Presentation on theme: "Changing Native American Sex Roles in an Urban Context by Bea Medicine"— Presentation transcript:
1Changing Native American Sex Roles in an Urban Context by Bea Medicine Winkte – Lakota/Dakota term for gay maleTwo-spirit – pan-Indian term – should be “careful and cautious to contextualize gender terms”NA in urban context - “coming out” narrativesWinkte not just male homosexual role – ritualist, artist, specialist in women’s craft, herbalist, seer, namer of children, reject warrior role, powerTraditionally accepted, but with colonization, growing homophobiaLesbianism, gay identity more conspicuous in urban areas, sought urban life-style in contrast to sexual repression found on reservation
3Photo by Doug Rasmussen Who is Will Roscoe? For nearly three decades I've been on an quest for the answers to three questions central to the meaning of being queer. Who are we? Where did we come from? What are we for?Will Roscoe has been active in the the Gay movement since 1975, when he helped found Lambda, the first Gay/Lesbian organization in Montana.In 1998 he published Changing Ones: Third and Fourth Genders in Native North America (St. Martin’s, 1998) a comprehensive series of studies of two-spirit people and traditions. His most recent book, Jesus and the Shamanic Tradition of Same-Sex Love (Suspect Thoughts, 2004) received a Lambda Literary Award for best work in religion/spirituality.Roscoe holds a Ph.D. in History of Consciousness from the University of California, Santa Cruz.Photo by Doug Rasmussen
4Alternative gender roles were among the most widely shared features of North American societies. Male berdaches have been documented in over 155 tribes. In about a third of these groups, a formal status also existed for females who undertook a man’s lifestyle, becoming hunters, warriors, and chiefs. They were sometimes referred to with the same term for male berdaches and sometimes with a distinct term—making them, therefore, a fourth gender. (Thus, “third gender” generally refers to male berdaches and sometimes male and female berdaches, while “fourth gender” always refers to female berdaches.)
5Although there are important variations in berdache roles, they share a core set of traits that justifies comparing them:Specialized work roles. Male and female berdaches are typically described in terms of their preference and achievements in the work of the “opposite” sex and/or unique activities specific to their identities;Gender difference. In addition to work preferences, berdaches are distinguished from men and women in terms of temperament, dress, lifestyle, and social roles;Spiritual sanction. Berdache identity is widely believed to be the result of supernatural intervention in the form of visions or dreams, and/or it is sanctioned by tribal mythology;Same-sex relations. Berdaches most often form sexual and emotional relationships with non-berdache members of their own sex.
7Berdache – Anthropological term – a man who combined the work and social roles of men and women, an artist and a priest who dressed, at least in part, in women’s clothesHermaphrodite – While some berdaches may have been born with anomalous genitals, the known incidence is too rare to account for the number of berdachesLlhamanas – Zuni berdache – were typically homosexual, but not exclusively so.Gay Native Americans – Gay in their usage connotes a lifestyle that encompasses religious, economic, and social dimensions as well as sexualityGender – situationally determined Third Gender – We’wha neither man nor womanWe’wha 1849 – National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
8Two-Spirit - The term Two Spirit refers to another gender role believed to be common among most, if not all, first peoples of Turtle Island (North America), one that had a proper and accepted place within indigenous societies.This gender role was not based in sexual activities or practices, but rather the sacredness that comes from being different. This definition is not meant to replace cultural and traditional teachings, which speak to this role. It is intended to find common ground and to help educate in a contemporary context.
9Two-spirited PeopleFew unmediated documents, sexual histories repressed under patriarchal colonizationStudies on two-spirited burdened by the need to provide counter-historiesTwo-spirited people not solely defined by social marginalization as by cultural and spiritual tribal traditions1886 National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian InstitutionWhat do Third Genders tell us about the Practice of Gender-making?
10Raw and Cooked (p )Metaphors for the process of socialization. What made Zunis cooked was the social forms they learned, especially religion, but also economic and kinship roles.New born infants considered raw because they were unsocializedZuni men and women were not born; they were made or cooked through initiations and rites.Before the ages of four to six, gender was not emphasized as an attribute. Children of both sexes called cha’le’ or childAt death We’wha was placed in pants and a skirt – Pants = raw state (male), skirt = cooked (female)In a society like Zuni, where infants are considered “raw” and ungendered until cultural intervention makes them “cooked,” gendered adults, biology is reduced to a minimum. “Sex” counts for nothing compared to the requisite ritual and social experiences that render raw infants into cooked people. In contemporary North American and northern European society, on the other hand, both sex and gender are important categories.
11Ideal to be k’okshi – good, obedient, attractive, live in balance Zuni ValuesHigh status and economic independence of Zuni women (matrilineal and matrilocal) Men do not own children, they belong to the mother’s clanIdeal to be k’okshi – good, obedient, attractive, live in balanceComplimentarity – men responsible for religion, women responsible for family, gardens, homeDecentralized authority, clan systems, consensusZunis believe they live in the middle of the earth, travel the middle road, smooth conduct1886 National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
121879 Matilda Stevenson arrived to Zuni (husband James Stevenson, Frank Hamilton Cushing) with the Bureau of Ethnology expedition.Discovered Zuni girl “the most intelligent person in the pueblo”. Developed friendshipWe’wha lived with the Stevensons in 1885 in Washington, DC. High profile in press – Zuni maiden, priestess, girl, princess.At Smithsonian demonstrated crafts, interpreted collections, performed an Indian dance at kermes, visited President ClevelandWe’wha considered him/herself a representative of the Zuni tribe
13We’wha’s contributions: Cultural preservation – ceremonial knowledge, research wf. StevensonEconomic development – among first Zunis to make pottery and textiles for saleCross-cultural relations – intermediary between soldiers, school teachers, anthropologists and the pueblo of Zuni1886 National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution