Presentation on theme: "Get Ready! Compare & contrast the factors that drove the U.S. to war in 1917 & 1941 World War 1 World War World War 1 World War 2."— Presentation transcript:
Get Ready! Compare & contrast the factors that drove the U.S. to war in 1917 & 1941 World War 1 World War World War 1 World War 2
April 2, 2013 ■Objective 29 – Timeline – Be sure to review notes on my webpage ■Objective 30 – Notes ■Map Activity ■Begin Reading 26 – The Cold War
Objective 30 - How did the U.S. mobilize civilians at home to help win World War 2 & what impact did this have on American society?
Mobilizing an “Arsenal of Democracy”
The Home Front ■WW2 impacted all aspects of American life: –FDR hoped the U.S. would be the great “arsenal of democracy” –The boost of wartime industry ended the Great Depression –The war altered the lives of women, African-Americans, Native- Americans Japanese-Americans (Nisei), & Mexican-Americans
Mobilization ■To win wars in Asia & Europe & meet civilian demands, the U.S. gov’t grew to its largest size ever: War Powers Act –The War Powers Act gave the president unprecedented power –New bureaucracies were formed to direct the economy, create propaganda, sell war bonds, & prevent enemy subversion The power to create new gov’t agencies to censor the press to limit civil liberties & seize personal property The Office of War Mobilization coordinated the draft, consumer prices, & the labor force The Office of War Information directed press, print, radio, & film propaganda The Office of Strategic Services gathered enemy intelligence & conducted espionage This is 2x as much as all previous gov’t spending combined The U.S. gov’t spent $250 million per day from 1941 to 1945
Mobilization Mobilization: The Demand for War Equipment & Soldiers
War bonds helped raise $187 billion to support the war effort Buy, Buy, Buy, Buy a Bond: It Will Lead to VICTORY!
Victory Gardens Victory Gardens: Grow Your Own
Propaganda Propaganda: Fighting the Enemy on the Battlefield & on the Home Front
Hollywood Pitches In Jimmy Stewart goes off to war
The Wartime Economy ■The most decisive factor for Allied victory was America’s ability to outproduce both Germany & Japan War Production Board (WPB) –Heavy industry was converted to war & was directed by the War Production Board (WPB) –15 million U.S. soldiers fought but 60 million workers & farmers supplied them with supplies U.S. made 2x more goods than Germany & 5x more than Japan
Ford’s Willow Run Factory Ford made one B-24 bomber every hour
Henry Kaiser’s West Coast Shipyards The Allies won the Battle of the Atlantic, in part, because the USA produced ships faster than German u-boats could sink them Kaiser standardized battleship building & reduced the time it took to make a battleship from 355 days to 14 days
Regional Changes ■The war effort transformed the Western & Southern U.S.: –California became the major center for industry to support the war effort in the Pacific –60 of the 100 new military bases were built in the South –Southern textile factories & industrial jobs helped end sharecropping & tenant farming 9 million defense workers moved to new factories & shipyards in South & West
Women ■The war presented new economic opportunities for women: –Dramatic rise in employment (14 million to 19 million by 1945) –Most new female workers were married, many middle-aged –Entered “exclusively male” fields –Temporarily redefined “woman’s sphere” from “just at home”
“Rosie, the Riveter”
S..t..r..e..t..c..h That Food!
Women’s Army Air Corps Pilots Join the Women’s Army Corps (WACs) Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES)
Families ■The uncertainties of war & economic affluence of the 1940s led to a dramatic rise in marriage ■The influx of women into the workforce led to a new demand for daycare centers ■Public health improved as more families had access to doctors, dentists, & prescription drugs
African-Americans ■1 million blacks served in U.S. military but few saw combat Fair Employment Practices Committee ■Discrimination in the workforce led A. Philip Randolph to pressure FDR to create a Fair Employment Practices Committee ■Continued black migration into the North & West made race relations a national issue Banned discrimination in defense industries & gov’t
Segregated units…again Tuskegee Airmen
Double V: Victory at Home & Abroad A. Philip Randolph threatened a “March on Washington” to protest war-time discrimination Other groups, like the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), staged sit-ins in restaurants in major cities to protest discrimination
Mexican-Americans ■Mexican-Americans: –Served in quasi-segregated military units, often in the most hazardous branches –Mexican-American workers found jobs in SW agriculture & west coast industry –Faced discrimination, especially during the Zoot Suit Riots
“Zoot Suit” Riot in Los Angeles
Japanese-Americans ■Due to Pearl Harbor, many in the U.S. feared Japanese-Americans were helping prepare for a Japanese invasion in the West ■Civil liberties were restricted: –Nisei had their assets frozen –Used racial stereotypes (“Japs”) –In 1942, FDR ordered 112,000 Japanese-Americans moved to internment camps Japanese who were not American citizens living in the U.S.
Japanese- American Internment Camps Families were given one week to close their businesses & homes The all Japanese-American 442 nd Division fought in Europe & received over 1,000 citations for bravery
Win-the-War Politics ■In 1944, FDR used the war to strengthen his leadership: –“Mr. New Deal” had shifted to “Mr. Win the War” –Opponent Thomas Dewey made communism & FDR’s health the focus of the election –FDR switched VPs from liberal Henry Wallace to moderate Harry Truman to gain appeal