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Britain Chapter 2
2 | 2 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. SECTION 1 THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE
2 | 3 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Politics in Action In 2010 the British were faced with significant austerity measures: – 20% reduction in public spending – Half a million public sector jobs cut – A three-strikes-and-you’re-out plan for pressuring the unemployed to accept job offers or face a cut off of benefits – Elimination of child benefits for middle-class families – Sharp increases in college tuition THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE
2 | 4 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE
2 | 5 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE Geographic Setting Great Britain includes England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland Offshore island adjacent to Europe –Creates feeling that Britons are separate from but a part of Europe –Complicates relations with European Union Critical Junctures British politics evolved consistently. British state was formed through unification of kingdoms by conquest and treaties. In 1236 the term Parliament was first used for gathering of barons. Increasing restraints placed on the monarchy by the barons resulted in a Parliament with the right to make laws by the fifteenth century.
2 | 6 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE
2 | 7 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE
2 | 8 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE
2 | 9 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE The Seventeenth-Century Settlement Framework for constitutional monarchy was in place by seventeenth century. Glorious Revolution resolved religious conflict. –It established the dominance of the Church of England. –Settling of religious differences resulted in secular state. Parliamentary democracy emerged by end of seventeenth century.
2 | 10 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE The Industrial Revolution and the British Empire Industrial revolutionIndustrial revolution—period of rapid and destabilizing social, economic, and political changes caused by introduction of large-scale factory production. –Rapid expansion of manufacturing and technological innovation –Social and economic changes –Pressure for democratization Industrialization disrupted lives. – Field laborers lost their jobs. – Landholders were squeezed off land. – It undermined status of skilled craft workers.
2 | 11 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE The British Empire Leading industrial sector dependent on overseas trade –Napoleonic Wars secured European balance of power favorable for free trade. hegemonic power.Britain ruled as a hegemonic power. –Hegemonic power –Hegemonic power —A state that can control the pattern of alliances and terms of international order and often shapes domestic political developments in countries throughout the world. Industrial Change and the Struggle for Voting Rights Economic power shifted from landowners to commerce and industry. Pressure increased for Parliament to expand franchise.
2 | 12 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE
2 | 13 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. World Wars, Industrial Strife, and the Depression (1914–1945) State involvement in economy increased during World War I (1914–1918) –Nationalization of industries –Price setting –Restricted capital flow abroad –Production aimed at war effort –Limited trade union and worker movements Free market versus intervention conflict continued through Great Depression (1929 through much of the 1930s) and World War II (1939–1945). THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE
2 | 14 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE
2 | 15 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE Collective Consensus (1945–1979) Post war —shared victory, common misery, dreams of new prosperity and security Collectivism – majority agreement to expansion of state economic responsibility and broad social welfare welfare state –Government should enact policies of welfare state. o Welfare state o Welfare state—set of policies designed to provide health care, pensions, unemployment benefits, and assistance to the poor. Also responsible for economic growth, full employment. Consensus unraveled by economic downturn and political stagnation
2 | 16 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE Margaret Thatcher and the Enterprise Culture (1979–1990) 1970s—economic stagnation; loss of competitive edge Margaret Thatcher –Believed collectivism led to Britain’s decline –Cut taxes and reduced social services –Government policy to stimulate competition Thatcher style characterized by some as “authoritarian populism.” Resigned November 1990
2 | 17 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE New Labour’s Third Way Blair and Brown modernized Labour Party “Third-way” alternative –Rejected interest-based politics Dual executive: Brown in charge of domestic policies; Blair responsible for foreign policies Blair resigned June 2007; Brown became Prime Minister.
2 | 18 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE The Conservative-Liberal Coalition Conservatives held power in 1990. David Cameron became party leader 2005. – Appealed to youth for political support and to champion modernization and pragmatism Conservative-Liberal Coalition core principles – Two parties together for partnership government – Attempted to blend Conservative commitment to the dynamism of free markets with the Liberal Democrat commitment to decentralization David Cameron
2 | 19 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE Themes and Implications Historical Junctures and Political Themes First Theme: Country’s relative world position influences ability to manage domestic and international challenges –Weaker international standing means it is more difficult to control international events or insulate from pressures Second Theme: Economic strategies laissez-faire – British approach to economic governance is laissez-faire—a term that means “to let be,” i.e., to allow to act freely. Third Theme: Political influence of the democratic idea – Renewed questions concerning the role of the monarchy, constitutional form, state unity Fourth Theme: Collective identities – Considers how individuals define political identity in terms of group attachments, political goals, and political status
2 | 20 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BRITISH STATE Implications for Comparative Politics Britain’s historical firsts –Industrialize –Parliamentary democracy –Dominant Power –Westminster model –Westminster model—democracy rests on supreme authority of the legislature –Gradual and peaceful evolution of democracy
2 | 21 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. SECTION 2 POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT Introduction NeoliberalismNeoliberalism underscores New Labour –Neoliberalism –Neoliberalism—Policies promote free competition, minimize government interference with business, and encourage foreign investment. The State and the Economy British economy has run on “two-track” pattern of growth –Growth in service sector and weak industrial sector Economic Management macroeconomic policyGovernment interventions in economy limited to macroeconomic policy – Macroeconomic policy – Macroeconomic policy—intended to shape the overall economic system by concentrating on policy targets such as inflation and growth.
2 | 22 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT The Consensus Era After World War II, collectivist consensus crystallized. Keynesian –Followed Keynesian economics o Keynesianism o Keynesianism—named after British economist John Maynard Keynes, state economic policies used to regulate economy to achieve stable economic growth. –Became unpopular during 1970s with increased labor unrest Thatcherite Policy Orientation monetarismRejected Keynesianism for monetarism – Monetarism – Monetarism—an approach to economic policy that assumes a natural rate of unemployment, determined by the labor market, and rejects the instrument of government spending to run budgetary deficits for stimulating the economy and creating jobs.
2 | 23 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT New Labour’s Economic Policy Approach Gordon Brown as chancellor, then primate minister established “platform of stability” –Low debt, low deficit, low inflation New Growth Theory – Improve quality of labor through education and training – Maintain labor market flexibility – Attract investment
2 | 24 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT The Coalition Government’s Economic Policy Approach Key cuts in spending –Government subsidies for public housing –Increased age for pensions –Reduction in child benefits for middle-class families –Reduction by ~ 10% in social protection, welfare benefits –Reduction by ~ 20% public spending across the board Social Policy National Health Service (NHS) –Provides comprehensive and universal medical care – Low cost medical care to all British citizens as matter of right. Shake-up in January 2011 – Health care budgets turned over to general practitioners
2 | 25 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT Society and Economy New Labour focused social policy on training and broader social investment. –Emphasized efficiencies and attempted to break welfare dependency –In a market-driven economy, difficult for governments to effectively pursue targeted goals
2 | 26 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT Inequality and Ethnic Minorities Ethnic minority individuals, particularly young men, are subject to unequal treatment by the police and considerable physical harassment by citizens. Poor rates of economic success reinforce sense of isolation and distinct collective identities. Employment opportunities for women for all minority ethnic groups have been limited.
2 | 27 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT Inequality and Women Inequality in labor participation and wages –Full time gender pay gap narrowed to 19.8% Significant increase in women employment over the past thirty years – Half of the jobs performed by women, however, were part- time compared to about one-sixth performed by men. Patterns of women’s employment in UK are shaped by the chronic undersupply of affordable child care.
2 | 28 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT Britain in the Global Economy foreign direct investment.Britain’s economic policies and political climate encourages foreign direct investment. – Foreign direct investment (FDI) – Foreign direct investment (FDI)—ownership of or investment in cross- border enterprises in which the investor plays a direct managerial role. Comparatively strong microeconomic and growth competitiveness –Achieved significant competitive success in particular areas of science-based high technology industries.
2 | 29 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. SECTION 3 GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING Introduction Britain’s constitution –Not a formal written document o Combination of statutory law, common law, convention, and authoritative interpretations –Can be dated back to Bill of Rights of 1689 o Hereditary institutions active government participants (Crown, House of Lords) o Governmental power limited by widely supported rules of conduct o Few absolute principles of government
2 | 30 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING Organization of the State parliamentary sovereigntyCore of British system is parliamentary sovereignty – Parliamentary sovereignty – Parliamentary sovereignty—the doctrine that grants the legislature the power to make or overturn any law and permits no veto or judicial review. o Parliament makes and overturns law unrestricted by executive, judiciary, and Crown. parliamentary democracyIn a classic parliamentary democracy, the prime minister is answerable to House of Commons. – Parliamentary democracy – Parliamentary democracy—chief executive is answerable to the legislature and may be dismissed by it.
2 | 31 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Organization of the State (Cont’d) unitary stateBritain has long been a unitary state—system in which no powers are reserved for subnational units of government. fusion of powersBritain has fusion of powers at the national level. – Fusion of powers – Fusion of powers—constitutional principle that merges authority of branches of government; contrast to principle of separation of powers. o Parliament is the supreme legislative, judiciary, and executive authority; includes monarch, House of Commons and House of Lords cabinet governmentThe cabinet government shapes, directs, and takes responsibility. –Cabinet government –Cabinet government—executive power held by cabinet constitutional monarchyBritain is a constitutional monarchy. – Constitutional monarchy – Constitutional monarchy—Crown passes by hereditary succession GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
2 | 32 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING The Executive Cabinet government –Key functions: policy-making, control of government, and coordination between departments Executive influence includes cabinet, ministries, civil service, and Parliament
2 | 33 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING Cabinet Government Party with majority seats in House of Commons forms government, serves as Prime Minister. Prime Minister selects and heads cabinet, helps develop policy, coordinates, and serves as liaison with media, the party, interest groups, and Parliament. Cabinet: –Member of cabinet must be either a member of parliament (MP) or less commonly, a member of the House of Lords. –Serves as check on Prime Minister o Unified by collective responsibility o Significant decisions require majority support o Easily controlled by strong executive
2 | 34 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
2 | 35 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING Bureaucracy and Civil Service In practice, shares policy-making with cabinet Permanent secretary runs department. Reforms have streamlined and reshaped civil service. –Concern that this may be effort to exact control –Special advisors undermining civil servants Public and Semipublic Institutions Administrative functions beyond core executive functions and agencies; e.g., nationalized industries and nondepartmental public bodies.
2 | 36 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING Nationalized Industries Nationalization key to Labour government’s program through postwar era Lost popularity by end of Thatcher era Unlikely that New Labour will return to nationalization More likely to see semipublic administrative organizations and public/private partnerships
2 | 37 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING The Judiciary Role limited by parliament sovereignty judicial review; –No judicial review; i.e., no prerogative of high court to nullify actions by the executive and legislative branches that it deems violate the constitution. –Limited to determination of violation of common law or act of Parliament Jurists participate in political issues outside of court. In 2009, creation of UK Supreme Court –Removed authority from House of Lords Abides by European Court of Justice (ECJ) –Passage of Human Rights Act in 1998
2 | 38 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING Subnational Government United Kingdom is comprised of England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Reforms introduced a set of power-sharing arrangements, known as “devolution” to govern arrangements among UK Westminster Parliament, the Welsh Assembly, the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the Scottish Parliament. Regional Development Agencies (RDAs) were introduced in 1999 to facilitate economic development at the regional level. May 2000, reform leading to election of mayors and decentralizing of power
2 | 39 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING The Policy-Making Process Policy-making from executive with little direct participation by Parliament –Strongly influenced by policy communities Informal, knowledgeable, connected –Insider-only process –Challenged by European Union authority, process, and constraints
2 | 40 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. SECTION 4 REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION Introduction Parliamentary sovereignty –Neither executive nor judiciary can override. –Parliament not bound by actions of previous Parliament In practice, control exerted by House of Commons is limited. The Legislature
2 | 41 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION The House of Commons Lower house of Parliament Three functions –Pass laws –Authorize taxation –Review public administration and government policy Limited legislative function in practice Highly visible arena for policy debate Balance of power has shifted to governing party and executive.
2 | 42 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION The Legislative Process Bills must be introduced in House of Commons and House of Lords. Approval of House of Lords is not required. Bill comes to the floor three times: –First: formally read at introduction, printed, debated in general terms, and after interval, given a second reading –Second: Undergoes detailed review by standing committee; then report stage during which new amendments may be introduced. –Third reading: bill is considered final form (and voted on) without debate. Follows parallel path in the Lords Finally, it receives royal assent (which is only a formality) and becomes an Act of Parliament.
2 | 43 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION The House of Lords Upper chamber of Parliament Unelected—hereditary peers, life peers, archbishops of Canterbury and York, senior bishops and archbishops of Church of England Serve as chamber of revision –Redraft legislation –Power to suggest amendments Can debate, refine, and delay—but not block—legislation Bills follow parallel path to that of House of Commons
2 | 44 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION Reforms in Behavior and Structure Behavioral Changes: Backbench Dissent Backbenchers—members of governing party with no governmental office and opposition –Traditionally deferential
2 | 45 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION Structural Changes: Parliamentary Committees Select committees revived in 1979 –Monitor specific policies of administration –Help exert Parliamentary control over executive –Hold hearings, take testimony, issue reports –Reform has compelled civil service to testify against ministers
2 | 46 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION Political Parties and the Party System Britain commonly described as two-party –Since 1945 only Labour and Conservative governments –Center parties increasing influence since 1980s –Several national parties also competing The Labour Party Founded by trade union representatives and socialist societies Became major party with victory in 1945 Currently moderate center-left Re-branded “New Labour” under Tony Blair 2010 election won by Ed Miliband –Turn party toward more progressive direction
2 | 47 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION The Conservative Party Dates to eighteenth century One of most successful parties in Europe Currently experiencing internal divisions over Britain’s role in European Union 2003 party lead by Michael Howard. 2005 Dave Cameron elected by landslide. – Reoriented party – Repositioned party as more centrist
2 | 48 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION Liberal Democrats Liberal Party only challenge to Labour and Conservatives through 1970s 1981—Social Democratic Party (SDP) formed from split in Labour Party. After 1987 Liberal and Social Democrats merged to form Social and Liberal Democratic Party (now called Liberal Democrats or Lib Dems). After success in 2001 election, positioned as center-left critic of New Labour 2007 Nick Clegg took over leadership of Lib Dems.
2 | 49 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION Elections General elections are held exclusively for seats in House of Commons. Prime minister is not directly elected. –Queen invites leader of the party that controls majority to be prime minister. Parliament —maximum life of five years, with no fixed term General elections are held after Crown at the request of Prime Minister has dissolved Parliament. Ability to control timing is a political asset for prime minister.
2 | 50 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION The Electoral System and the 2010 Election Commons –Representatives are called members of Parliament or MPs. –First-past-the-post elections/ Single member plurality system No requirement for majority No element of proportional representation –Winner-take-all electoral system exaggerates size of victory Critics charge that it does not give adequate representation to minority opinion. hung parliament –2010 election resulted in hung parliament—situation after an election when no single party comprises a majority in the Commons. –Consideration being given to “The Alternative Vote” (AV)— voters rank preferences among candidates.
2 | 51 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
2 | 52 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION Gender, Ethnicity, and Representation 2010 election produced record number of firsts: – For Labour: o First Muslim female MP o First African MP – For Conservatives: o First Asian woman MP Generally women and minorities remain substantially underrepresented. Trends in Electoral Behavior Recent elections have deepened geographic and regional fragmentation. –Multiple two-party systems –National parties challenged since 1970s
2 | 53 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION National Identity Decolonization has created a multiethnic Britain. Ethnic minority communities have experienced police insensitivity, problems in access to the best public housing, hate crimes, criticism directed at immigrants and asylum seekers. Interests, Social Movements, and Protests Political protest increasing –Demands for accountability and transparency in international trade and development agencies –Environmental activism –Farm and rural protests –War in Iraq
2 | 54 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. SECTION 5 BRITISH POLITICS IN TRANSITION
2 | 55 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. BRITISH POLITICS IN TRANSITION Political Challenges and Changing Agendas Political issues about democratic governance and citizens’ participation remain unresolved. Constitutional Reform On political agenda: Role of monarchy and House of Lords, balance of power between institutions, and accountability of British government
2 | 56 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. BRITISH POLITICS IN TRANSITION Identities in Flux Minority representation in Parliament low Issues of immigration, refugees, asylum –New policy limits non-European Union immigration to highly skilled Increased scrutiny of Muslim community Challenge to ensure both security and ties of shared political culture and values
2 | 57 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Britain’s Global Connections and the Legacies of Empire special relationshipBritain’s role in the world of states has been shaped by its determination to view its “special relationship” with the United States. – Special relationship – Special relationship—refers to relations between the United States and Britain—not only largely positive and mutually beneficial but also the common heritage and shared values. Britain has since also forged a new special relationship with India BRITISH POLITICS IN TRANSITION
2 | 58 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. BRITISH POLITICS IN TRANSITION British Politics, Terrorism, and Britain’s Relationship with the United States and the Rest of the World Immediate support after September 11 eroded –Bush became a liability because of unknown impact of foreign policy. –Blair refused advice to make support of war conditional on achievement of ends. –Complicated by fallout of July 7 London bombings –Brown distanced himself by foreign policy appointments. o Appointed Mark Malloch Brown and David Miliband
2 | 59 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. BRITISH POLITICS IN TRANSITION British Politics in Comparative Perspective Britain’s non-interventionist economic policies of the 1990s defied accepted theory. –Britain avoided recession of 1990s. New Labour was among the hardest hit of the core European economies during the financial and economic crisis in 2008. UK joins the middle-level European powers due to – Decline of economic model – Refusal to participate in the euro zone – Unresolved legacies of empire – Constitutional uncertainty
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