Presentation on theme: "What is a Cold War? A cold war is a state of conflict between nations that does not involve direct military action but is pursued primarily through economic."— Presentation transcript:
1What is a Cold War?A cold war is a state of conflict between nations that does not involve direct military action but is pursued primarily through economic and political actions, acts of espionage or conflict through surrogates. The surrogates are typically states that are "satellites" of the conflicting nations, i.e., nations allied to them or under their political influence. It might also mean giving military aid (such as weapons or economical aid, or perhaps even soldiers) to lesser nations oppressed or in guerilla war with the opposing country of a cold war.
2The Cold WarU.S. and Soviet Union had diff. goals and ideologies (ways of thinking about things), this causes a Cold WarU.S. is Democratic and Capitalist.Soviet Union was a Dictatorship and Communist.
3Democracy vs. Dictatorship Democracy - A form of government in which power is held by people under a free electoral system.Dictatorship - A government controlled by one person or a small group of people.
4Capitalism vs. Communism • Capitalism – Economic system based on private ownership of the means of production and distribution, and characterized by profit, a free market, and open competition.Communism – Economic idea that the community as a whole should own all property and run all business and industry
5East and West GermanyGermany was divided into 4 sectors, and 2 countries.Soviet Union controlled East GermanyThe U.S, France, and Great Britain controlled West Germany.
9The Berlin Airlift June 27, 1948 to May 12, 1949 The Soviets made no determined effort to disrupt the airlift. There are 2 likely reasons for this.1st - The Soviets saw no need to interfere with the airlift at first, because they believed it would fail.2nd - Disruption ran serious risks of triggering a war.
10Atomic Bomb Threat August 1949 Soviets exploded their own atomic bombTruman developed even more powerful nuclear weapons for national defenseHiroshimaAt 0816 hours, in an instant, 66,000 people were killed and 69,000 injured by a 10-kiloton atomic explosion.NagasakiIn a split second, Nagasaki's population dropped from 422,000 to 383,000. Over 25,000 people were injured.
11The Soviets were dominating Eastern Europe with communism, and the U.S. wanted to stop them.
12U.S. adopts 2 policies:1st - Containment(1947) – stop the spread of communism, or contain it.
132nd - Truman Doctrine(1947) – U. S 2nd - Truman Doctrine(1947) – U.S. would give money to countries to help them fight communism
14AlliancesNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) – Military alliance with U.S. and 11 other countries to help defend each other in case of attack.Warsaw Pact – Alliance between the Soviet Union and Eastern European nations (Stalin controlled)
15Communism on the Home Front Red Scare – Americans were fearful of Communists living in U.S.McCarthy’s CampaignSenator Joseph McCarthy blamed the spread of communism on the presence of traitors within the U.S. governmentMcCarthy made serious accusations without proof and destroyed many lives.In 1953 he declared that there were communists in the military and he was removed
16Korean War The U.S. gains possession of Korea after WWII from Japan. The U.S. and Russia partition Korea (38th parallel) like they did with Germany and BerlinRussia controls North KoreaThe U.S. controls South Korea
17Cold War Becomes Hot War in Korea North Korea invades South Korea The U.S. did not want another country to be communist.June 27, 1950 – U.N. members met to support South KoreaGeneral Douglas MacArthur led U.N. forces into South Korea
18North Koreans driven out of South Korea at one point, and North Korean Capitol captured
19Chinese came in from the North and drove the U.N. forces out.
20July 27, 1953, 2 sides signed cease fire agreement, war ended in stalemate MacArthur wanted ground and air attacks on China, Truman refused, MacArthur lost his position after speaking out against Truman
21End of Korean WarAfter three years of fighting 2 countries remained divided by 38th parallelTodayNorth Korea is a Communist DictatorshipSouth Korea is a Capitalist Democracy
22Americans FearfulU.S. was afraid the Soviet Union might use Cuba as a base to attack the U.S. and spread Communism into Latin America.(U.S. policy of containment)
23Conflict With Cuba January 20, 1961 – John F. Kennedy became president He wanted to help Latin America become Democratic, especially Cuba.Cuba is 90 miles from Florida
24Bay of Pigs InvasionApril 1961 – Kennedy sent some 1500 Cuban exiles into the Bay of Pigs (Southwest coast of Cuba)Castro’s forces attacked them = disaster1200 invading exiles captured, the rest killedFidel Castro
25Berlin Wall ErectedAugust 13, 1961 – East German workers started building Berlin Wall27 miles dividing East and West BerlinKennedy sent 1500 troops to West Berlin to protestBerlin Wall remained standing, the U.S. did not want war.
26Cuban Missile Crisis1961 – Soviet Union sending increased numbers of military personnel to CubaSummer 1962 – Soviets started arming Cuba with missiles , Soviets said missiles were to protect country from future invasions
27September 1962 – Kennedy warned Soviet Leader Khrushchev not to place missiles in Cuba that could attack U.S. targetsKhrushchev denied anything being thereU.S. spy planes took photos proving otherwisePictures showed installation of nuclear missile launching pads with enough range to hit major Southeastern cities.
28Kennedy demanded Khrushchev remove missiles. October 22, 1962Kennedy demanded Khrushchev remove missiles.U.S. would attack the Soviet Union if they fired missiles anywhere in Western HemisphereKennedy ordered the U.S. navy to surround Cuba and stop Soviet ships. (U.S. Blockade)
29The Soviets removed missiles, and the U. S The Soviets removed missiles, and the U.S. promised not to invade the island.November 22, 1963 – Kennedy assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald – Lyndon Johnson takes office.Soviets and Cubans worried they’re suspects.
30Vietnam WarThe U.S. intervened to stop the spread of communism into South Vietnam (Domino Theory)
31U.S. PositionPresident Eisenhower developed the “Domino Theory” – if Vietnam fell to Communism, the U.S. believed all of Southeast Asia would fall like dominoes (China and North Korea already did)
32U.S. Involvement in Vietnam Communists within South Vietnam – Vietcong – tried to take over the country with help from the North VietnameseNorth and South Vietnam divided by ideologiesSouth Vietnam was a Democracy led by Ngo Dinh Diem, who ended up being killed and South Vietnamese government officials took over
33U.S. had been sending supplies to South Vietnamese August 2, 1964 – U.S. destroyer attacked in Gulf of Tonkin (off Vietnamese coast)August 7, 1964 – U.S. government passed Tonkin Gulf Resolution – President Johnson given power to take actionMarch 1965 – 1st U.S. combat troops arrived in South Vietnam (Operation Rolling Thunder – series of air attacks meant to destroy war industries in North Vietnam – it didn’t work)
34Home FrontAmericans were divided over whether the U.S. should be involved militarily in Vietnam.
35End of the Vietnam War 1973 – the U.S. pulled out of Vietnam Vietnamization – U.S. trained South Vietnamese to carry on fight without them1975 – City of Saigon fell to North VietnamSouth Vietnam surrenderedVietnam became a unified COMMUNIST COUNTRY
36End of the Vietnam WarThe conflict ended in a ceasefire agreement…
37Costs of the War Over 58,000 Americans died 303,000 wounded Veterans who came home were spit upon and called baby killersVeterans suffered post-traumatic stress syndrome, they saw things in war that emotionally damaged them
38End of the Cold War1985 Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union and pushed for reforms to move them closer to democracy.One by one Soviet Republics declared independenceEast Germans were able to leave their countryNovember 1989 – large group of pro- democratic activists began tearing down the Berlin WallOctober 1990 – West and East Germany were reunited1991 – Breakup of the Soviet Union into independent countries