Presentation on theme: "World History 1500 to Present Unit 1 Vocabulary: World Empires and Religions circa 1500 AD; Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution Intro SOLs:"— Presentation transcript:
World History 1500 to Present Unit 1 Vocabulary: World Empires and Religions circa 1500 AD; Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution Intro SOLs: 1 a-e; 2 a-d; 3 a-c; 6 a-c; 14 a,b
How do we LEARN terms? RECALL –“Know it: ANALYZE –“Understand it” APPLY –“DO something with that demonstrates that you really get it!”
Civilization This is a complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a number of common elements.
Key Features of Civilization CitiesCities Well organized governmentWell organized government Complex ReligionComplex Religion Job SpecializationJob Specialization Social ClassesSocial Classes Arts & ArchitectureArts & Architecture Public WorksPublic Works WritingWriting
Locate the earliest human civilizations….
1.Know the Rivers/regions 2.Identify Main Religion
Theology This is the study of religion and God which was the most highly regarded subject of the medieval university.
Name the 5 major world religions Founders, books, tenets, and geographic distribution from Civ- Present
Four Noble Truths This is the basic beliefs of Buddhism that most of life’s suffering is caused by our desires for self-satisfaction.
*All life is suffering *Suffering from Greed *Suffering stops when greed stops * Stop greed by following 8 fold path
Caste System This is a rigid set of social categories that determined a person’s occupation and position in society.
Ten Commandments This was the set of guidelines revealed to Moses by God on Mount Sinai as part of the covenant between God and the Hebrews.
Hammurabi This person was ruler of a Mesopotamian kingdom who built many temples and encouraged trade, but is best remembered for his super- strict law code.
Tikal This was a large Mayan City in present day Guatemala that may have had a hundred thousand inhabitants.
Chichen Itza Ancient city of the Mayan Indians located in the northern center of the Yucatán Peninsula of present-day Mexico.
El Castillo !!
Tenochtitlan Island city that was the Aztec capital where present day Mexico City is located.
Black Death The most devastating natural disaster in European history which killed about 1/3 of the population.
SEE a DR. ASAP!!!!!
Great Schism This was a conflict within the Catholic Church when two popes, one French and one Italian, were elected at the same time and the disputes that followed weakened the political and spiritual authority of the Catholic Church.
This “schism” was the Western Roman Church…not the Eastern/Western Schism”
Leonardo da Vinci This multi-talented Italian artist, painter, inventor, sculptor, architect and mathematician was the ultimate Renaissance man and even cut up dead bodies to better illustrate the human form in his art.
Medici Family This was a powerful banking family from Florence that financed much of the Renaissance through their patronage of artists and inspiration to writers.
Giovanni Di Bicci Cosimo il Vecchio Cosimo I Lorenzo the Magnificent
Niccolo Machiavelli This writer of the Renaissance believed that the key to gaining and maintaining power was to not let oneself be restricted by moral principles. He was one of the first political writers to abandon morality as a basis for analyzing political power.
The end justifies the Means It is better to be feared than loved Never take advice from a subordinate
The Prince One of the most influential books on political power in the Western world, this work has stood the test of time as a handbook on how to achieve political power at any cost.
Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI
Renaissance This was an intellectual and artistic movement based on the renewed interest in the classical heritage of Greeks and Romans. It began in Italy and spread throughout Europe.
Protestant Reformation This was the religious movement that divided the Western Catholic Church in the early 1500s and created numerous Christian sects that are still in existence today.
“THE CHURCH” =Roman Catholic 1054 AD 1 st E/W Schism = Roman Catholicism Eastern Orthodox based in Constantinople AD = “The Great Schism
Martin Luther 95 Theses starts the Protestant Reformation John Calvin Theocracy predestination King Henry VIII England Under Elizabeth I, Anglican In America, Episcopal Huguenots = French Presbyterians = Scotland Pilgrims = Protestant Separatists in America
Catholic Counter-Reformation This was the official Church response to the divisive Christian reform movement that included the founding of the Jesuits, the reform of the papacy, the decrees of the Council of Trent,… and the establishment of courts of the Inquisition.
(After conclusion of Thirty Years War in Europe) Society of Jesus, Jesuits More missionaries sent Strengthened Inquisition Council of Trent….clarified doctrines Made several changes based on complaints of Protestants
Johann Tetzel This monk sold indulgences to German Christians, telling them they could buy forgiveness for their sins and for the sins of family members already dead.
German Dominican friar Disgusted Martin Luther to write his 95 theses (reasons the Catholic Church needed to shape up)
Martin Luther This German monk and Bible professor believed that Christians could achieve salvation through faith alone and launched a religious reform movement to break with the Catholic Church.
“Did he or didn’t he????”
John Calvin This Protestant leader set up a theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland and believed in predestination.
ORIGINAL SIN PREDESTINATION Educate Both Sexes Pray, Work, Learn, Die
Henry VIII This ruler of England broke with the Catholic Church for mostly political reasons. He wanted a divorce from his first wife and when the Pope said, “No,” he turned to his own church courts and eventually made himself head of the Protestant Church of England.
Handsome and Athletic in his youth Married to a Spanish Catholic, had one child that survived, Mary I aka, “Bloody Mary” Married 5 more times, only notable child: Elizabeth I with wife #2, Anne Boleyn
vernacular This term refers to works of literature that are published in regional languages rather than classical languages like Latin or Greek.
EGO LATINAM Latin represented the glory that was ROME Latin was the language of learning, business, law, medicine, and most importantly, THE CHURCH Romans “spoke” Italian Spaniards spoke Spanish People in Gaul spoke French German, English, Dutch, Finnish, etc….
secular This term refers to nonreligious or “worldly” things.
Humanism This was an intellectual movement that was based on the study of the classic literary works and the culture Greece and Rome. It focused on the glorification of the worldly achievements of men.
Petrarch One of the earliest leaders of the Renaissance, this man led the initial search for ancient Latin manuscripts and revived the use of pure, classical Latin. He is famous for works such as Sonnets to Laura.
What is Love? Love is Agony and Sorrow
Characteristics of Petrarch’s Sonnets Self- Centered Combines secular love with religious passion. The Baroque poets, esp. the metaphysical poets are influenced by this. Different from Shakespeare's sonnets. Love as sorrow. Different from Dante (Love as an enlightening or transcendent power).
Dante This famous author of the Divine Comedy (in Italian) takes readers on a journey through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise
Michelangelo This artist, most famous for painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, was also a magnificent sculptor and architect
Erasmus Best known for his 1509 writing, In Praise of Folly, this leading Christian humanist believed that society cannot be improved until the people in society improved themselves from within. It was said, “He laid the egg that the other guy hatched.”
Dutch humanist AND theologian Middle of the road reformer, FREE Will, not predestination Wrote In Praise of Folly
Peace of Augsburg This was a 1555 agreement to formally accept the division of Christianity in Germany between Catholicism and Lutheranism. It did not allow religious choice for individuals, only for German rulers to choose for their subjects.
"Cuius regio eius religio".
On a regular QUIZ: You must answer my questions ABOUT the terms we have covered in HW or class FIB = fill in the blank, no word bank –I give you the definition and you write the vocabulary term from your comps sheet Spelling must be phonetically close Writing must be PRINTED Legibly +10 pts if you get 100% on the Vocab Quiz / +5 pts if you get all 30 on the Unit TEST