Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

World History 1500 to Present Unit 3 Notes: French Revolution and other Enlightenment inspired revolutions, spread of nationalism; Unification Movements;

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "World History 1500 to Present Unit 3 Notes: French Revolution and other Enlightenment inspired revolutions, spread of nationalism; Unification Movements;"— Presentation transcript:

1 World History 1500 to Present Unit 3 Notes: French Revolution and other Enlightenment inspired revolutions, spread of nationalism; Unification Movements; Industrial Revolution SOLs: 1 a-e; 6 d-g; 7 a-d; 8 a-c

2

3 French Revolution and Napoleonic Era ( ) Between 1789 and 1815, the French Revolution destroyed an absolute monarchy and disrupted a social system that had existed for over 1,000 years. The events of this time ushered in what many historians call the “modern era” in European politics Between 1789 and 1815, the French Revolution destroyed an absolute monarchy and disrupted a social system that had existed for over 1,000 years. The events of this time ushered in what many historians call the “modern era” in European politics

4 France before the Revolution Outdated social class system (Estates General) Outdated social class system (Estates General) First Estate = Clergy (no taxes) First Estate = Clergy (no taxes) Second Estate = Nobility (no taxes) Second Estate = Nobility (no taxes) Third Estate = “Everyone Else” (HEAVY TAXES) Third Estate = “Everyone Else” (HEAVY TAXES) Severe Financial Crisis: Severe Financial Crisis: Indecisive Monarch: Indecisive Monarch:

5 “Voting Rights” in France Traditionally, each “estate” had 1 vote Traditionally, each “estate” had 1 vote New idea was to allow each deputy in the Estates to have 1 vote New idea was to allow each deputy in the Estates to have 1 vote King Louis XVI says, “No, I think the old way is the best” and locks doors on Third Estate King Louis XVI says, “No, I think the old way is the best” and locks doors on Third Estate A Paris mob storms the Bastille, July 14 th 1789 A Paris mob storms the Bastille, July 14 th 1789

6 Phase 1 = National Assembly (moderate) Third Estate calls itself the National Assembly and vows to keep meeting until they can produce a French Constitution Third Estate calls itself the National Assembly and vows to keep meeting until they can produce a French Constitution TENNIS COURT OATH TENNIS COURT OATH

7 Destruction of Aristocratic privileges (Abolish tax exemptions for clergy and nobles) Destruction of Aristocratic privileges (Abolish tax exemptions for clergy and nobles) Proclaim freedom and equal rights for all men! Proclaim freedom and equal rights for all men! LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY! LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY! Capture the royal family and return them to Paris Capture the royal family and return them to Paris

8 "Liberty leading the People" by Eugene Delacroix

9 The Catholic Church Oldest of “Old Order” (Clergy =1 st estate)..needed reform Oldest of “Old Order” (Clergy =1 st estate)..needed reform National Assembly took Church lands and sold them National Assembly took Church lands and sold them Secularized the Church (elected by people, paid by state) Secularized the Church (elected by people, paid by state) Many Catholics become “Enemies of the Revolution” Many Catholics become “Enemies of the Revolution”

10 Constitution = limited monarchy Constitution = limited monarchy King tries to flee France King tries to flee France National Assembly declares war on Austria, Prussia and eventually Britain National Assembly declares war on Austria, Prussia and eventually Britain Radical groups in Paris called themselves a commune and capture the King Radical groups in Paris called themselves a commune and capture the King Sans-culottes (without fine trousers) Sans-culottes (without fine trousers) Georges Danton minister of justice Georges Danton minister of justice Constitution and Commune

11 Phase 2: National Assembly RADICAL phase Radicals take over Assembly and set up National Convention (abolish monarchy and declare France a republic) Radicals take over Assembly and set up National Convention (abolish monarchy and declare France a republic) Execute King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette Execute King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette Committee of Public Safety (Robespierre) Committee of Public Safety (Robespierre) Reign of Terror (40,000 executed) Reign of Terror (40,000 executed)

12

13

14 Phase 3: The Directory Moderate Constitution Moderate Constitution 5 man Directory established 5 man Directory established Riots suppressed Riots suppressed Corrupt leadership Corrupt leadership Chaos threatens ……. Chaos threatens …….

15 Napoleon Bonaparte General Bonaparte helps overthrow the Directory and sets up the Consulate with Napoleon as “First Consulate”, later names himself “Consulate for Life” and then “Emperor of the French” General Bonaparte helps overthrow the Directory and sets up the Consulate with Napoleon as “First Consulate”, later names himself “Consulate for Life” and then “Emperor of the French” Economic and religious reforms Economic and religious reforms Napoleonic Code established Napoleonic Code established Military victories create French empire Military victories create French empire Upsets the balance of power in Europe Upsets the balance of power in Europe French defeat at the Battle of the Nations French defeat at the Battle of the Nations

16

17 Legacy of Napoleon Unsuccessful attempt to “unify” Europe under French control Unsuccessful attempt to “unify” Europe under French control Napoleonic Law Code introduced many to basic Enlightenment principles Napoleonic Law Code introduced many to basic Enlightenment principles Equality before the law Equality before the law Religious toleration Religious toleration Merit being basis for advancement Merit being basis for advancement Spread of Nationalism…. Spread of Nationalism….

18 After Napoleon takes over most of Europe……. Most conservative monarchs will FEAR any “Enlightenment Inspired Ideas that Could Fuel Revolutions” Most conservative monarchs will FEAR any “Enlightenment Inspired Ideas that Could Fuel Revolutions”

19 Liberal vs. Conservative Ideas 1800s LIBERAL 1. Male property owners 2. protect basic rights/property 3. REPUBLIC (constitution and separation of powers) 4. Laissez-faire 5. Freedom of religion CONSERVATIVE 1. Monarch/nobles 2. stability and order 3. Monarchy 4. controlled by nobles 5. Established church 1.WHO should rule 2.Goal of Gov’t 3.FORM of Gov’t 4.Economy 5.Religion

20 Liberal vs. Conservative: a visual comparison….

21 Congress of Vienna Significance: leaders will re-draw map of Europe without consideration of population interests Significance: leaders will re-draw map of Europe without consideration of population interests Languages, religions, cultures Languages, religions, cultures Effects: leaders underestimate the power of NATIONALISM and give oppressed people incentive to REBEL Effects: leaders underestimate the power of NATIONALISM and give oppressed people incentive to REBEL Increased NATIONALISM will lead to WAR by 1914 Increased NATIONALISM will lead to WAR by 1914

22 NATIONALISM “Excessive pride in one’s own people, culture, language and religion that can be both a unifying and dividing force” “Excessive pride in one’s own people, culture, language and religion that can be both a unifying and dividing force” “NATION”: does not always mean “Country with political boundaries”… “NATION”: does not always mean “Country with political boundaries”… NATIONALISTS……think it should NATIONALISTS……think it should NATIONALIST movements will want their “nations” to have their own countries and run their own governments NATIONALIST movements will want their “nations” to have their own countries and run their own governments

23 NATIONALISM Nationalists and their unification movements will serve as a threat to the existing political order Nationalists and their unification movements will serve as a threat to the existing political order Italian Unification: Italian Unification: German Unification: German Unification: Other areas of concern: ANY multi-national empire! Other areas of concern: ANY multi-national empire!

24

25 Congress of Vienna Main leaders: each will want peace on his own terms Main leaders: each will want peace on his own terms Austria: Clemens von Metternich Austria: Clemens von Metternich Russia: Alexander I Russia: Alexander I England: Lord Castlereagh England: Lord Castlereagh France: Maurice Tallyrand France: Maurice Tallyrand Settlement: Settlement: 1. Surround France with strong countries 2. Restore legitimate monarchs 3. Create of peace keeping organization (Concert of Europe) 4. Agree to crush all Enlightenment inspired uprisings

26

27

28 Colonial “Latin” America at about 1750 HUGE plantations give high income and status to landowners (oligarchs) HUGE plantations give high income and status to landowners (oligarchs) Trade was with mother countries as part of MERCANTILISM Trade was with mother countries as part of MERCANTILISM Soon British and French move in to trade areas Soon British and French move in to trade areas CATHOLIC religion was very strong CATHOLIC religion was very strong

29 Napoleon Upsets Balance of Power in Europe…. Spain, Portugal, and eventually FRANCE are weakened….colonies get independence Spain, Portugal, and eventually FRANCE are weakened….colonies get independence Haiti Haiti Mexico Mexico Colombia Colombia Venezuela Venezuela Brazil Brazil

30 SOL 7a: Demonstrate knowledge of the Latin American revolutions of the 19 th century by describing the colonial system as it existed by 1800: What were the characteristics of the colonial system in Latin America in the 19 th century? What were the characteristics of the colonial system in Latin America in the 19 th century? How did Spain and Portugal maintain control over their Latin American domains? How did Spain and Portugal maintain control over their Latin American domains? How did the American and French Revolutions influence independence in Latin America? How did the American and French Revolutions influence independence in Latin America?

31 Latin American colonial system Duplicated “home” gov’ts : absolute monarchies and rigid class structure Duplicated “home” gov’ts : absolute monarchies and rigid class structure Catholic Church extremely strong in colonies Catholic Church extremely strong in colonies Mining of Gold/silver for export home was the major element of the colonial economy Mining of Gold/silver for export home was the major element of the colonial economy Major cities were established as “outposts” of colonial authority in the region….. Major cities were established as “outposts” of colonial authority in the region…..

32 Major Colonial Cities in Latin America: Havana (Cuba) Havana (Cuba) Mexico City (Mexico) Mexico City (Mexico) Lima (Peru) Lima (Peru) Sao Paulo (Brazil) Sao Paulo (Brazil) Buenos Aires (Argentina) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

33 “Rigid” Class/Social Structure Viceroys (colonial officers) from the Iberian peninsula…or peninsulares Viceroys (colonial officers) from the Iberian peninsula…or peninsulares Creoles Creoles Mestizos Mestizos Natives/slaves Natives/slaves

34 Notable revolutionaries Toussaint L’Ouverture in Haiti Toussaint L’Ouverture in Haiti Father Miguel Hidalgo in Mexico Father Miguel Hidalgo in Mexico Simon Bolivar in Northern areas of South America Simon Bolivar in Northern areas of South America

35 7d: assess the impact of the Monroe Doctrine Announced the end of European colonialism in Western Hemisphere Announced the end of European colonialism in Western Hemisphere Latin American nations to be acknowledged as “independent” Latin American nations to be acknowledged as “independent”

36 7d: assess the impact of the Monroe Doctrine United States would regard any attempt by European powers to impose their systems on any of these independent nations as threat to US peace and safety United States would regard any attempt by European powers to impose their systems on any of these independent nations as threat to US peace and safety At the time…it was just words.. Teddy Roosevelt later issues the Roosevelt Corollary to put military power behind the warning At the time…it was just words.. Teddy Roosevelt later issues the Roosevelt Corollary to put military power behind the warning

37

38 Toussaint L’Ouverture Former slave Former slave Led Haitian rebellion against the French for independence Led Haitian rebellion against the French for independence Abolished slavery (first land to do so in Western Hemisphere) Abolished slavery (first land to do so in Western Hemisphere)

39 Simon Bolivar Native-Born resident (Creole) who led revolutionary efforts Native-Born resident (Creole) who led revolutionary efforts Liberated northern areas of South America Liberated northern areas of South America

40 Italian Unification Count Cavour unified Northern Italy. Count Cavour unified Northern Italy. Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern Italy to northern Italy. Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern Italy to northern Italy. The Papal States (including Rome) became the last to join Italy. The Papal States (including Rome) became the last to join Italy.

41 Italian Unification Count Cavour

42 Garibaldi & the Red Shirts Garibaldi Mazzini

43

44 German Unification Otto von Bismarck led Prussia in the unification of Germany through war and by appealing to nationalist feelings. Otto von Bismarck led Prussia in the unification of Germany through war and by appealing to nationalist feelings. Bismarck’s actions were seen as an example of Realpolitik, which justifies all means to achieve and hold power. Bismarck’s actions were seen as an example of Realpolitik, which justifies all means to achieve and hold power.

45 Realpolitik: means…. “Do whatever it takes to git ‘er done!” “You must have read my book!”

46 German Unification Economic interdependence (Zollverein tariff union) Economic interdependence (Zollverein tariff union) German nationalism among German speaking areas : Before unification, German territory was made up of 26 duchies, kingdoms, principalities German nationalism among German speaking areas : Before unification, German territory was made up of 26 duchies, kingdoms, principalities Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein Austrian-Prussian War 1866 Austrian-Prussian War 1866 Franco-Prussian War Franco-Prussian War

47 German Unification Called “the most important political development in Europe between 1848 and 1914 Called “the most important political development in Europe between 1848 and 1914 Upset the balance of power Upset the balance of power METHOD of unification helped define German state character METHOD of unification helped define German state character (United by conservative military, monarch, Prussian PM…all in cahoots to out fox the Prussian LIBERALS) (United by conservative military, monarch, Prussian PM…all in cahoots to out fox the Prussian LIBERALS)

48 German Unification (behind the scenes) Railroad system linked states and the tariff union of Zollverein Railroad system linked states and the tariff union of Zollverein Hohenzollern tradition was to keep Prussian army strong, Wilhelm I wanted that… Hohenzollern tradition was to keep Prussian army strong, Wilhelm I wanted that… BUT…the Prussian parliament created in 1850 refused to increase taxes…2 year deadlock BUT…the Prussian parliament created in 1850 refused to increase taxes…2 year deadlock Enter Otto von Bismarck and his “Iron and Blood” speech Enter Otto von Bismarck and his “Iron and Blood” speech

49 German Unification

50 Franco-Prussian War Kaiser Wilhelm I : Hohenzollern royal, King of Prussia & First Emperor of United Germany Kaiser Wilhelm I : Hohenzollern royal, King of Prussia & First Emperor of United Germany Otto von Bismarck: Chancellor/Prime Minister of United Germany

51

52 6F: expansion of the arts, philosophy, literature and new technology from the s Who were some artists, philosophers and writers of this era? Who were some artists, philosophers and writers of this era? What were the different “schools” of art and music? What were the different “schools” of art and music? What improved technologies and institutions were important to European economies? What improved technologies and institutions were important to European economies?

53 16 th -17 th century: Music Baroque Composer: Baroque Composer: Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Sebastian Bach Classical Composer: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Classical Composer: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

54 16 th -18 th century: New schools of Art Baroque, Classical, Romantic, …etc. “Classical subjects” (Greek and Roman myths) “Classical subjects” (Greek and Roman myths) philosophers philosophers public events public events Natural scenes Natural scenes Living people (portraits) Living people (portraits)

55 16 th -18 th century: Art Eugene Delacroix: Liberty Leading the People Eugene Delacroix: Liberty Leading the People Romantic School painter Romantic School painter Emphasis on emotions, movement and feelings Emphasis on emotions, movement and feelings

56 Eugene Delacroix Women of Algiers in their Apartment, 1834 ARTIST Eugène Delacroix (Eugene Delacroix) PAINTING The Barque of Dante

57 16 th -18 th Century: Philosopher (one of MANY!!) Voltaire Voltaire Free speech advocate Free speech advocate Author of Candide Author of Candide “I may not like what you say but I will defend to my death your right to say it”

58 16 th -18 th Century: New form of Literature: The NOVEL! Miguel de Cervantes Miguel de Cervantes was a Spanish writer of the Golden Age (spanish?) was a Spanish writer of the Golden Age (spanish?) satiric novel Don Quixote masterpieces world literature satiric novel Don Quixote masterpieces world literature

59 Industrial Development Background Industrial Revolution = (?) Neolithic Revolution Industrial Revolution = (?) Neolithic Revolution “200 years of Industrial development has brought about a complete change in the basic pattern of human life” “200 years of Industrial development has brought about a complete change in the basic pattern of human life” Positives vs. Negatives: Positives vs. Negatives: Q: Do the benefits of Industrialization outweigh the negatives?

60 Various advances that assist trade All weather roads (improve transportation) All weather roads (improve transportation) Improved farm tools (iron plows) Improved farm tools (iron plows) Improved farming techniques (crop rotation) Improved farming techniques (crop rotation) Increased food production = increase in population Increased food production = increase in population Improved ship design improves sea transportation and lowers cost of trade Improved ship design improves sea transportation and lowers cost of trade

61 Industrial Revolution ( ) CONDITIONS in England favor Industrial growth CONDITIONS in England favor Industrial growth Natural resources (coal, iron) Natural resources (coal, iron) Human resources Human resources Favorable economic conditions (available capital, stable economy) Favorable economic conditions (available capital, stable economy) Favorable political conditions Favorable political conditions Favorable social/cultural conditions Favorable social/cultural conditions New technology and inventive minds New technology and inventive minds

62 Industrial Revolution Only when first conditions are “favorable” will technology and resources lead to industrial development Only when first conditions are “favorable” will technology and resources lead to industrial development Q: How can a country sit on top of HUGE oil reserves and be dirt poor? Q: How can a country sit on top of HUGE oil reserves and be dirt poor? Q: Why are political or social problems a barrier to economic prosperity? Q: Why are political or social problems a barrier to economic prosperity?

63 Industrial development: Concepts Places that are quick to industrialize will get ahead of those that do not Places that are quick to industrialize will get ahead of those that do not First places to industrialize will be the first to experience the NEGATIVE effects* of Industrialization First places to industrialize will be the first to experience the NEGATIVE effects* of Industrialization MISERY FESTERS MISERY FESTERS Benefits of industrial life will lead people to COMPROMISE to improve conditions Benefits of industrial life will lead people to COMPROMISE to improve conditions RISE of a new middle class, change, etc. RISE of a new middle class, change, etc.

64 Negative Effects of Industrialization Rapid urbanization (too fast for city infrastructure to handle) Rapid urbanization (too fast for city infrastructure to handle) Miserable living conditions (slums) Miserable living conditions (slums) Miserable working conditions (factories) Miserable working conditions (factories) Child Labor and Women (CHEAP) Child Labor and Women (CHEAP) *Emergence of radical ideas (utilitarianism, socialism, communism) *Emergence of radical ideas (utilitarianism, socialism, communism) Imperialism, Westernization, ethnocentrism, racism, greed, and …WARS….to be continued! Imperialism, Westernization, ethnocentrism, racism, greed, and …WARS….to be continued!

65

66 Positive Effects of Industrialization Urbanization in general (can be good too) Urbanization in general (can be good too) Population Increase (fewer people die as medicine gets better) Population Increase (fewer people die as medicine gets better) Standard of living increases (for many) Standard of living increases (for many) Improved transportation Improved transportation Improved education (access and equity) Improved education (access and equity) “Rise of the Middle Class” and … “Rise of the Middle Class” and … ….”PROGRESS” as a result of compromises between business owners and workers ….”PROGRESS” as a result of compromises between business owners and workers

67

68 Industrial revolution spreads…. Rising Economic Powers are all industrial Rising Economic Powers are all industrial Each will want access and control over RAW MATERIALS and MARKETS Each will want access and control over RAW MATERIALS and MARKETS raw materials: raw materials: Markets: Markets: Q: What might happen when industrial nations want what NON-industrial nations have? What effect will the “industrial vs. NON-industrial tension” have on the world?

69 CAPITALISM Capitalism is an economic system based on PRIVATE OWNERSHIP and the use of CAPITAL Capitalism is an economic system based on PRIVATE OWNERSHIP and the use of CAPITAL Growth of towns and cities and the expansion of trade in the late Middle Ages sparked this economic development Growth of towns and cities and the expansion of trade in the late Middle Ages sparked this economic development Three Main Features to learn BY HEART: Three Main Features to learn BY HEART:

70 CAPITALISM 1. Private Ownership 1. Private Ownership 2. Profit motive 2. Profit motive 3. Free-Market Economy with competition 3. Free-Market Economy with competition

71 CAPITALISM 1. Private Ownership: Capital belongs to individuals who are FREE to do what they wish with it. For this reason, capitalism is also called the “free- enterprise” system 1. Private Ownership: Capital belongs to individuals who are FREE to do what they wish with it. For this reason, capitalism is also called the “free- enterprise” system

72 CAPITALISM 2. Profit Motive: based on the economic laws of supply and demand, when enough people want something, producers make it because they want a PROFIT 2. Profit Motive: based on the economic laws of supply and demand, when enough people want something, producers make it because they want a PROFIT

73 CAPITALISM 3. Market Economy: a money value can be placed on everything in the marketplace: land, goods, time, and labor. Buyers and sellers are free to exchange goods and services at prices determined by…..”SUPPLY and DEMAND” 3. Market Economy: a money value can be placed on everything in the marketplace: land, goods, time, and labor. Buyers and sellers are free to exchange goods and services at prices determined by…..”SUPPLY and DEMAND”

74 Basic Laws of Supply and Demand Basic Laws of Supply and Demand DEMAND = “More of a good will be demanded the lower its price. Less of a good will be demanded the higher its price” DEMAND = “More of a good will be demanded the lower its price. Less of a good will be demanded the higher its price” Ex 1. Diamonds are expensive because they are rare. (Women do not want cut quartz in their rings!) Ex 1. Diamonds are expensive because they are rare. (Women do not want cut quartz in their rings!) Ex. 2. When calculators first came out, they were over $600. Now you can get them in cereal boxes! Ex. 2. When calculators first came out, they were over $600. Now you can get them in cereal boxes!

75 Basic Laws of Supply and Demand SUPPLY: “More of a good will be supplied the higher its price. Less of a good will be supplied the lower its price”. SUPPLY: “More of a good will be supplied the higher its price. Less of a good will be supplied the lower its price”. EX : If a person can get 300% profit on selling smartees, more people will start supplying smartees to get the profit. But it won’t last long…because more people selling the same product means more product to sell….demand drops and the price comes down…. EX : If a person can get 300% profit on selling smartees, more people will start supplying smartees to get the profit. But it won’t last long…because more people selling the same product means more product to sell….demand drops and the price comes down….

76 Role of “PRICE” in relation to the laws of supply and demand: “When the quantity DEMANDED is GREATER than the quantity SUPPLIED, prices tend to…. “GO UP/INCREASE”. (WHY?) “When the quantity DEMANDED is GREATER than the quantity SUPPLIED, prices tend to…. “GO UP/INCREASE”. (WHY?) “When the quantity SUPPLIED is greater than the quantity DEMANDED, prices tend to….”GO DOWN/DECREASE”. (WHY?) “When the quantity SUPPLIED is greater than the quantity DEMANDED, prices tend to….”GO DOWN/DECREASE”. (WHY?)

77 On a “price/quantity” chart…… Q: Why does a DEMAND curve always slope downward? Q: Why does a DEMAND curve always slope downward?

78 Q: Why does a DEMAND curve always slope downward? Answer: The demand curve always slopes downward because as more of an item becomes available, the lower the price. Answer: The demand curve always slopes downward because as more of an item becomes available, the lower the price.

79 IR and Capitalism: Laissez-Faire figures Adam Smith : CAPITALISM/Laissez- faire Adam Smith : CAPITALISM/Laissez- faire Wealth of Nations, 1776 Wealth of Nations, 1776 “the individual, pursuing his SELF-INTEREST, will bring on general benefits to society” “the individual, pursuing his SELF-INTEREST, will bring on general benefits to society” NEED for free markets (no government intervention) NEED for free markets (no government intervention) SUPPLY & DEMAND are invisible forces that drive the economy SUPPLY & DEMAND are invisible forces that drive the economy

80 IR and Capitalism: Laissez-Faire figures Thomas Malthus: predicted that the population would outpace the world’s food supply Thomas Malthus: predicted that the population would outpace the world’s food supply People should limit kids People should limit kids Wrote: An Essay on the Principle of Population Wrote: An Essay on the Principle of Population No gov’t help for the poor No gov’t help for the poor

81 IR and Capitalism: Laissez-Faire figures David Ricardo: “iron law of wages” David Ricardo: “iron law of wages” Limit kids b/c people have more kids when $ is strong; Limit kids b/c people have more kids when $ is strong; increase in labor later means a decrease in $$ and…. increase in labor later means a decrease in $$ and…. Unemployment increases Unemployment increases “No gov’t help for the poor” “No gov’t help for the poor” IRON LAW OF WAGES

82 Effects of Capitalism “Profit” for owners of production/business “Profit” for owners of production/business Industrial vs agricultural economies Industrial vs agricultural economies Market competition = price of “things” goes down……(because) Market competition = price of “things” goes down……(because) Increased supply of “things”/goods Increased supply of “things”/goods Focus on PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY Focus on PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY

83 Criticisms of Capitalism Uneven distribution of WEALTH Uneven distribution of WEALTH Poor people live in SQUALOR: slums, bad sanitation, etc. Poor people live in SQUALOR: slums, bad sanitation, etc. Working conditions are miserable, etc, etc. see negative effects of Industrialization Working conditions are miserable, etc, etc. see negative effects of Industrialization

84 Responses to “Capitalism” “ISMs…..all over the place”, focus on keeping them straight! “ISMs…..all over the place”, focus on keeping them straight! Utilitarianism Utilitarianism Utopianism Utopianism Socialism Socialism Communism Communism

85 Utilitarianism: “greatest good for the greatest number” “advance the greatest good for the greatest number” “Government should enact reforms that promote more happiness” John Stuart Mill Jeremy Bentham

86 Utopianism: ideal society based on cooperation instead of competition Utopia By Thomas More described an ideal society Utopia By Thomas More described an ideal society “utopia” in Greek means NO PLACE!! “utopia” in Greek means NO PLACE!! Robert Owen: campaigned for child labor laws Robert Owen: campaigned for child labor laws Encouraged unions Encouraged unions Set up model, self-sufficient community to show that it was possible to be nice to workers and still make a profit Set up model, self-sufficient community to show that it was possible to be nice to workers and still make a profit New Lanark, Scotland worked New Lanark, Scotland worked New Harmony in AMERICA failed New Harmony in AMERICA failed

87

88 Socialism: society (In the form of the government) owns the means of production and key infrastructure Principles: Principles: “Equality of all People” “Equality of all People” Cooperation is better than competition Cooperation is better than competition …at least in industry …at least in industry

89 COMMUNISM: extreme form of socialism in which “all people” own the means of production as the state “withers away” and produces a classless society

90 Karl Marx’s theory of Communism Idea: that History is shaped by ECONOMIC FORCES (the way goods are produced and distributed) Idea: that History is shaped by ECONOMIC FORCES (the way goods are produced and distributed) CLASS STRUGGLE has always existed between the “haves” and the “have nots” CLASS STRUGGLE has always existed between the “haves” and the “have nots” In industrial times the “haves” are the bourgeoisie/middle class capitalists; the “have nots” are the wage earning laborers In industrial times the “haves” are the bourgeoisie/middle class capitalists; the “have nots” are the wage earning laborers

91 Marx’s communist ideas…continued The social class that holds the economic power also controls the government for its own advantage… (class wealth = class power) The social class that holds the economic power also controls the government for its own advantage… (class wealth = class power) Middle class shrinks (small businesses are ruined by capitalist giants) Middle class shrinks (small businesses are ruined by capitalist giants) Working class GROWS as masses of poor labor at the mercy of a small, rich elite class Working class GROWS as masses of poor labor at the mercy of a small, rich elite class

92 How communism is supposed to happen: Poverty and desperation drive MASSES of workers (proletariat) to: Poverty and desperation drive MASSES of workers (proletariat) to: seize control of the government and the means of production seize control of the government and the means of production destroy the capitalist system destroy the capitalist system wage a VIOLENT REVOLUTION wage a VIOLENT REVOLUTION establish a “dictatorship of the proletariat” establish a “dictatorship of the proletariat”

93 After the “dictatorship of the proletariat” occurs….. All property and the means of production are owned by “the people” All property and the means of production are owned by “the people” All goods and services are “shared equally” All goods and services are “shared equally” A “classless society” emerges A “classless society” emerges the “state withers away” the “state withers away”

94 “Communist Paradise?”

95 See page 402

96 Effects of Marxist thought Formation of socialist political parties Formation of socialist political parties Advocate and support revolutions Advocate and support revolutions Push for work reforms Push for work reforms Fight against “capitalism” Fight against “capitalism” Communists take over Russia Communists take over Russia Communism used by revolutionaries Communism used by revolutionaries Dictatorships of Communist Party leaders Dictatorships of Communist Party leaders No communist paradise established anywhere No communist paradise established anywhere

97 Effects of Marxist thought “Red Scare” = hysteria over perceived threat of communism/ civil liberties revoked “Red Scare” = hysteria over perceived threat of communism/ civil liberties revoked US foreign policy based on fighting spread of communism after World War II US foreign policy based on fighting spread of communism after World War II “COLD WAR” with USSR and allies “COLD WAR” with USSR and allies Proxy wars fought on both sides Proxy wars fought on both sides

98 The “perceived threat of communism”…a visual

99

100 As of 2010, there are five one-party communist nations: People's Republic of China Republic of Cuba Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) Socialist Republic of Vietnam As of 2010, there are five one-party communist nations: People's Republic of China Republic of Cuba Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) Socialist Republic of Vietnam

101 Unit 3 Concepts Review Enlightenment inspired revolutions Enlightenment inspired revolutions Conservative vs. Liberal Ideology Conservative vs. Liberal Ideology NATIONALISM NATIONALISM Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution Unification Movements Unification Movements Capitalism, Socialism, Communism Capitalism, Socialism, Communism DO YOUR MAPS!!!! DO YOUR MAPS!!!!

102 Point to areas Industrial Nations will …..DOMINTATE non-Industrial nations

103 IMPERIALISM Definition: The domination of the political, economic or cultural life of another country Definition: The domination of the political, economic or cultural life of another country “A stronger, more powerful country takes over a weaker one” “A stronger, more powerful country takes over a weaker one” Colonies Colonies Protectorates Protectorates Spheres of influence Spheres of influence

104 Causes of Imperialism Economic causes: Economic causes: Need for RESOURCES (coal, iron, cash crops, various other “RAW MATERIALS”) Need for RESOURCES (coal, iron, cash crops, various other “RAW MATERIALS”) Need for MARKETS Need for MARKETS Remember Age of Exploration? Remember Age of Exploration? Remember Mercantilism? Remember Mercantilism? Gold/Silver Gold/Silver Favorable balance of trade Favorable balance of trade Colonies for raw materials AND markets Colonies for raw materials AND markets Tariffs on imports from other countries Tariffs on imports from other countries

105 Causes of Imperialism Technological: technology and scientific advances made it possible for “developed countries” to take over non-developed Technological: technology and scientific advances made it possible for “developed countries” to take over non-developed “Developed” means: “Developed” means: Industrial Industrial Modern Modern …aggressive …aggressive

106 Causes of Imperialism Political/Military: need for military bases to protect financial investments and to establish political influence (international) Political/Military: need for military bases to protect financial investments and to establish political influence (international) Military might follows the MONEY Military might follows the MONEY

107 Causes of Imperialism Social/Cultural: Social/Cultural: Western arrogance and ideas of “saving” the world while profiting in the process Western arrogance and ideas of “saving” the world while profiting in the process Social Darwinism Social Darwinism Racism Racism Christian Missionary zeal Christian Missionary zeal Greed?? Greed??

108 Colonies This is an expensive form of imperialism in which a mother country sets up a bureaucracy to govern the locals. Under this form, rule can be either direct or indirect This is an expensive form of imperialism in which a mother country sets up a bureaucracy to govern the locals. Under this form, rule can be either direct or indirect

109 Protectorates In this form of imperialism, local rulers are left in place with the understanding that they would accept advice of rulers from abroad, especially on trade, military or cultural issues. In this form of imperialism, local rulers are left in place with the understanding that they would accept advice of rulers from abroad, especially on trade, military or cultural issues.

110

111 Spheres of influence This is a form of imperialism in which an outside power claims exclusive trading or investment privileges in an area. This is a form of imperialism in which an outside power claims exclusive trading or investment privileges in an area.

112 Imperialism in ASIA:

113 JAPANESE Imperialism

114 Imperialism in AFRICA

115

116

117 Famine in British India

118


Download ppt "World History 1500 to Present Unit 3 Notes: French Revolution and other Enlightenment inspired revolutions, spread of nationalism; Unification Movements;"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google