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The American Civil War 1861–1865 CICERO © 2010
Causes There were many causes for the outbreak of the Civil War. Many people agree slavery was the main cause for the war. In addition, sectional differences led to conflicts. Northern and Southern states were developing different lifestyles and cultures. Differences in the economic life of the North and the South also contributed to the conflict. The North’s economy focused on finance and manufacturing, and the South specialized in crops and agricultural trade. Southern states also began to question the extent of the federal government’s power. CICERO © 2010
How does this painting, Tragic Prelude, represent the debate over slavery prior to the Civil War?
Abolitionist MovementThe Abolitionist Movement was active in Northern and Western states before the Civil War. Abolitionists wanted slaves to be freed. Some abolitionists favored relocating them in Africa. Many, but not all, abolitionists believed African-American slaves should have the same freedoms as their owners. Southern states opposed the abolition of slavery; it was a financial necessity and part of their social structure. The South’s agricultural trade depended on crops produced with slave labor. CICERO © 2010
A Divided Nation Comparing Northern and Southern SocietiesThe South had about nine million people, including about three million slaves. The average Southerner was not as wealthy as the average person living in the North. About 90 percent of American industry and railroads were in the North. Reliance on slave labor discouraged the creation of new jobs in the South. This discouraged immigration, and most immigrants settled in the North. The North’s population was three times that of the South. Most other countries recognized the Union as the government in America. However, Britain and France had friendly relations with the Confederacy and considered aiding the South. The North also was more affluent. CICERO © 2010
The Leaders Jefferson Davis was President of the Confederate States of America. During the Mexican War, he had been an officer in the United States Army. Davis also had served as the United States Secretary of War. When the South surrendered, he was charged with treason and prohibited from running for public office again. Abraham Lincoln was the sixteenth President of the United States. He opposed the expansion of slavery. A Republican, Lincoln led the Union during the Civil War. John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln in Washington, D.C., on April 14, 1865. CICERO © 2010
The Generals Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee William T. ShermanThomas Jackson George Meade James Longstreet George B. McClellan James E.B. Stuart CICERO © 2010
Strategies Anaconda Plan King Cotton CICERO © 2010Union General Winfield Scott suggested the Anaconda Plan to halt Southern trade. The plan would impose a blockade. This would eventually enable the North to control the Mississippi River. Meanwhile, the army would divide and isolate sections of the South and capture its vital cities and the capital in Richmond, Virginia. Under General Ulysses S. Grant, the North’s strategy kept pressure on General Robert E. Lee’s army and constantly weakened their numbers. The larger population of the North made this possible. King Cotton The Confederacy adopted a defensive strategy and attempted to secure alliances with more powerful countries such as Britain and France. To do that, the South needed to show it could win the war. As a result, the Confederate army attacked Union territory to draw Union troops away from the South and to impress potential allies. As the war continued, the Southern strategy became one of evading the Union army, prolonging the war, and inflicting casualties to demoralize the North. CICERO © 2010
Weapons of the Civil Warcanister shot artillery projectile rifled barrel officer’s sword Springfield rifle, (Union) Although the Union used many types of rifles, this was the most common. British Enfield rifle, (Confederacy) Although the Confederacy used many types of rifles, this was the most common. minié ball CICERO © 2010
Uniforms At the beginning of the Civil War, states provided uniforms to soldiers; and the uniforms were in a variety of colors. This led to massive confusion on the battlefield, and often soldiers fired on their own men. As the war continued, both sides chose a single color for their uniforms. The United States of America chose blue, and the Confederate States of America chose gray. CICERO © 2010
Major Battles of the Civil WarCICERO © 2010
Fort Sumter April 12, 1861 South CarolinaThe first shots of the Civil War were fired at Fort Sumter. Major Robert Anderson of the United States Army had moved his troops to the base because he feared a Confederate attack. In the early morning of April 12, 1861, the Confederates launched an attack. Northern troops under Anderson’s command returned fire, but were ineffective. The Confederacy continued its attack with prolonged gunfire, and the Union troops in the fort surrendered a day later. One Confederate soldier and four Union soldiers were killed in the battle. CICERO © 2010
First Bull Run/Manassas July 21, 1861Virginia First Bull Run/Manassas July 21, 1861 The First Battle of Bull Run took place on July 21, General Irvin McDowell led the Union army toward Richmond, Virginia. General P.G.T. Beauregard’s Confederate troops intercepted them. The battle lasted about five hours. Confederate forces began to retreat due to losses, except General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson who continued to fight until reinforcements arrived. The reenergized Confederates pushed McDowell’s forces out of the area. Union casualties were high, almost three thousand; and the Confederates suffered two thousand casualties. CICERO © 2010
Shiloh April 6-7, 1862 TennesseeThe Battle of Shiloh raged from April 6 until April 7, Union troops had found Confederate General Albert Johnston’s forces near Corinth Road, but they were not prepared for an attack. The Southern troops forced them to retreat toward the river. Although the Confederate soldiers had gained ground, they suffered many losses. On the second day the Union army claimed ground in the early morning, throwing off Beauregard’s troops. The Confederacy, however, had an exceptional defense and stopped the Union soldiers before the Confederates retreated. CICERO © 2010
The War at Sea The Battle of the Ironclads also is known as the Battle of Hampton Roads and the Battle of the Monitor and the Merrimack. This battle was fought off Sewell’s Point near Hampton Roads, Virginia. It was the first naval battle between two ironclad ships, the Union’s USS Monitor and the Confederacy’s CSS Virginia, which was rebuilt from the USS Merrimack. The battle took place over two days, and the Virginia destroyed many of the Union’s wooden ships. The next day, the two ironclads clashed at sea, and the Virginia was damaged. Neither side claimed victory in this battle, but the battle revealed the future of naval warfare. Ironclad, steam-driven ships were at a decisive advantage against wooden sailing vessels. CICERO © 2010
Antietam September 17, 1862 MarylandThe Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, was fought on September 16–18, It was a confrontation between Union and Confederate forces under Generals George McClellan and Robert E. Lee. Federal armies brutalized the Confederacy; the combined casualties were more than twenty-three thousand. The Union pushed Lee and his troops back to Antietam Creek, but the stubborn Confederate general counterattacked with all his troops. The two sides fought to a standstill, and both armies withdrew. CICERO © 2010
Fredericksburg December 13, 1862Virginia Fredericksburg December 13, 1862 Fredericksburg was the site of a battle in December Union General Ambrose Burnside led a march on Richmond, but was delayed for more than two weeks because of late-arriving supplies. General Lee positioned his army, deploying snipers to pick off Federal troops. Confederate artillery decimated Union forces in their attempts to capture Marye’s Heights. Many Union soldiers were left in the open after crossing military pontoon bridges, and they became easy prey for Confederate troops. Burnside had no choice but to retreat with the remnants of his army. CICERO © 2010
The Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. It was part of a two-part plan that guaranteed freedom to slaves in the Union and some Confederate states. The Confederate government claimed Lincoln could not issue laws over states in which he had no political control. The first plan, enacted on September 22, 1862, freed slaves in Confederate states that had not yet rejoined the Union. The second part took effect on January 1, 1863, applying to specific states, but not to the border states such as Maryland and West Virginia. CICERO © 2010
Vicksburg May 2-July 9, 1863 MississippiThe lengthy Battle of Vicksburg began in Warren County on May 13, The North and the South considered Vicksburg an important stronghold. Union General Ulysses S. Grant launched massive assaults on Vicksburg and terrorized the inhabitants. Confederates achieved a minimal victory at Milliken’s Bend against untrained black troops. Federal troops pushed Confederate forces back as the size of the Union forces continued to increase. Confederate General John Pemberton surrendered to Grant on July 3, 1863. CICERO © 2010
Pennsylvania Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863 The Battle of Gettysburg began as the Battle of Vicksburg was ending. Confederate General Lee forced federal troops, under General George C. Meade’s command, to lose ground as the Confederate forces attempted to take the city. Lee planned several attacks, including attacks at Peach Orchard and Devil’s Den. The Union army fought back, repelling Confederate attacks and sending them back to Culp’s Hill. Lee was relentless and sent his army back into battle, but to no avail. He eventually began a retreat toward Williamsport. CICERO © 2010
The Gettysburg Address November 19, 1863Abraham Lincoln delivered this famous speech on November 19, 1863, to a crowd gathered at the dedication of Soldier’s National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The speech contains only two hundred seventy-two words, but it is considered one of the greatest speeches in American history. CICERO © 2010
Wilderness May 5-7, 1864 Virginia Union General Grant continued his march to Richmond, Virginia, planning to use three armies to lay siege to the city. He wanted to cut Lee’s food and artillery supply lines and to block a Southern retreat. Grant’s troops encountered Confederate General Richard Ewell’s soldiers. The Union forces outnumbered the Confederate. Because of gunfire and the Wilderness’ dry land, forest fires were sparked. Confederates achieved some success and inflicted Union casualties. Grant refused to retreat and continued his march to Richmond. CICERO © 2010
Cold Harbor May 31-June 12, 1864 VirginiaThe Battle of Cold Harbor lasted from May 31 to June 12, 1864, in Hanover County, Virginia. Union General Philip Sheridan led a successful attack against Confederate troops, which lasted until the Confederacy called reinforcements to the area. Sheridan followed in similar fashion, enlisting the help of General Grant. As in the Battle of Wilderness, Grant battled on, launching his soldiers at the Confederacy. The Grant-led army suffered almost five thousand losses. Grant’s march to Richmond had been thrown off, so now he attempted to regain footing in Petersburg. CICERO © 2010
Sherman’s March to the Sea November 15-December 20, 1864Union General William T. Sherman already had captured Atlanta, but he wanted to leave sixty thousand troops there while he marched the rest of his army to the Atlantic Ocean through Savannah, Georgia. During this time, Confederate General John Hood had led troops in a raid on Tennessee, leaving Sherman’s soldiers to face fewer than five thousand Confederate soldiers. Sherman’s troops burned buildings and infrastructures along the way, destroying many towns and cities. Sherman’s troops defeated the depleted Confederate army and took Savannah on December 22, 1864. As the Union army moved through the South, they destroyed train tracks by heating the rails and bending them into a bow. This became known as “Sherman’s Neckties” CICERO © 2010
Surrender at Appomattox April 9, 1865Virginia Surrender at Appomattox April 9, 1865 General Lee surrendered his Confederate army at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, on April 9, Lee’s army had diminished, which contributed to Union General Grant’s many victories near the end of the war. In a sign of respect, Grant allowed Lee to keep his saber and horse. General Joseph Johnston was the last Confederate general who continued to fight. He still believed that the South could win the war. Johnston’s troops eventually fell to federal troops, and he surrendered to General Sherman on April 26, 1865. CICERO © 2010
Assassination of Lincoln April 14, 1865President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated at the end of the Civil War. He was killed on April 14, 1865, while attending a play at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C., with his wife and two other people. Lincoln was watching Our American Cousin when John Wilkes Booth shot him in the back of the head. Booth was a loyal Confederate, and he thought the Confederacy could triumph if Lincoln were dead. Booth jumped off the balcony and broke his ankle, but managed to escape the theater. Lincoln died of his fatal wound the next morning. CICERO © 2010
The Trial and Execution of the ConspiratorsThe conspirators in the assassination of President Lincoln were Mary Surratt, Lewis Powell, David Herold, George Atzerdot, Michael O’Laughlen, Samuel Arnold, Edman Spangler, and Dr. Samuel Mudd. They were tried in a military tribunal court because the government deemed the nature of the case required the use of this court. A majority vote would result in a guilty verdict, while a two-thirds majority would result in a death sentence. All eight were found guilty. Surratt, Powell, Herold, and Atzerdot were sentenced to death by hanging. O’Laughlen died in prison. President Andrew Johnson pardoned Arnold, Spangler, and Mudd. CICERO © 2010
Legacy of the War The Civil War was the bloodiest war in American history. It has been referred to as “The War Between the States,” “The Brother’s War,” and the “War of Northern Aggression.” More than 600,000 Americans lost their lives, and countless others were wounded severely. The Civil War led to passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth , and Fifteen Amendments to the United States Constitution. These amendments outlawed slavery, granted African Americans United States citizenship, and granted African-American males the right to vote. Although equal treatment under the law for African Americans would not be enforced until almost a hundred years later, the Civil War abolished slavery and established the supremacy of the federal government. CICERO © 2010
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