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World History 1500 to present

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1 World History 1500 to present
Unit 4 Vocbulary: Growth of Western Democracies, End of Old Empires, Causes and Effects of WWI SOLs: WHII 8 a-c; 9 a-c; 10a


3 Unit 3 Review before moving on….
Industrialization Need for natural resources Need for new markets for industrially produced finished goods Need to establish the most powerful empire Need to embrace and justify IMPERIALISM

4 Imperialism Justified as the “White Man’s Burden” (Rudyard Kipling)
Idea that technologically advanced Europeans were morally and socially superior to natives of Asia, Africa, and the Americas Colonies, Protectorates, and Spheres of Influence

5 “India” Unit 1 (Location, Civ, religion, Mughals)
Unit 2 (European exploration) Unit 3 (status?) Unit 4:____________________?



8 CHINA: Dynasty Song?! Corruption and incompetence Peasant unrest
Confucian values and traditional beliefs External pressures from the Western powers Internal pressures Corruption and incompetence Peasant unrest Increased population growth and decreased food production (famine and death)

9 CHINA: Opium War 1839-1842 Economics of trade balance
Britain spent too much silver on Chinese imports British East India Co. sold Opium to Chinese Chinese lost the war and Hong Kong

10 China: Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion: led by Christian convert who thought he was Jesus’ little brother Means “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” 14 year civil war with 20 million killed Foreign powers came together to crush it

11 CHINA: Western spheres of influence
Extraterritoriality: Europeans living in China did not have to live by Chinese laws, but by their own nation’s laws USA’s “Open Door Policy” declares equal access to China to all European nations…(AND the USA!)


13 CHINA: Boxer Rebellion
Shadow-boxing and the name “Society of the Harmonious Fists” Another attempt to get foreigners OUT of China Failed after allied foreign armies crushed them and demanded payment for damages

14 China:Moving into the Modern Age
Republic of China est under Sun Yat-Sen (Sun Yixian) Three Principles of the People: NATIONALISM SOCIALISM DEMOCRACY

15 Sun Yat-Sen’s 3 Principles
Nationalism: to unite the Chinese people against foreign influences and give them a Chinese “Identity” Socialism: to lead to greater equality and opportunity Democracy: to give the people the ability to make their own future

16 Sun-Yat Sen & Communists
Most of the intended reforms did not happen and a workable system did not emerge in “modern” China By 1921, radical Chinese college students and faculty form The Chinese Communist Party Communist International, formed in 1919, (Comintern) advised the new party to join Sun Yat-Sen’s Nationalist Party

17 Sun-Yat Sen and Chiang Kai-shek
The Communist/Nationalist Alliance helped oppose Chinese warlords and drive out imperialist powers….3 years Revolutionary army marches north to take control Sun Yat-Sen dies in 1925 and Chiang Kai-shek becomes the head of the Nationalist Party

18 CHINESE NATIONALISTS (Nationalist Party)
Sun Yat-Sen Chiang Kai-shek

19 “Communists are a disease of the heart”
Chiang Kai-shek and his forces attacked the communists in Shanghai, killing thousands (Shanghai Massacre)

20 The Nationalist Party-Chinese Communist alliance was…..”over”

21 Chinese Communists After the Shanghai Massacre they go into hiding
In the mountainous south, they find a strong leader in MAO ZEDONG Mao sees the future of Communism not in the urban working poor but in the rural peasants


23 Chinese Nationalists vs Communists
By 1931, Nationalists drive most Communists from Shanghai Mao’s Communists are smaller in number BUT…effective at guerilla tactics in battle LONG MARCH : Mao’s communist forces marched 6,000 miles to the last base in the North


25 90,000 troops marched North---only 9,000 made it

26 Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) tries to force China to reform
Use of dictatorial powers to prevent spread of communism Land “reform” program Small middle class in urban areas accepted some western practices: material wealth individual advancement Peasants were 80% of Chinese population

27 Confucian Values and New China
Successes: roads, railways, education Chiang Kai-shek wanted to combine the BEST Western innovations with traditional Chinese values (while rejecting excessive greed and individualism) Hard-work Obedience Integrity

28 Major Problems for China
Japan was threatening to take over more of Northern China (Manchuria, 1931) Great Depression was affecting the Chinese economy Chiang Kai-Shek’s support base (landed gentry and urban middle class)..he did not want to lose their support Did NOT attempt “redistribution of wealth” programs Censorship and suppression of opposition alienated intellectuals and moderates

29 Nationalists & Communists:Part 2
Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists and Mao Zedong’s Communists put the civil war on hold in 1936 to work together against the JAPANESE Japanese take capital of Nanjing WW II ends in 1945 1946 Nationalists and Communists go back to full scale civil war

30 Communists eventually win China
Peasants love the idea of “free land” Millions join the Communists Nationalists flee to Island of Formosa (TAIWAN) Mao Zedong takes over China and begins the Great Leap Forward (but China falls on its butt) …Saga to be continued in Unit 5


32 Japan: a brief review By 1000 AD the Imperial period was in decline and the feudal age on the rise Certain families gained power and weakened the central power of the emperor Emperor becomes more of a “ceremonial figure” than a real POWER

33 Social organization in Japan
Shogun- appointed by emperor, military leader, most powerful person in Japan Daimyo (DIME-’yo)- landowners, loyal to the shogun, but powerful in their own right Samurai- warrior class that supported the daimyo and shogun militarily in return for land and supplies Peasants and Artisans: exchange services for protection Merchants: bottom of the social scale, but “rich”


35 China VS Japan Scholars were respected in China
Buddhism and Confucian values focused on family and relationships China was easily invaded Warriors were respected in Japan Japanese were able to repel attacks by invaders & develop in isolation Fostered a militaristic attitude (Code of Bushido)

36 Japan: Between 1500 and 1800 3 Great Unifiers (Last was the powerful daimyo of Tokugawa Ieyasu) Tokugawa shogunate takes over 1603 “great peace” until 1868 Europeans come in with clocks, tobacco, eyeglasses, Christianity (Jesuits destroyed shrines…not good PR move)

37 Japan: Between 1500 and 1800 Japanese Christians were persecuted
European merchants were also forced out, only a small Dutch port was left in time every year, 2-3 months MAX Daimyo “hostage system” of rule Samurai lost “warrior” status and became managers of daimyo hans Ronin were masterless samurai

38 Japan: Between 1500 and 1800 Formal foreign relations until 1800 with only Korea, “The Hermit Kingdom” Foreign trade ships were driven away from Japan 4 US WARships under Commodore Matthew Perry Perry brings a letter from President Millard Fillmore (sailors in cages, trade) Perry comes back with bigger fleet Treaty of Kanagawa signed

39 Treaty of Kanagawa: Return shipwrecked sailors (free from cages) Open 2 ports for US trade Consulate established Exchange foreign ministers

40 Japanese Resistance Samurai classes strongly resisted
1863, Satsuma and Choshu areas formed an alliance to force the shogun to end relations with the West Western ships were stronger and revealed to the Japanese that they were militarily WEAK! The Sat-Cho alliance attacked the shogun and forced the restoration of the emperor

41 Meiji Restoration Sat-Cho leaders began a new policy to make Japan strong enough to resist Western imperialism Young emperor was “Mutsuhito” who called the new era Meiji for “Enlightened Rule”

42 Changes under Meiji rule in Japan
By 1890, the German model (attractive to Progressives) won Traditional and modern..same power people had power “Democratic in form, authoritarian in practice” Western political style: a legislative assembly with imperial rule Liberals (want Parliament powerful and representative of people) and Progressives (power shared between legislative and executive**) emerge

43 Japanese society under Meiji
Aristocratic privileges abolished Women got jobs and education More industrialization and shift to cities LOTS of westernization (dancing, eating, playing games, clothing) Exploitation of working classes Demands for more political voice


45 Japan’s Imperial dreams….
Need for colonies, just like the west Ryukyu islands (had been under Chinese control) Korean ports forced to open up Manchurian city of Port Arthur and Taiwan War with Russia over Korea, Japan wins (Peace negotiated by POTUS Teddy Roosevelt) Japan becomes…”Significant” as a world power

46 Chilly relations with United States
USA wants more power in the Pacific and authority over Philippines US restricts Japanese immigration Racism and nativism in US, especially on West Coast

47 World War I see overhead notes

48 Causes of World War I The Industrial Revolution leads nations to compete for economic dominance and international prestige. Question: By 1900, which countries were the most industrially developed in the world?


50 Imperialism: Militarism: Alliance System: Nationalism:
Causes of World War I Imperialism: Militarism: Alliance System: Nationalism:

51 Imperialism (as a cause of WWI)
Competition over access to resources and markets = economic rivalry British and French concern over GERMAN competition and colonial claims German growth in all areas:

52 French Colonies 1914: British Colonies 1914:

53 Militarism (as a cause of WWI)
Arms race =Industrial nations build up better weapons Military power = national prestige Glorification of all things military Military leaders become powerful …..”Social Darwinism”….stronger can outfight the weaker

54 Militarism: New tech for WWI
Machine guns Hand grenades Poison gas Zeppelins Submarines SOME airplanes ……trench warfare strategy

55 Trench Warfare = STALEMATE!
Defensive strategy Horrific casualities Rats: feeding on dead Lice: everywhere Mud: WET, slimy Trenchfoot


57 Alliance System (as a cause of WWI)
Agreements between nations to aid each other if attacked (OLD, new, flimsy, etc.) Russia is the “protector” of smaller Slavic nations Emergence of “the Allies” (Britain, France, Russia) Emergence of “the Central Powers”(Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire)

58 Examples of Nationalism (as a cause of WWI)
French want revenge against Germany French want Alsace and Lorraine back from Germany (after Franco-Prussian war) Pan-Slavism unites those wanting a Southern European state for Slavic people Germany wants “a place in the sun” (recognition and respect for its power)

59 Immediate Cause: Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary, August 1914


61 United States and World War I
For three years, America remained neutral, and there was strong sentiment not to get involved in a European war. continuing German submarine warfare restricts freedom of the seas American cultural ties to Great Britain. Wilson wanted to “make the world safe for democracy.”

62 United States and World War I
1. Propaganda fuels anti-German feelings 2. Germany sinks Lusitania ship 3. Zimmerman telegram intercepted 4. Russian revolution breaks out and a “non-autocratic” government is set up…..BEFORE it goes communist 5. April 2, 1917…USA declares war on Germany

63 United States and World War I
Draft laws Rationing and government organizes war production Americans SUPPORT war effort Gov’t acts to STOP those who protest: Espionage and Sedition Act

64 America’s military resources of soldiers and war materials tipped the balance of the war and led to Germany’s defeat.

65 Armistice Day “November 11th, :00 am, 1918”

66 Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Wilson’s plan to eliminate the causes of war Key ideas: Self-determination Freedom of the sea League of Nations Mandate system

67 Treaty of Versailles (Verse-EYE)
The French and English insisted on punishment of Germany. A League of Nations was created. National boundaries were redrawn, creating many new nations.

68 League debate in United States
Objections to U.S. foreign policy decisions made by an international organization, not by U.S. leaders U.S. Senate’s failure to approve Treaty of Versailles

69 Russia and the Revolution

70 RUSSIA: the Land and People
1/6 of Earth’s surface is “Russia and its republics” Tundra, taiga, steppe and desert from the Caspian Sea in Asiatic highlands Ural mountains divide “Europe” from “Asia” Volga River is longest in all of Europe (flows South to Caspian) Lake Baikal is the deepest freshwater lake (1 mile at deepest)

71 Historical Background of Russia
Earliest invaders were Vikings from the North (Norsemen or “Varangians”) Reddish hair (“rus”) gave name to earliest state of Kiev Kievan Rus…..became “Russia” “Viking” names (Helga and Waldamar) became Russian names (Olga and Vladimir)

72 Background History of Russia
Riches of Kiev led to its downfall Tatar/Mongol Domination for almost 300 years Paid taxes to Khans; military service Cut off from West Allowed Orthodox Christianity to remain Autocracy is accepted; screws up Russian thinking about gov’t for…..(ever?!) Rise of Moscow: Russian princes eventually put down Mongols 1380 at Battle of Kulikovo Moscow is geographically important on trade routes from East Princes of Moscow maintain a stable gov’t

73 Background History of Russia
Ivan III (The Great) 1462 – 1505 built a framework absolute rule Limited the power of boyars Adopted Byzantine customs,…grandson: Ivan IV (The Terrible) Centralized royal power Exchanged land to boyars for military service Entrenched serfdom Was NUTS

74 Background History of Russia
Time of Troubles Political instability, peasant uprisings, invasions by foreigners Ends with the Zemsky Sobor appointment of the Romanov Dynasty beginning with Michael in 1613

75 Brief Outline of the “modern Age)Romanovs
Alexander III: cracks down on dissent, censorship, secret police, exiled people, “Russification” esp against Jews (pogroms) Nicholas II: Ineffective ruler and soldier, WWI, October Manifesto, Bloody Sunday, assassinated w/family Alexander I: 1st to embrace “liberal” ideas, but after Napoleon, went conservative at COV Nicholas I: cracks down on dissent, uses secret police, starts modernization Alexander II: loses Crimean War; FREES the serfs, assassinated

76 Russian Revolution Czar Nicholas II’s reforms were too little too late
No industrial power = no national power Loss to the Japanese was humiliating announcement of weakness WWI participation sucked Russia dry and made civil war inevitable Weak resistance to well organized and mobilized Bolshevik radicals Total abdication and assassination end the Romanov Dynasty

77 Vladimir Lenin Marxist Revolutionary
NEP allowed some capitalism and helped Soviet economy recover from early communist stagnation Dies of stroke, 1924

78 Leon Trotsky Co-founder with Lenin Organized and trained the RED ARMY
Practice of decimation made Red Army “effective” Rival of Stalin’ Assassinated in Mexico with an ice-pick

79 Lenin’s Communist Dictatorship in Russia 1917-1924 “Bloodshed & Brainwashing”
Terror Tactics: use mass executions to wipe out opposition Economic Control: nationalization of industry, banks, foreign trade (& NEP) Centralization of Gov’t: total control of gov’t, trade unions, youth groups, ban other political parties, ethnic republics est. Religious Persecution: seizure of church land & property, jail/kill priests, close church schools, GOD does not exist, Lenin is your god now Ideology: censor critics and foreign news, use of PROPAGANDA

80 Causes of the Great Depression
Industrial OVERPRODUCTION Over speculation on stocks “Buying stock using borrowed money Borrowers can NOT PAY when the stock market crashed in 1929 stock prices collapsed Ripple effect across economy

81 Great Depression..GOES GLOBAL:
Federal Reserve’s failure to prevent widespread collapse of the nation’s banking system in the late 1920s/early 1930s leading to severe contraction of the money supply (less in circulation) High protective tariffs that produced retaliatory tariffs in other countries, strangling world trade

82 Impact of the Great Depression
Unemployment and homelessness Collapse of financial system (bank closings) Political unrest (growing militancy of labor unions) Farm foreclosures and migration

83 New Deal (Franklin Roosevelt)
This program changed the role of the government to a more active participant in solving problems. Roosevelt rallied a frightened nation in which one in four workers was unemployed. (“We have nothing to fear, but fear itself.”)

84 “In Times of Crisis, governments tend to assume more power….”

85 Rise of Other Totalitarian Regimes
Common Features: Single party dictatorship State control of the economy Secret police/state sponsored terrorism Censorship & Propaganda/government control of the media Schools used to indoctrinate citizens Unquestioning obedience to a single ruler

86 Fascism vs. Communism Political philosophy that values the nation or race above the individual Looks to PAST greatness and glory as a model for the future Political, economic and social system that seeks to abolish private property, social classes and achieve a society where all things are held in common and complete equality is achieved and the “state” disappears Looks to the FUTURE…

87 Benito Mussolini- Italy Adolph Hitler- Germany Francisco Franco- Spain
Fascists Benito Mussolini- Italy Adolph Hitler- Germany Francisco Franco- Spain Juan Peron- Argentina

88 Josep Marshal Tito- Yugoslavia
Communists Joseph Stalin - USSR Mao Zedong- China Ho Chi Minh- Vietnam Fidel Castro- Cuba Josep Marshal Tito- Yugoslavia

89 Benito Mussolini 1883-1945 Il Duce
Italy- in political and economic crisis had support of middle class seeking stability 1922- march on Rome- Victor Emmanuel made him PM Could legislate by decree, police state Created Young Fascists

90 Adolph Hitler 1889-1945 Der Fuhrer
core of beliefs- anti-Semitic wrote “Mein Kampf” in jail in 20’s built Nazi party on dissatisfaction won over elite and establishment fear of communists- largest party, became chancellor legally

91 The Nazi State 1933-1945 Total State techniques propaganda masters
mass demonstrations rearmament of the military SS control of police using terror based on Nazi ideology (secret police,camps execution and extermination) Churches and youth groups under control GOAL Aryan ???? racial ??? state.

92 Fascists (cont..) Spain General Francisco Franco 1892-1975
resulted from a civil war with communists aided by Italy and Germany

93 Fascists (cont..) Latin America military dictators popular
Juan Peron in Argentina

94 Joseph Stalin and the USSR Communist State
3rd to Lenin, had Trotsky murdered in Mexico Similar to Totalitarian state oppression of the masses ownership of production and land by the state forced rapid industrialization cruel Great Purge (get rid of old Bolshevik rev) Elections: one party. 10% member

95 Mao Zedong: China Led the Communists of China to victory over Chiang Kai-Shek’s Nationalist Party Made PRC Communist in 1949

96 Ho Chi Minh: Vietnam Nationalist who wanted to rid Vietnam of French and foreign domination

97 Tito and Castro: stay tuned for Unit 5!

98 Totalitarian Regime at FDHS extra TEST grade creative writing????
Follow each direction to the letter It is a test grade Video presentation is OK, but it must make sense, follow the rubric and not waste time!

99 Post World War I Nationalist Movements

100 Mehmet II enters the city of Constantinople in 1453…..
…by 1633, spans 3 continents

101 Ottoman Empire circa 1683

102 Ottoman Empire post WW I
Great Britain & France decided during WWI (secretly via Sykes-Picot Agreement) to divide parts of the Ottoman Empire amongst themselves Mandate system est. by League of Nations New foreign rulers simply planted the seeds for future conflicts in the region


104 Young Turks of the Ottoman Empire
shared the common goal of reform Super-secular Primarily envisioned an intellectual elite to govern the empire…but labeled “liberal” military and social uprisings characterize the movement Now blamed for the Armenian genocide of 1915 Term “Young Turks" now used to identify any groups or individuals inside an organization who are more progressive and reform minded and are grabbing power


106 Turkey under Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk)
“democracy” in theory, not practice Suppression of critics Romanized alphabet (Arabic gone) Popular education Last names for families (Euro style) Industrialization MAJOR secular ideas that don’t sit well with super-Muslim conservatives

107 Cultural changes that Muslims hated
No fez for men or veils for women Marriage & inheritance rights for women Right to vote for women Right for anyone to convert to other religions

108 Emergence of Modern Iran
Reza Shah Pahlavi

109 Reforms under Pahlavi Strengthen & modernize military, government
“Iran” 1935 Remains “Muslim” Forbids women wearing veils in public Modern education

110 Pahlavi Dynasty Friendly relations with Germany (by default)
Great Britain/USSR invade Iran Reza Shah Pahlavi resigns, his son takes over



113 Other Arab Nationalist Movements
Mandate System creates “artificial” nations after WWI Britain: Palestine, Iraq and Jordan “Balfour Declaration” Not to undermine rights of non-Jews (98% Muslim residents) Zionist Movement strenghtens France: Syria and Lebanon

114 Ibn Saud

115 African Nationalism: early movements
Africans mad about Versailles Treaty …new overlords are just “not German” New ideas about freedom and nationalism spread

116 African Nationalism: p. 569

117 Calls for Reform Incidents between reformers and authorities end in violence Reforms are “too little, too late” W.E.B. DuBois and Marcus Garvey contribute to a cultural reawakening Garvey calls for Pan-Africanism ,, are Western educated

118 Western educated Africans become leaders for reform
Jomo Kenyatta: Kenya Leopold Senghor: Senegal Nnamdi Azikiwe: Nigeria

119 Indian Nationalism Mohandas Gandhi Civil disobedience
Passive resistance British extend political influence for SOME Indians Salt March, 1930

120 Indian Nationalism Western educated intellectuals challenge Gandhi's leadership which was …traditional, religious and INDIAN. Jawaharlal Nehru is most modern, secular and …….Western

121 ……Nehru Dynasty


123 Indian Islamic nationalism

124 Indian Islamic nationalism
Calls for a separate Muslim state in India begin Muhammad Ali Jinnah wants to see “Pakistan” ruled by Muslims

125 Latin American issues USA became largest investor
Military presence Direct control of export industries Fruit, RR, copper, oil, etc. Depression encourages domestic industries FDR’s Good Neighbor Policy rejects military action Withdraws troops

126 Nationalism in Argentina
Oligarchy =government rule by select group of wealthy, powerful people

127 **Pattern in History Alert**
Failure to recognize importance of industrial development Failure to recognize “rise of the middle class” Failure to prevent military action to respond to problems created by the above! Argentina’s military overthrew the president in 1930 to re-establish the power of large landowners…by 1943, they overthrew the whole government…….enter JUAN PERON…stay tuned for Unit 5

128 Mexico:”sort of democratic” but not really
Brazil: experiences authoritarian control by an oligarchy and eventually dictatorship of Getulio Vargas…later forced to resign by army. Mexico:”sort of democratic” but not really PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) controls major groups and picks the president who is “elected” Lazaro Cardenas gives land to peasants, strengthen Mexico’s position over oil with US and UK eventually nationalizing oil fields

129 Comment on Major Unit Ideas
Industrial Development Rise of the Middle Class Imperialism Access to increasing technology,… ……..especially military technology Nationalism World Wars Economic Chaos and its role in a global economy Role of religion in nationalism, imperialism, war, genocide, and politics Totalitarian Regimes


131 Geography and Vocab!! A= Tannenberg B= Verdun C= Latvia D= Germany E= Sarajevo F= Alsace-Lorraine G= Yugoslavia H= Caporetto I= Dardenelles J= Poland

132 A= Ukraine B= Caspian Sea C= Georgia D= China E= Moscow F= St. Petersburg G= Black Sea H=Lithuania I= Russian Republic J= Mongolia




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