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Lero© 2012 Improving Global Software Engineering through Improved Processes Dr. Ita Richardson 18 th April, 2012
Lero© 2012 2 Presentation Structure My background Global Software Development Understanding the problems Providing a solution: Global Teaming Model Conclusion
Lero© 2012 3 My Research Background Software Quality and Software Process: – Global software development – Small software development companies – Regulated industry Medical Device & Hospitals – Services Principal Investigator within Lero Research supervision Lecture to Undergraduate and Postgraduate Software Engineering students
Lero© 2012 4 What is Global Software Development? Casey and Richardson, 2006, Carmel, 1999, Hayes, 2002, Crow and Muthuswamy, 2003
Lero© 2012 5 Global Software Development (GSD) is carried out by teams of knowledge workers located in various parts of the globe developing commercially viable software for a company Often, centralised software development is moved from “home” locations to dispersed teams or/and external organisations in remote locations Distributed Software Development and Global Software Development are similar except that GSD teams are always global. Global Software Development
Lero© 2012 6 Global Software Development Increasing number of people working in global development teams From a process perspective, transferring local processes to global is not a solution
Lero© 2012 What happens in Global Software Development? Geographic Distance Linguistic Distance Cultural Distance Temporal Distance
Lero© 2012 Geographic Distance + Linguistic Distance + Cultural Distance + Temporal Distance = Global Distance
Lero© 2012 9 Software Development Teams Traditional team – Social group of individuals collocated – Tasks are interdependent – Activities to achieve common goals Global Software Development team – Usually use virtual teams to develop software – Same goals and objectives as traditional – Affected by Global Distance – Linked by communication technologies Powell et al., 2004, Lipnack & Stamp, 1997
Lero© 2012 10 To understand why Global Software Development was not working in industry To develop a solution to support the implementation of GSD in industry Research Problem
Lero© 2012 Empirical Research Methods
Lero© 2012 12 GSD problems Casey, 2008
Lero© 2012 What are the BARRIERS AND COMPLEXITIES? There is no one model for Global Software Development
Lero© 2012 14 19 MODELS OUT OF 38 SURVEYED PROJECTS Variety of Collaboration Models (Šmite, 2007)
Lero© 2012 15 Collaboration Models
Lero© 2012 What are the BARRIERS AND COMPLEXITIES? There are many factors at play in Global Software Development – Many of which are not software development / engineering / process factors
Lero© 2012 17 Project Management CultureFear Communication BARRIERS AND COMPLEXITIES
Lero© 2012 18 Project Management What are the BARRIERS AND COMPLEXITIES? Defined Roles and Responsibilities Skills Management Effective Partitioning Technical Support Reporting requirement Process Management Team Selection Visibility Coordination Tools True Cost Risk
Lero© 2012 19 Project Management Culture What are the BARRIERS AND COMPLEXITIES? Cultural Distance National Culture Religious Culture Attitude to Authority Gender Differences
Lero© 2012 20 Project Management Culture Communication What are the BARRIERS AND COMPLEXITIES? Language Communication tools Knowledge Transfer Temporal Issues
Lero© 2012 21 Project Management CultureFear Communication What are the BARRIERS AND COMPLEXITIES? Fear Motivation Trust
Lero© 2012 22 Effective Global Software Development Project Management CultureFear Communication BARRIERS AND COMPLEXITIES
Lero© 2012 23 Project Management CultureFear Communication BARRIERS AND COMPLEXITIES Fear of losing jobs prevents good communication between teams
Lero© 2012 24 Project Management CultureFear Communication BARRIERS AND COMPLEXITIES How does the project manager ensure that their requirements are met?
Lero© 2012 LERO ©2009 | Ita Richard son 25 Effective Global Software Development Effective Global Software Development Project Management Project Management Culture Fear Communication BARRIERS AND COMPLEXITIES
Lero© 2012 Empirical Research Methods
Lero© 2012 27 Global Teaming Model Global Teaming Model Richardson et al, 2010
Lero© 2012 Global Teaming Model Process for effective Global Software Engineering Structured model: – Specific Goals – Specific Practices – Sub-Practices Can and should be used with existing processes
Lero© 2012 Global Teaming Model Establish cooperation and coordination procedures between locations Richardson et al., 2010 Specific Practice SP 1.3 Global Project Management
Lero© 2012 Establish cooperation & coordination procedures between locations Provide suitable infrastructure Define suitable software development processes Define management procedures Jointly plan and agree achievable milestones Identify and monitor project costs, time, productivity, quality and risk
Lero© 2012 Threats: Global Project Management not implemented Because Project Managers are based remotely – Cannot ‘see’ contribution from each team member – May not know skills and knowledge Competent people may agree unrealistic amounts of work – Serious implications for the individuals and projects – Only sustainable in the short term Lack of recognition and understanding of cultural needs
Lero© 2012 Global Teaming Model Implement strategy for conducting meetings between locations Specific Practice SP 2.1 Operating Procedures
Lero© 2012 Implement strategy for conducting meetings between locations Identify and use appropriate global meeting technology Set up procedures to ensure participants can agree or disagree with points raised Provide opportunities for participants to offer new ideas. Circulate agenda prior to meeting Clearly minute actions agreed at meeting within a short time frame
Lero© 2012 Threats: Operating Procedures not implemented Impact due to use of asynchronous tools – Amount of information between members reduced When difficult to communicate – How and when to contact, when to expect response – Project inefficiencies, de-motivated team members Shared meetings – Inefficient if people cannot contribute – Work will not be done unless minutes shared and actions made clear
Lero© 2012 Empirical Research Methods Currently underway within Financial Services company
Lero© 2012 36 Conclusion
Lero© 2012 37 In summary Global Software Development is an expanding trend Industrialists and academics need to be prepared to understand and implement GSD There are benefits to be gained from GSD if implemented correctly There are difficulties which will arise if not implemented correctly Management need to implement an informed GSD strategy in their organisation
Lero© 2012 38 A few highlights: Not only technical factors have to be taken into account, but also social and cultural ones Social capital is important in GSD – engineering human relationships Psychological factors such as trust, motivation and fear play a significant role There are knowledge-intensive and complex aspects to GSD Domain knowledge needs to be preserved Use of the Global teaming model adds structure to GSD efforts Problems should be dealt with instead of outsourcing them!
Lero© 2012 39 Acknowledgements Research underlying this presentation has been supported by: – Science Foundation Ireland CSET grant to Lero – Science Foundation Ireland Investigator Programme, B4-STEP (Building a Bi-Directional Bridge Between Software ThEory and Practice) – Science Foundation Ireland cluster project, GSD for SMEs – Science Foundation Ireland cluster project, socGSD – Siemens Corporate Research Global Studio Project – Various Irish companies
Lero© 2012 40 Presentation Structure My background Global Software Development Understanding the problems Providing a solution: Global Teaming Model Conclusion
Lero© 2012 41 Further recommended reading Deshpande, S., Beecham, S., Richardson, I. (2011), "Global Software Development Coordination Strategies - A Vendor Perspective", Pg. No 153-174, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Volume LNBIP91, New Studies in Global IT and Business Service Outsourcing, Part 1, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011, (Edited By: J. Kotlarsky, L.P. Willcocks, and I. Oshri) Richardson, Ita, Valentine Casey, John Burton, Fergal McCaffery, Global Software Engineering: A Software Process Approach, in Collaborative Software Engineering, edited by Mistrík, I.; Grundy, J.; Hoek, A. van der; Whitehead, J., 2010, ISBN: 978-3-642-10293-6, pp35-56. Richardson, Ita, Daniel Paulish and June Verner, Research Directions for Global Software Engineering – where to next?, Guest Editors’ Introduction, Journal of Software Evolution and Process, Volume 24, Issue 2, March 2012, pp 115-117. Carmel, E. and Agarwal, R. (2001) Tactical Approaches for Alleviating Distance in Global Software Development, IEEE Software, 1, 2, 22 - 29. Casey V and Richardson I, Virtual Software Teams: Overcoming the Obstacles, 3rd World Congress on Software Quality 2005, pp63-70, Munich, Germany, 2005 Casey, Valentine and Ita Richardson, "Implementation of Global Software Development: A Structured Approach" Software Process Improvement and Practice, Volume 14, 2009, pp247-262, DOI: 10.1002/spip.422. Casey, Valentine and Richardson, Ita, The Impact of Fear on the Operation of Virtual Teams, Special issue on Global Software Engineering, Software Process Improvement and Practice, Volume 13, 2008, pp511-526. Damian, D. E. and Zowghi, D. (2003), An insight into the interplay between culture, conflict and distance in globally distributed requirements negotiations, Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Systems Sciences (HICSS’03). IEEE. 2002., Hawaii, 1 - 10. Ebert, C. and De Neve, P. (2001) Surviving Global Software Development, IEEE Software, 18, 2, 62 - 69. Herbsleb, J. D. and Mockus, A. (2003) An Empirical Study of Speed and Communication in Globally Distributed Software Development, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 29, 6, 481-494. Herbsleb, J. D. and Moitra, D. (2001) Global Software Development, IEEE Software, 1, 2, 16 - 20. Herbsleb, J. D., Paulish, D. J. and Bass, M. (2005), Global software development at siemens: experience from nine projects, Proceedings of the 27th international conference on Software engineering, St. Louis, MO, USA, 524 - 533. Linnane, Seán and Ita Richardson, Distributed Software Development – difficulties for the SME. In Perspectives in Software Quality, Proceedings of Software Quality Management Conference, SQM2006, 10th-12th April, 2006, Southampton, U.K. pp 113-128. Karolak D W, Global Software Development: Managing Virtual Teams and Environments. Wiley-IEEE Computer Society 1998, ISBN 0-818- 68701-0
Lero© 2012 42 Further recommended reading Rad P F and Levin G, Achieving Project Management Success using Virtual Teams. J. Ross Publishing 2003, ISBN 1-932-15903-7 Ebert C and De Neve P (2001). Surviving global software development, Ieee Software. 18, 62-69. Herbsleb J D and Grinter R E, Splitting the Organisation and Integrating the Code: Conway's Law Revisited, Proceedings of the 21st international conference on Software engineering 1999, pp85-95, LA, CA, USA, 1999 Herbsleb J D, Paulish D J, Bass M, Global Software Development at Siemens: Experience from Nine Projects, Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Software Engineering 2005, pp524-533, St. Louis, MO, USA, 2005 Mistrík, I.; Grundy, J.; Hoek, A. van der; Whitehead, J. (editors), Collaborative Software Engineering, 2010, ISBN: 978-3-642-10293-6 Olson J S and Olson G M (2003). Culture Surprises in Remote Software Development Teams, ACM Queue. 1, 52-59. Prikladnicki R, Audy J L N, and Evaristo R (2003). Global Software Development in Practice: Lessons Learned, Software Process Improvement and Practice. 8, 267-281. Richardson, Ita, Daniel Paulish and June Verner, "Research Directions for Global Software Engineering – where to next?" Guest Editors’ Introduction, Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution: Research and Practice (forthcoming). Richardson, Ita, Sarah Moore, Alan Malone, Valentine Casey and Dolores Zage, Globalising Software Development in the Local Classroom through Virtual Teams in: – IT Outsourcing: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (4 Volumes), edited by Kirk St.Amant, Business Science Reference, ISBN 978-1-60566-770-6, 2009. – Software Applications: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications (6 Volumes), edited by Pierre F. Tiako, Information Science Reference, ISBN 978-1- 60566-060-8, 2009. – Information Systems and Technology Education: From the University to the Workplace, edited by Rod Turner and Glenn Lowry, IGI Global, pp 82-104, ISBN 978- 1-59904-114-8, 2007. Sangwan, Raghvinder, Neel Mullick, Matthew Bass, Daniel J. Paulish and Juergen Kazmeier, Global software development handbook Auerbach Publications, 2006, isbn-10: 0849393841, isbn-13: 9780849393846RaghvinderNeel MullickMatthew BassDaniel J. PaulishJuergen Kazmeier Sparrow E A, A Guide to Global Sourcing: Offshore Outsourcing and other Global Delivery Models. BCS 2005, ISBN 1-902-50561-1 Sabherwal R (2003). The Evolution of Coordination in Outsourced Software Development Projects: A Comparison of Client and Vendor Perspectives, Information and Organisation. 13, 153-202.
Lero© 2012 43 References Carmel E, Global Software Teams: Collaborating Across Borders and Time Zones. Prentice-Hall 1999, ISBN 0-139-24218-X Casey, Valentine, Software Testing and Global Industry: Future Paradigms, edited by Ita Richardson and Mícheál Ó hAodha, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008, ISBN: 97801-4438-0109-6. Casey, Valentine and Ita Richardson, Uncovering the Reality within Virtual Software Teams, International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE06, Florianopolis, Florianopolis, Brazil, 16-19 October 2006, IEEE Computer Society, CD Proceedings, ISBN 0-7695-2663- 2. Crow, G. and Muthuswamy, B. (2003) International Outsourcing in the Information Technology Industry: Trends and Implications., Communications of the International Information Management Association, 3, 1, 25 - 34. Hayes Ian S., Ready or Not: Global Sourcing is in Your IT Future. Cutter IT Journal, 2002. 15(11): p. 5 - 11. Imsland, Vegar; Sahay, Sundeep- ‘Negotiating Knowledge': The Case of a Russian-Norwegian Software Outsourcing Project, Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems 2005‘Negotiating Knowledge': The Case of a Russian-Norwegian Software Outsourcing Project, Lipnack, J. and Stamp, J. (1997) Virtual Teams: Reaching Across Space, Time And Originating With Technology, John Wiley & Sons. O'Brien, J. A. (2002) Management Information Systems Managing Information Technology in the Business Enterprise, Mc Graw Hill Irwin. Ó Conchúir, E., Holmstrom, H., Ågerfalk, P. J. & Fitzgerald, B. (2006) Exploring the Assumed Benefits of Global Software Development. International Conference on Global Software Engineering (ICGSE). Florianópolis, Brazil. Powell, A., Piccoli, G. and Ives, B. (2004) Virtual Teams: A Review of Current Literature and Direction for Future Research, The DATA BASE for Advances in Information Systems, 35, 1, 6 - 36. Richardson, Ita, Valentine Casey, John Burton, Fergal McCaffery, Global Software Engineering: A Software Process Approach, in Collaborative Software Engineering, edited by Mistrík, I.; Grundy, J.; Hoek, A. van der; Whitehead, J., 2010, ISBN: 978-3-642-10293-6, pp35-56. Rottman, J.W.- Knowledge Transfer within Strategic Alliances, First Information Systems Workshop on Global Sourcing: Val d'Isère, France 13-15 March 2007)Knowledge Transfer within Strategic Alliances Toaff, S. S. (2002) Don't Play with "Mouths of Fire," and Other Lessons of Global Software Development, Cutter IT Journal, 15, 11, 23 - 28. Wieandt, Michaela - The Development of Knowledge Transfer and Collaboration in a Nearshore Software Development Project, First Information Systems Workshop on Global Sourcing: Val d'Isère, France 13-15 March 2007The Development of Knowledge Transfer and Collaboration in a Nearshore Software Development Project
Lero© 2012 Thank You & Questions
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