics in Comparative PerspectiveBritain’s non-interventionist economic policies of the 1990s defied accepted theory.Britain avoided recession of 1990s.New Labour was among the hardest hit of the core European economies during the financial and economic crisis in 2008.UK joins the middle-level European powers due toDecline of economic modelRefusal to participate in the euro zoneUnresolved legacies of empireConstitutional uncertainty