Presentation on theme: "World History 1500 to Present"— Presentation transcript:
1World History 1500 to Present Unit 3 Notes: French Revolution and other Enlightenment inspired revolutions, spread of nationalism; Unification Movements; Industrial RevolutionSOLs: 1 a-e; 6 d-g; 7 a-d; 8 a-c
3French Revolution and Napoleonic Era (1789-1815) Between 1789 and 1815, the French Revolution destroyed an absolute monarchy and disrupted a social system that had existed for over 1,000 years. The events of this time ushered in what many historians call the “modern era” in European politics
4France before the Revolution Outdated social class system (Estates General)First Estate = Clergy (no taxes)Second Estate = Nobility (no taxes)Third Estate = “Everyone Else” (HEAVY TAXES)Severe Financial Crisis:Indecisive Monarch:
5“Voting Rights” in France Traditionally, each “estate” had 1 voteNew idea was to allow each deputy in the Estates to have 1 voteKing Louis XVI says, “No, I think the old way is the best” and locks doors on Third EstateA Paris mob storms the Bastille, July 14th 1789
6Phase 1 = National Assembly (moderate) Third Estate calls itself the National Assembly and vows to keep meeting until they can produce a French ConstitutionTENNIS COURT OATH
7Destruction of Aristocratic privileges Destruction of Aristocratic privileges (Abolish tax exemptions for clergy and nobles)Proclaim freedom and equal rights for all men!LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY!Capture the royal family and return them to Paris
9The Catholic ChurchOldest of “Old Order” (Clergy =1st estate)..needed reformNational Assembly took Church lands and sold themSecularized the Church (elected by people, paid by state)Many Catholics become “Enemies of the Revolution”
10Constitution and Commune Constitution = limited monarchyKing tries to flee FranceNational Assembly declares war on Austria, Prussia and eventually BritainRadical groups in Paris called themselves a commune and capture the KingSans-culottes (without fine trousers)Georges Danton minister of justice
11Phase 2: National Assembly RADICAL phase Radicals take over Assembly and set up National Convention (abolish monarchy and declare France a republic)Execute King Louis XVI and Marie AntoinetteCommittee of Public Safety (Robespierre)Reign of Terror (40,000 executed)
14Phase 3: The Directory 1795-1799 Moderate Constitution 5 man Directory establishedRiots suppressedCorrupt leadershipChaos threatens …….
15Napoleon BonaparteGeneral Bonaparte helps overthrow the Directory and sets up the Consulate with Napoleon as “First Consulate”, later names himself “Consulate for Life” and then “Emperor of the French”Economic and religious reformsNapoleonic Code establishedMilitary victories create French empireUpsets the balance of power in EuropeFrench defeat at the Battle of the Nations
17Legacy of NapoleonUnsuccessful attempt to “unify” Europe under French controlNapoleonic Law Code introduced many to basic Enlightenment principlesEquality before the lawReligious tolerationMerit being basis for advancementSpread of Nationalism….
18After Napoleon takes over most of Europe……. Most conservative monarchs will FEAR any “Enlightenment Inspired Ideas that Could Fuel Revolutions”
19Liberal vs. Conservative Ideas 1800s WHO should ruleGoal of Gov’tFORM of Gov’tEconomyReligion1. Male property owners2. protect basic rights/property3. REPUBLIC (constitution and separation of powers)4. Laissez-faire5. Freedom of religion1. Monarch/nobles2. stability and order3. Monarchy4. controlled by nobles5. Established church
21Congress of ViennaSignificance: leaders will re-draw map of Europe without consideration of population interestsLanguages, religions, culturesEffects: leaders underestimate the power of NATIONALISM and give oppressed people incentive to REBELIncreased NATIONALISM will lead to WAR by 1914
22NATIONALISM“Excessive pride in one’s own people, culture, language and religion that can be both a unifying and dividing force”“NATION”: does not always mean “Country with political boundaries”…NATIONALISTS……think it shouldNATIONALIST movements will want their “nations” to have their own countries and run their own governments
23NATIONALISMNationalists and their unification movements will serve as a threat to the existing political orderItalian Unification:German Unification:Other areas of concern: ANY multi-national empire!
25Congress of Vienna Main leaders: each will want peace on his own terms Austria: Clemens von MetternichRussia: Alexander IEngland: Lord CastlereaghFrance: Maurice TallyrandSettlement:Surround France with strong countriesRestore legitimate monarchsCreate of peace keeping organization (Concert of Europe)Agree to crush all Enlightenment inspired uprisings
28Colonial “Latin” America at about 1750 HUGE plantations give high income and status to landowners (oligarchs)Trade was with mother countries as part of MERCANTILISMSoon British and French move in to trade areasCATHOLIC religion was very strong
29Napoleon Upsets Balance of Power in Europe…. Spain, Portugal, and eventually FRANCE are weakened….colonies get independenceHaitiMexicoColombiaVenezuelaBrazil
30SOL 7a: Demonstrate knowledge of the Latin American revolutions of the 19th century by describing the colonial system as it existed by 1800:What were the characteristics of the colonial system in Latin America in the 19th century?How did Spain and Portugal maintain control over their Latin American domains?How did the American and French Revolutions influence independence in Latin America?
31Latin American colonial system Duplicated “home” gov’ts : absolute monarchies and rigid class structureCatholic Church extremely strong in coloniesMining of Gold/silver for export home was the major element of the colonial economyMajor cities were established as “outposts” of colonial authority in the region…..
32Major Colonial Cities in Latin America: Havana (Cuba)Mexico City (Mexico)Lima (Peru)Sao Paulo (Brazil)Buenos Aires (Argentina)
33“Rigid” Class/Social Structure Viceroys (colonial officers) from the Iberian peninsula…or peninsularesCreolesMestizosNatives/slaves
34Notable revolutionaries Toussaint L’Ouverture in HaitiFather Miguel Hidalgo in MexicoSimon Bolivar in Northern areas of South America
357d: assess the impact of the Monroe Doctrine Announced the end of European colonialism in Western HemisphereLatin American nations to be acknowledged as “independent”
367d: assess the impact of the Monroe Doctrine United States would regard any attempt by European powers to impose their systems on any of these independent nations as threat to US peace and safetyAt the time…it was just words..Teddy Roosevelt later issues the Roosevelt Corollary to put military power behind the warning
44German UnificationOtto von Bismarck led Prussia in the unification of Germany through war and by appealing to nationalist feelings.Bismarck’s actions were seen as an example of Realpolitik, which justifies all means to achieve and hold power.
45“Do whatever it takes to git ‘er done!” “You must have read my book!” Realpolitik: means….“Do whatever it takes to git ‘er done!”“You must have read my book!”
46German Unification Economic interdependence (Zollverein tariff union) German nationalism among German speaking areas : Before unification, German territory was made up of 26 duchies, kingdoms, principalitiesSchleswig-HolsteinAustrian-Prussian War 1866Franco-Prussian War
47German UnificationCalled “the most important political development in Europe between 1848 and 1914Upset the balance of powerMETHOD of unification helped define German state character(United by conservative military, monarch, Prussian PM…all in cahoots to out fox the Prussian LIBERALS)
48German Unification (behind the scenes) Railroad system linked states and the tariff union of ZollvereinHohenzollern tradition was to keep Prussian army strong, Wilhelm I wanted that…BUT…the Prussian parliament created in 1850 refused to increase taxes…2 year deadlockEnter Otto von Bismarck and his “Iron and Blood” speech
50Otto von Bismarck: Chancellor/Prime Minister of United Germany Franco-Prussian WarKaiser Wilhelm I : Hohenzollern royal, King of Prussia & First Emperor of United GermanyOtto von Bismarck: Chancellor/Prime Minister of United Germany
526F: expansion of the arts, philosophy, literature and new technology from the 1500-1800s Who were some artists, philosophers and writers of this era?What were the different “schools” of art and music?What improved technologies and institutions were important to European economies?
5316th-17th century: Music Baroque Composer: Johann Sebastian BachClassical Composer: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
5416th-18th century: New schools of Art Baroque, Classical, Romantic, …etc. “Classical subjects” (Greek and Roman myths)philosopherspublic eventsNatural scenesLiving people (portraits)
5516th-18th century: Art Eugene Delacroix: Liberty Leading the People Romantic School painterEmphasis on emotions, movement and feelings
56Eugene Delacroix Women of Algiers in their Apartment, 1834 ARTIST Eugène Delacroix (Eugene Delacroix) PAINTING The Barque of DanteEugene Delacroix Women of Algiers in their Apartment, 1834
5716th-18th Century: Philosopher (one of MANY!!) VoltaireFree speech advocateAuthor of Candide“I may not like what you say but I will defend to my death your right to say it”
5816th-18th Century: New form of Literature: The NOVEL! Miguel de Cervanteswas a Spanish writer of the Golden Age (spanish?)satiric novel Don Quixote masterpieces world literature
59Industrial Development Background Industrial Revolution = (?) Neolithic Revolution“200 years of Industrial development has brought about a complete change in the basic pattern of human life”Positives vs. Negatives:Q: Do the benefits of Industrialization outweigh the negatives?
60Various advances that assist trade All weather roads (improve transportation)Improved farm tools (iron plows)Improved farming techniques (crop rotation)Increased food production = increase in populationImproved ship design improves sea transportation and lowers cost of trade
61Industrial Revolution (1750-1850) CONDITIONS in England favor Industrial growthNatural resources (coal, iron)Human resourcesFavorable economic conditions (available capital, stable economy)Favorable political conditionsFavorable social/cultural conditionsNew technology and inventive minds
62Industrial Revolution Only when first conditions are “favorable” will technology and resources lead to industrial developmentQ: How can a country sit on top of HUGE oil reserves and be dirt poor?Q: Why are political or social problems a barrier to economic prosperity?
63Industrial development: Concepts Places that are quick to industrialize will get ahead of those that do notFirst places to industrialize will be the first to experience the NEGATIVE effects* of IndustrializationMISERY FESTERSBenefits of industrial life will lead people to COMPROMISE to improve conditionsRISE of a new middle class, change, etc.
64Negative Effects of Industrialization Rapid urbanization (too fast for city infrastructure to handle)Miserable living conditions (slums)Miserable working conditions (factories)Child Labor and Women (CHEAP)*Emergence of radical ideas (utilitarianism, socialism, communism)Imperialism, Westernization, ethnocentrism, racism, greed, and …WARS….to be continued!
66Positive Effects of Industrialization Urbanization in general (can be good too)Population Increase (fewer people die as medicine gets better)Standard of living increases (for many)Improved transportationImproved education (access and equity)“Rise of the Middle Class” and …….”PROGRESS” as a result of compromises between business owners and workers
68Industrial revolution spreads…. Rising Economic Powers are all industrialEach will want access and control over RAW MATERIALS and MARKETSraw materials:Markets:Q: What might happen when industrial nations want what NON-industrial nations have? What effect will the “industrial vs. NON-industrial tension” have on the world?
69CAPITALISM Three Main Features to learn BY HEART: Capitalism is an economic system based on PRIVATE OWNERSHIP and the use of CAPITALGrowth of towns and cities and the expansion of trade in the late Middle Ages sparked this economic developmentThree Main Features to learn BY HEART:
703. Free-Market Economy with competition CAPITALISM1. Private Ownership2. Profit motive3. Free-Market Economy with competition
71CAPITALISM1. Private Ownership: Capital belongs to individuals who are FREE to do what they wish with it. For this reason, capitalism is also called the “free-enterprise” system
72CAPITALISM2. Profit Motive: based on the economic laws of supply and demand, when enough people want something, producers make it because they want a PROFIT
73CAPITALISM3. Market Economy: a money value can be placed on everything in the marketplace: land, goods, time, and labor. Buyers and sellers are free to exchange goods and services at prices determined by…..”SUPPLY and DEMAND”
74Basic Laws of Supply and Demand DEMAND = “More of a good will be demanded the lower its price. Less of a good will be demanded the higher its price”Ex 1. Diamonds are expensive because they are rare. (Women do not want cut quartz in their rings!)Ex. 2. When calculators first came out, they were over $600. Now you can get them in cereal boxes!
75Basic Laws of Supply and Demand SUPPLY: “More of a good will be supplied the higher its price. Less of a good will be supplied the lower its price”.EX: If a person can get 300% profit on selling smartees, more people will start supplying smartees to get the profit. But it won’t last long…because more people selling the same product means more product to sell….demand drops and the price comes down….
76Role of “PRICE” in relation to the laws of supply and demand: “When the quantity DEMANDED is GREATER than the quantity SUPPLIED, prices tend to…. “GO UP/INCREASE” . (WHY?)“When the quantity SUPPLIED is greater than the quantity DEMANDED, prices tend to….”GO DOWN/DECREASE”. (WHY?)
77On a “price/quantity” chart…… Q: Why does a DEMAND curve always slope downward?
78Q: Why does a DEMAND curve always slope downward? Answer: The demand curve always slopes downward because as more of an item becomes available, the lower the price.
79IR and Capitalism: Laissez-Faire figures Adam Smith : CAPITALISM/Laissez-faireWealth of Nations, 1776“the individual, pursuing his SELF-INTEREST, will bring on general benefits to society”NEED for free markets (no government intervention)SUPPLY & DEMAND are invisible forces that drive the economy
80IR and Capitalism: Laissez-Faire figures Thomas Malthus: predicted that the population would outpace the world’s food supplyPeople should limit kidsWrote: An Essay on the Principle of PopulationNo gov’t help for the poor
81IR and Capitalism: Laissez-Faire figures David Ricardo: “iron law of wages”Limit kids b/c people have more kids when $ is strong;increase in labor later means a decrease in $$ and….Unemployment increases“No gov’t help for the poor”IRON LAW OF WAGES
82Effects of Capitalism “Profit” for owners of production/business Industrial vs agricultural economiesMarket competition = price of “things” goes down……(because)Increased supply of “things”/goodsFocus on PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY
83Criticisms of Capitalism Uneven distribution of WEALTHPoor people live in SQUALOR: slums, bad sanitation, etc.Working conditions are miserable, etc, etc. see negative effects of Industrialization
84Responses to “Capitalism” “ISMs…..all over the place”, focus on keeping them straight!UtilitarianismUtopianismSocialismCommunism
85Utilitarianism: “greatest good for the greatest number” “advance the greatest good for the greatest number”“Government should enact reforms that promote more happiness”Jeremy BenthamJohn Stuart Mill
86Utopianism: ideal society based on cooperation instead of competition Utopia By Thomas More described an ideal society“utopia” in Greek means NO PLACE!!Robert Owen: campaigned for child labor lawsEncouraged unionsSet up model, self-sufficient community to show that it was possible to be nice to workers and still make a profitNew Lanark, Scotland workedNew Harmony in AMERICA failed
88Socialism: society (In the form of the government) owns the means of production and key infrastructurePrinciples:“Equality of all People”Cooperation is better than competition…at least in industry
89COMMUNISM: extreme form of socialism in which “all people” own the means of production as the state “withers away” and produces a classless society
90Karl Marx’s theory of Communism Idea: that History is shaped by ECONOMIC FORCES (the way goods are produced and distributed)CLASS STRUGGLE has always existed between the “haves” and the “have nots”In industrial times the “haves” are the bourgeoisie/middle class capitalists; the “have nots” are the wage earning laborers
91Marx’s communist ideas…continued The social class that holds the economic power also controls the government for its own advantage… (class wealth = class power)Middle class shrinks (small businesses are ruined by capitalist giants)Working class GROWS as masses of poor labor at the mercy of a small, rich elite class
92How communism is supposed to happen: Poverty and desperation drive MASSES of workers (proletariat) to:seize control of the government and the means of productiondestroy the capitalist systemwage a VIOLENT REVOLUTIONestablish a “dictatorship of the proletariat”
93After the “dictatorship of the proletariat” occurs….. All property and the means of production are owned by “the people”All goods and services are “shared equally”A “classless society” emergesthe “state withers away”
96Effects of Marxist thought Formation of socialist political partiesAdvocate and support revolutionsPush for work reformsFight against “capitalism”Communists take over RussiaCommunism used by revolutionariesDictatorships of Communist Party leadersNo communist paradise established anywhere
97Effects of Marxist thought “Red Scare” = hysteria over perceived threat of communism/ civil liberties revokedUS foreign policy based on fighting spread of communism after World War II“COLD WAR” with USSR and alliesProxy wars fought on both sides
100As of 2010, there are five one-party communist nations: As of 2010, there are five one-party communist nations: People's Republic of China Republic of Cuba Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) Socialist Republic of Vietnam
101Unit 3 Concepts Review Enlightenment inspired revolutions Conservative vs. Liberal IdeologyNATIONALISMIndustrial RevolutionUnification MovementsCapitalism, Socialism, CommunismDO YOUR MAPS!!!!
102Point to areas Industrial Nations will … Point to areas Industrial Nations will …..DOMINTATE non-Industrial nations
103IMPERIALISMDefinition: The domination of the political, economic or cultural life of another country“A stronger, more powerful country takes over a weaker one”ColoniesProtectoratesSpheres of influence
104Causes of Imperialism Economic causes: Need for RESOURCES (coal, iron, cash crops, various other “RAW MATERIALS”)Need for MARKETSRemember Age of Exploration?Remember Mercantilism?Gold/SilverFavorable balance of tradeColonies for raw materials AND marketsTariffs on imports from other countries
105Causes of ImperialismTechnological: technology and scientific advances made it possible for “developed countries” to take over non-developed“Developed” means:IndustrialModern…aggressive
106Military might follows the MONEY Causes of ImperialismPolitical/Military: need for military bases to protect financial investments and to establish political influence (international)Military might follows the MONEY
107Causes of Imperialism Social/Cultural: Western arrogance and ideas of “saving” the world while profiting in the processSocial DarwinismRacismChristian Missionary zealGreed??
108ColoniesThis is an expensive form of imperialism in which a mother country sets up a bureaucracy to govern the locals. Under this form, rule can be either direct or indirect
109ProtectoratesIn this form of imperialism, local rulers are left in place with the understanding that they would accept advice of rulers from abroad, especially on trade, military or cultural issues.