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World History 1500 to Present

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1 World History 1500 to Present
Unit 3 Notes: French Revolution and other Enlightenment inspired revolutions, spread of nationalism; Unification Movements; Industrial Revolution SOLs: 1 a-e; 6 d-g; 7 a-d; 8 a-c


3 French Revolution and Napoleonic Era (1789-1815)
Between 1789 and 1815, the French Revolution destroyed an absolute monarchy and disrupted a social system that had existed for over 1,000 years. The events of this time ushered in what many historians call the “modern era” in European politics

4 France before the Revolution
Outdated social class system (Estates General) First Estate = Clergy (no taxes) Second Estate = Nobility (no taxes) Third Estate = “Everyone Else” (HEAVY TAXES) Severe Financial Crisis: Indecisive Monarch:

5 “Voting Rights” in France
Traditionally, each “estate” had 1 vote New idea was to allow each deputy in the Estates to have 1 vote King Louis XVI says, “No, I think the old way is the best” and locks doors on Third Estate A Paris mob storms the Bastille, July 14th 1789

6 Phase 1 = National Assembly (moderate)
Third Estate calls itself the National Assembly and vows to keep meeting until they can produce a French Constitution TENNIS COURT OATH

7 Destruction of Aristocratic privileges
Destruction of Aristocratic privileges (Abolish tax exemptions for clergy and nobles) Proclaim freedom and equal rights for all men! LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY! Capture the royal family and return them to Paris

8 "Liberty leading the People" by Eugene Delacroix

9 The Catholic Church Oldest of “Old Order” (Clergy =1st estate)..needed reform National Assembly took Church lands and sold them Secularized the Church (elected by people, paid by state) Many Catholics become “Enemies of the Revolution”

10 Constitution and Commune
Constitution = limited monarchy King tries to flee France National Assembly declares war on Austria, Prussia and eventually Britain Radical groups in Paris called themselves a commune and capture the King Sans-culottes (without fine trousers) Georges Danton minister of justice

11 Phase 2: National Assembly RADICAL phase
Radicals take over Assembly and set up National Convention (abolish monarchy and declare France a republic) Execute King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette Committee of Public Safety (Robespierre) Reign of Terror (40,000 executed)



14 Phase 3: The Directory 1795-1799 Moderate Constitution
5 man Directory established Riots suppressed Corrupt leadership Chaos threatens …….

15 Napoleon Bonaparte General Bonaparte helps overthrow the Directory and sets up the Consulate with Napoleon as “First Consulate”, later names himself “Consulate for Life” and then “Emperor of the French” Economic and religious reforms Napoleonic Code established Military victories create French empire Upsets the balance of power in Europe French defeat at the Battle of the Nations


17 Legacy of Napoleon Unsuccessful attempt to “unify” Europe under French control Napoleonic Law Code introduced many to basic Enlightenment principles Equality before the law Religious toleration Merit being basis for advancement Spread of Nationalism….

18 After Napoleon takes over most of Europe…….
Most conservative monarchs will FEAR any “Enlightenment Inspired Ideas that Could Fuel Revolutions”

19 Liberal vs. Conservative Ideas 1800s
WHO should rule Goal of Gov’t FORM of Gov’t Economy Religion 1. Male property owners 2. protect basic rights/property 3. REPUBLIC (constitution and separation of powers) 4. Laissez-faire 5. Freedom of religion 1. Monarch/nobles 2. stability and order 3. Monarchy 4. controlled by nobles 5. Established church

20 Liberal vs. Conservative: a visual comparison….

21 Congress of Vienna Significance: leaders will re-draw map of Europe without consideration of population interests Languages, religions, cultures Effects: leaders underestimate the power of NATIONALISM and give oppressed people incentive to REBEL Increased NATIONALISM will lead to WAR by 1914

22 NATIONALISM “Excessive pride in one’s own people, culture, language and religion that can be both a unifying and dividing force” “NATION”: does not always mean “Country with political boundaries”… NATIONALISTS……think it should NATIONALIST movements will want their “nations” to have their own countries and run their own governments

23 NATIONALISM Nationalists and their unification movements will serve as a threat to the existing political order Italian Unification: German Unification: Other areas of concern: ANY multi-national empire!


25 Congress of Vienna Main leaders: each will want peace on his own terms
Austria: Clemens von Metternich Russia: Alexander I England: Lord Castlereagh France: Maurice Tallyrand Settlement: Surround France with strong countries Restore legitimate monarchs Create of peace keeping organization (Concert of Europe) Agree to crush all Enlightenment inspired uprisings



28 Colonial “Latin” America at about 1750
HUGE plantations give high income and status to landowners (oligarchs) Trade was with mother countries as part of MERCANTILISM Soon British and French move in to trade areas CATHOLIC religion was very strong

29 Napoleon Upsets Balance of Power in Europe….
Spain, Portugal, and eventually FRANCE are weakened….colonies get independence Haiti Mexico Colombia Venezuela Brazil

30 SOL 7a: Demonstrate knowledge of the Latin American revolutions of the 19th century by describing the colonial system as it existed by 1800: What were the characteristics of the colonial system in Latin America in the 19th century? How did Spain and Portugal maintain control over their Latin American domains? How did the American and French Revolutions influence independence in Latin America?

31 Latin American colonial system
Duplicated “home” gov’ts : absolute monarchies and rigid class structure Catholic Church extremely strong in colonies Mining of Gold/silver for export home was the major element of the colonial economy Major cities were established as “outposts” of colonial authority in the region…..

32 Major Colonial Cities in Latin America:
Havana (Cuba) Mexico City (Mexico) Lima (Peru) Sao Paulo (Brazil) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

33 “Rigid” Class/Social Structure
Viceroys (colonial officers) from the Iberian peninsula…or peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Natives/slaves

34 Notable revolutionaries
Toussaint L’Ouverture in Haiti Father Miguel Hidalgo in Mexico Simon Bolivar in Northern areas of South America

35 7d: assess the impact of the Monroe Doctrine
Announced the end of European colonialism in Western Hemisphere Latin American nations to be acknowledged as “independent”

36 7d: assess the impact of the Monroe Doctrine
United States would regard any attempt by European powers to impose their systems on any of these independent nations as threat to US peace and safety At the time…it was just words..Teddy Roosevelt later issues the Roosevelt Corollary to put military power behind the warning


38 Toussaint L’Ouverture
Former slave Led Haitian rebellion against the French for independence Abolished slavery (first land to do so in Western Hemisphere)

39 Simon Bolivar Native-Born resident (Creole) who led revolutionary efforts Liberated northern areas of South America

40 Italian Unification Count Cavour unified Northern Italy.
Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern Italy to northern Italy. The Papal States (including Rome) became the last to join Italy.

41 Italian Unification Count Cavour

42 Garibaldi & the Red Shirts


44 German Unification Otto von Bismarck led Prussia in the unification of Germany through war and by appealing to nationalist feelings. Bismarck’s actions were seen as an example of Realpolitik, which justifies all means to achieve and hold power.

45 “Do whatever it takes to git ‘er done!” “You must have read my book!”
Realpolitik: means…. “Do whatever it takes to git ‘er done!” “You must have read my book!”

46 German Unification Economic interdependence (Zollverein tariff union)
German nationalism among German speaking areas : Before unification, German territory was made up of 26 duchies, kingdoms, principalities Schleswig-Holstein Austrian-Prussian War 1866 Franco-Prussian War

47 German Unification Called “the most important political development in Europe between 1848 and 1914 Upset the balance of power METHOD of unification helped define German state character (United by conservative military, monarch, Prussian PM…all in cahoots to out fox the Prussian LIBERALS)

48 German Unification (behind the scenes)
Railroad system linked states and the tariff union of Zollverein Hohenzollern tradition was to keep Prussian army strong, Wilhelm I wanted that… BUT…the Prussian parliament created in 1850 refused to increase taxes…2 year deadlock Enter Otto von Bismarck and his “Iron and Blood” speech

49 German Unification

50 Otto von Bismarck: Chancellor/Prime Minister of United Germany
Franco-Prussian War Kaiser Wilhelm I : Hohenzollern royal, King of Prussia & First Emperor of United Germany Otto von Bismarck: Chancellor/Prime Minister of United Germany


52 6F: expansion of the arts, philosophy, literature and new technology from the 1500-1800s
Who were some artists, philosophers and writers of this era? What were the different “schools” of art and music? What improved technologies and institutions were important to European economies?

53 16th-17th century: Music Baroque Composer:
Johann Sebastian Bach Classical Composer: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

54 16th-18th century: New schools of Art Baroque, Classical, Romantic, …etc.
“Classical subjects” (Greek and Roman myths) philosophers public events Natural scenes Living people (portraits)

55 16th-18th century: Art Eugene Delacroix: Liberty Leading the People
Romantic School painter Emphasis on emotions, movement and feelings

56 Eugene Delacroix Women of Algiers in their Apartment, 1834
ARTIST Eugène Delacroix (Eugene Delacroix) PAINTING The Barque of Dante Eugene Delacroix Women of Algiers in their Apartment, 1834

57 16th-18th Century: Philosopher (one of MANY!!)
Voltaire Free speech advocate Author of Candide “I may not like what you say but I will defend to my death your right to say it”

58 16th-18th Century: New form of Literature: The NOVEL!
Miguel de Cervantes was a Spanish writer of the Golden Age (spanish?) satiric novel Don Quixote masterpieces world literature

59 Industrial Development Background
Industrial Revolution = (?) Neolithic Revolution “200 years of Industrial development has brought about a complete change in the basic pattern of human life” Positives vs. Negatives: Q: Do the benefits of Industrialization outweigh the negatives?

60 Various advances that assist trade
All weather roads (improve transportation) Improved farm tools (iron plows) Improved farming techniques (crop rotation) Increased food production = increase in population Improved ship design improves sea transportation and lowers cost of trade

61 Industrial Revolution (1750-1850)
CONDITIONS in England favor Industrial growth Natural resources (coal, iron) Human resources Favorable economic conditions (available capital, stable economy) Favorable political conditions Favorable social/cultural conditions New technology and inventive minds

62 Industrial Revolution
Only when first conditions are “favorable” will technology and resources lead to industrial development Q: How can a country sit on top of HUGE oil reserves and be dirt poor? Q: Why are political or social problems a barrier to economic prosperity?

63 Industrial development: Concepts
Places that are quick to industrialize will get ahead of those that do not First places to industrialize will be the first to experience the NEGATIVE effects* of Industrialization MISERY FESTERS Benefits of industrial life will lead people to COMPROMISE to improve conditions RISE of a new middle class, change, etc.

64 Negative Effects of Industrialization
Rapid urbanization (too fast for city infrastructure to handle) Miserable living conditions (slums) Miserable working conditions (factories) Child Labor and Women (CHEAP) *Emergence of radical ideas (utilitarianism, socialism, communism) Imperialism, Westernization, ethnocentrism, racism, greed, and …WARS….to be continued!


66 Positive Effects of Industrialization
Urbanization in general (can be good too) Population Increase (fewer people die as medicine gets better) Standard of living increases (for many) Improved transportation Improved education (access and equity) “Rise of the Middle Class” and … ….”PROGRESS” as a result of compromises between business owners and workers


68 Industrial revolution spreads….
Rising Economic Powers are all industrial Each will want access and control over RAW MATERIALS and MARKETS raw materials: Markets: Q: What might happen when industrial nations want what NON-industrial nations have? What effect will the “industrial vs. NON-industrial tension” have on the world?

69 CAPITALISM Three Main Features to learn BY HEART:
Capitalism is an economic system based on PRIVATE OWNERSHIP and the use of CAPITAL Growth of towns and cities and the expansion of trade in the late Middle Ages sparked this economic development Three Main Features to learn BY HEART:

70 3. Free-Market Economy with competition
CAPITALISM 1. Private Ownership 2. Profit motive 3. Free-Market Economy with competition

71 CAPITALISM 1. Private Ownership: Capital belongs to individuals who are FREE to do what they wish with it. For this reason, capitalism is also called the “free-enterprise” system

72 CAPITALISM 2. Profit Motive: based on the economic laws of supply and demand, when enough people want something, producers make it because they want a PROFIT

73 CAPITALISM 3. Market Economy: a money value can be placed on everything in the marketplace: land, goods, time, and labor. Buyers and sellers are free to exchange goods and services at prices determined by…..”SUPPLY and DEMAND”

74 Basic Laws of Supply and Demand
DEMAND = “More of a good will be demanded the lower its price. Less of a good will be demanded the higher its price” Ex 1. Diamonds are expensive because they are rare. (Women do not want cut quartz in their rings!) Ex. 2. When calculators first came out, they were over $600. Now you can get them in cereal boxes!

75 Basic Laws of Supply and Demand
SUPPLY: “More of a good will be supplied the higher its price. Less of a good will be supplied the lower its price”. EX: If a person can get 300% profit on selling smartees, more people will start supplying smartees to get the profit. But it won’t last long…because more people selling the same product means more product to sell….demand drops and the price comes down….

76 Role of “PRICE” in relation to the laws of supply and demand:
“When the quantity DEMANDED is GREATER than the quantity SUPPLIED, prices tend to…. “GO UP/INCREASE” . (WHY?) “When the quantity SUPPLIED is greater than the quantity DEMANDED, prices tend to….”GO DOWN/DECREASE”. (WHY?)

77 On a “price/quantity” chart……
Q: Why does a DEMAND curve always slope downward?

78 Q: Why does a DEMAND curve always slope downward?
Answer: The demand curve always slopes downward because as more of an item becomes available, the lower the price.

79 IR and Capitalism: Laissez-Faire figures
Adam Smith : CAPITALISM/Laissez-faire Wealth of Nations, 1776 “the individual, pursuing his SELF-INTEREST, will bring on general benefits to society” NEED for free markets (no government intervention) SUPPLY & DEMAND are invisible forces that drive the economy

80 IR and Capitalism: Laissez-Faire figures
Thomas Malthus: predicted that the population would outpace the world’s food supply People should limit kids Wrote: An Essay on the Principle of Population No gov’t help for the poor

81 IR and Capitalism: Laissez-Faire figures
David Ricardo: “iron law of wages” Limit kids b/c people have more kids when $ is strong; increase in labor later means a decrease in $$ and…. Unemployment increases “No gov’t help for the poor” IRON LAW OF WAGES

82 Effects of Capitalism “Profit” for owners of production/business
Industrial vs agricultural economies Market competition = price of “things” goes down……(because) Increased supply of “things”/goods Focus on PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY

83 Criticisms of Capitalism
Uneven distribution of WEALTH Poor people live in SQUALOR: slums, bad sanitation, etc. Working conditions are miserable, etc, etc. see negative effects of Industrialization

84 Responses to “Capitalism”
“ISMs…..all over the place”, focus on keeping them straight! Utilitarianism Utopianism Socialism Communism

85 Utilitarianism: “greatest good for the greatest number”
“advance the greatest good for the greatest number” “Government should enact reforms that promote more happiness” Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill

86 Utopianism: ideal society based on cooperation instead of competition
Utopia By Thomas More described an ideal society “utopia” in Greek means NO PLACE!! Robert Owen: campaigned for child labor laws Encouraged unions Set up model, self-sufficient community to show that it was possible to be nice to workers and still make a profit New Lanark, Scotland worked New Harmony in AMERICA failed


88 Socialism: society (In the form of the government) owns the means of production and key infrastructure Principles: “Equality of all People” Cooperation is better than competition …at least in industry

89 COMMUNISM: extreme form of socialism in which “all people” own the means of production as the state “withers away” and produces a classless society

90 Karl Marx’s theory of Communism
Idea: that History is shaped by ECONOMIC FORCES (the way goods are produced and distributed) CLASS STRUGGLE has always existed between the “haves” and the “have nots” In industrial times the “haves” are the bourgeoisie/middle class capitalists; the “have nots” are the wage earning laborers

91 Marx’s communist ideas…continued
The social class that holds the economic power also controls the government for its own advantage… (class wealth = class power) Middle class shrinks (small businesses are ruined by capitalist giants) Working class GROWS as masses of poor labor at the mercy of a small, rich elite class

92 How communism is supposed to happen:
Poverty and desperation drive MASSES of workers (proletariat) to: seize control of the government and the means of production destroy the capitalist system wage a VIOLENT REVOLUTION establish a “dictatorship of the proletariat”

93 After the “dictatorship of the proletariat” occurs…..
All property and the means of production are owned by “the people” All goods and services are “shared equally” A “classless society” emerges the “state withers away”

94 “Communist Paradise?”

95 See page 402

96 Effects of Marxist thought
Formation of socialist political parties Advocate and support revolutions Push for work reforms Fight against “capitalism” Communists take over Russia Communism used by revolutionaries Dictatorships of Communist Party leaders No communist paradise established anywhere

97 Effects of Marxist thought
“Red Scare” = hysteria over perceived threat of communism/ civil liberties revoked US foreign policy based on fighting spread of communism after World War II “COLD WAR” with USSR and allies Proxy wars fought on both sides

98 The “perceived threat of communism”…a visual


100 As of 2010, there are five one-party communist nations:
As of 2010, there are five one-party communist nations: People's Republic of China Republic of Cuba Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) Socialist Republic of Vietnam

101 Unit 3 Concepts Review Enlightenment inspired revolutions
Conservative vs. Liberal Ideology NATIONALISM Industrial Revolution Unification Movements Capitalism, Socialism, Communism DO YOUR MAPS!!!!

102 Point to areas Industrial Nations will …
Point to areas Industrial Nations will …..DOMINTATE non-Industrial nations

103 IMPERIALISM Definition: The domination of the political, economic or cultural life of another country “A stronger, more powerful country takes over a weaker one” Colonies Protectorates Spheres of influence

104 Causes of Imperialism Economic causes:
Need for RESOURCES (coal, iron, cash crops, various other “RAW MATERIALS”) Need for MARKETS Remember Age of Exploration? Remember Mercantilism? Gold/Silver Favorable balance of trade Colonies for raw materials AND markets Tariffs on imports from other countries

105 Causes of Imperialism Technological: technology and scientific advances made it possible for “developed countries” to take over non-developed “Developed” means: Industrial Modern …aggressive

106 Military might follows the MONEY
Causes of Imperialism Political/Military: need for military bases to protect financial investments and to establish political influence (international) Military might follows the MONEY

107 Causes of Imperialism Social/Cultural:
Western arrogance and ideas of “saving” the world while profiting in the process Social Darwinism Racism Christian Missionary zeal Greed??

108 Colonies This is an expensive form of imperialism in which a mother country sets up a bureaucracy to govern the locals. Under this form, rule can be either direct or indirect

109 Protectorates In this form of imperialism, local rulers are left in place with the understanding that they would accept advice of rulers from abroad, especially on trade, military or cultural issues.


111 Spheres of influence This is a form of imperialism in which an outside power claims exclusive trading or investment privileges in an area.

112 Imperialism in ASIA:

113 JAPANESE Imperialism

114 Imperialism in AFRICA



117 Famine in British India


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