Presentation on theme: "ECE 353 Introduction to Microprocessor Systems Michael G. Morrow, P.E. Week 9."— Presentation transcript:
ECE 353 Introduction to Microprocessor Systems Michael G. Morrow, P.E. Week 9
Topics Memory technologies Organization and operation of typical SRAM, EPROM and flash memory devices Memory subsystem design Address decoder implementation SRAM timing characteristics
Memory Terminology How could we classify memory devices? Read-Only Memory (ROM) In common usage, ROM is memory that is nonvolatile. Random-Access Memory (RAM) The time required to access any memory location is the same – i.e. it does not need to be accessed in a specific order. In common usage, RAM is memory that can be read or written with equal ease.
Memory Technologies ROM (non-volatile) Masked ROM Field programmable EPROM OTP PROM (fuse or EPROM) Electrically erasable EEPROM (or E 2 PROM) Flash memory RAM (volatile) SRAM DRAM Pseudo-SRAM Emerging memory technologies
Memory Organization Logical organization Organization as seen looking at the device from the outside Linear array of registers (memory locations) Width – number of bits in each memory location Depth – number of memory locations Usually written as depth x width (i.e. 32k x 8) Physical organization Different physical organizations can be used to implement the same logical organization Physical organization affects performance and cost
SRAM Interfaces RAM with 3 control inputs /CS, /OE, /WE Read Write aka Intel style RAM with 2 control inputs E (CS), R/W (or /WE) aka Motorola style
SRAM Organization Logical Organization Typically 1, 4, 8 or 16 bit widths Physical Organization Rectangular bit array Two-level decoding (row and column) Characteristic delays and timing requirements are specified in memory devices datasheet (Example)Example NV-SRAM Uses an alternate power source to maintain SRAM when system power is off Requires logic to switch power sources and prevent spurious writes during power-up/power-down
Flash Memory Actually Flash EEPROM, commonly just called flash memory Characteristics Technologies Endurance Blocking, programming and erasing Blocking Applications ROM replacement GP NV-RAM Solid-state disk (flash-disk) ExampleExample
Memory Subsystem Design Memory banks Increasing memory width Increasing memory depth Increasing memory width and depth Address decoding Exhaustive (full) vs. partial (reduced) decoding Boundaries If address is a 2 n boundary, then what is the result of (address AND (2 n -1))? We normally decode memory devices to be aligned on boundaries at least as large as they are
Memory Architectures Wide (n-byte) buses Addressing effects Byte transfer support Data lanes Control signals Bus resizing Static Configurable Dynamic
Memory Subsystems Review What is the purpose of an address decoder circuit, and where does its output usually get connected? What is exhaustive decoding, and what effects does it have? What is partial decoding, and what effects does it have?
SRAM Timing Characteristics An SRAM device has key timing parameters specified for the read cycle. t AA – address access time t RDHA – data valid after address changes t ACS – chip select access time t RHCS – data valid after chip select t CHZ – time until device floats bus t OE – output enable access time t OHZ – time until device floats bus t RC – read cycle time The write cycle has a complementary set of specifications.
SRAM Timing Compatibility In order to ensure that we will be able to reliably read and write the memory device, we need to ensure that the processor system bus interface is compatible with the memory device. This is accomplished by analyzing the timing for all relevant parameters of both the processor and memory, and ensuring that the operations can be completed reliably.
Wrapping Up Quiz #2 will be held Wednesday 11/5/2007 at 7:15-8:30pm in 2317EH Covers educational objectives for modules 3 and 4 (weeks 5 through 8) Single 3x5 card with original handwritten notes No calculators Instruction set references and any needed datasheets will be provided Reading for next week Supplement #3, review chapter 9 in text
JEDEC Standard Packages
Flash Memory Application: Disk-on-Key Up to 64GB nonvolatile storage And climbing No battery or power supply Specifications: Data retention up to 10 years Erase cycles: 1,000,000 times Shock resistance: 1000 G (maximum)