Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Doc.: IEEE 802.18-04-0030-01-0000 Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 1 Proposal for Part 15.244 Cognitive Radio Operation.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Doc.: IEEE 802.18-04-0030-01-0000 Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 1 Proposal for Part 15.244 Cognitive Radio Operation."— Presentation transcript:

1 doc.: IEEE Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 1 Proposal for Part Cognitive Radio Operation in the TV Band IEEE Radio Regulatory TAG

2 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 2 Outline Introduction TV Band Incumbents Identifying Characteristics of Incumbents Elements of Cognitive Radio Operation Proposed Cognitive Radio Rules Analysis for Personal/Portable Devices –Operating Range of Personal/Portable Devices –Detection of DTV Signals –DFS Sensitivity vs DTV Service Contour Field Strength –Co-Channel Interference Range Margin –Terrain Blocking Analysis for Fixed Devices Wrap Up

3 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 3 Introduction Two Way Radio Range Guidelines Terrain 1/2 Watt FRS Family Radios Motorola TallkAbout FRS 1 Watt UHF GMRS Radios FreeTalk XLS ProTalk XLS FreeTalk XLS ProTalk XLS 2 Watt UHF GMRS Radios FreeTalk XL TK3101 ProTalk TK3100 Motorola TalkAbout Distance FreeTalk XL TK3101 ProTalk TK Watt VHF Radios ProTalk TK Watt MURS ProTalk TK2100 Outside Clear Flat Terrain 1.5 to 2 miles2 to 3 miles3 to 4 miles3 to 5 milesSuburban Neighborhoods1 to 1.5 miles1 to 2 miles1.5 to 2 miles1.5 to 3 milesUrban Areas1/2 to 1 mile1/2 to 1.5 miles1 to 1.5 miles Inside Buildings or Malls1/2 mile or 5 floors 1/2 to 3/4 mile 15 floors 1 mile 20 floors 1/2 mile 10 Floors Between Buildings or Houses1/8 to 1/2 mile1/2 to 1 mile1/2 to 2 miles1 to 3 milesWoodlands, Moderate Vegetation1 to 1.5 miles1 to 2 miles1.5 to 2 miles2 to 3 milesWoodlands, Thick Vegetation1/2 to 1 mile1/2 to 1.5 miles1 to 1.5 miles 1.5 to 2 miles These figures are averages based upon our tests and customer feedback. Your results will vary depending upon obstruction s, elevation, terrain, vegetation and building constructio n. FRS Radios FRS radios like the Motorola TalkAbout use "Family Radio Service" UHF frequencies and do not require a FCC license. FRS radios are required to have a maximum 1/2 watt power output. Their range is normally 1/2 of the GMRS 2 watt radios. GMRS Radios Kenwood FreeTalk XL and the TalkAbout Distance and DPS radios use GMRS - "General Mobile Radio Service" UHF frequencies with 2 watts of output power. Channels on the FreeTalk XL and Motorola Distance and DPS radios are compatible with channels on all Motorola FRS radios. In most circumstances, with the exception of mountainous and ski environments, 2 Kenwood FreeTalk XL radios will talk twice as far as 2 Motorola TalkAbout FRS radios. When used from inside a lodge or condo, because the obstructions, there is usually a significant increase in range using these radios. We have not seen large increases in range when used skiing on the same slope. This has been in situations where the radios have been used from the top of the slope to the bottom with a clear line of sight path. The benefit of the 2 watts of power output shows best when they are used in very thick woodlands or dense steel and/or concrete buildings. The extra power of the Kenwood FreeTalk XL really pays off for campers, hikers, and hunters. 2 Watt UHF Business Radios On site business radios such as the Kenwood ProTalk T3100 or Motorola Spirit use UHF frequencies very similar to UHF GMRS frequencies. Performance of these radios will be identical to the UHF GMRS radios listed above. Kenwood ProTalk TK3100 radios can be dealer programmed for use on commercial UHF repeater systems. 2 Watt VHF Business and MURS Radios VHF frequencies are better suited for outdoor applications requiring maximum coverage areas. The VHF signals penetrate natural foliage and vegetation much better than the higher UHF frequencies. VHF frequencies are more susceptable to man made objects like steel, steel reinforced concrete buildings. In most cases, outdoors in rural environments a 2 watt VHF radio will have 50% more range than a 2 watt UHF radio. Other Factors Many other factors can affect the range of these radios: Terrain - flat land, hills, or mountains Foliage - woodlands, jungle, plains, or urban areas Weather Buildings and Structures Battery Condition The range you can expect will vary depending upon the conditions and terrain you use the radios in. General "Rule of Thumb" for Radio Range All other factors being equal: To achieve twice the range, 4 times the output power is necessary. If the antenna height is tripled then you have the potential to double your range. These concepts are very broad "rules of thumb" and your results may vary. More Kenwood Radio Information TK3101 FreeTalk XLTK3131 FreeTalk XLSTK3100 UHF ProTalkTK3130 ProTalk XLSTK2100 VHF ProTalkAccessoriesFrequencies and Codes FCC Licensing Info On May 13, 2004, the FCC adopted ET Docket No , “Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands” in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM). As written, ET proposes the following two classes of devices under a new rules section, Part : Personal/Portable Devices –100 mW peak transmitter power, 400 mW peak EIRP (6 dBi antenna) –Transmission is permitted only when receiving a control signal indicating which TV channels are vacant from one of the following sources: a TV Broadcast station, an FM Broadcast station, or an unlicensed transmitter Fixed Access Devices –1 W peak transmitter power, 4 W peak EIRP (6 dBi antenna) –Must meet one of the following criteria –Include a GPS receiver and means of determining vacant TV channels in the area –Be installed by professionals to operate only on unused channels.

4 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 4 Introduction Two Way Radio Range Guidelines Terrain 1/2 Watt FRS Family Radios Motorola TallkAbout FRS 1 Watt UHF GMRS Radios FreeTalk XLS ProTalk XLS FreeTalk XLS ProTalk XLS 2 Watt UHF GMRS Radios FreeTalk XL TK3101 ProTalk TK3100 Motorola TalkAbout Distance FreeTalk XL TK3101 ProTalk TK Watt VHF Radios ProTalk TK Watt MURS ProTalk TK2100 Outside Clear Flat Terrain 1.5 to 2 miles2 to 3 miles3 to 4 miles3 to 5 milesSuburban Neighborhoods1 to 1.5 miles1 to 2 miles1.5 to 2 miles1.5 to 3 milesUrban Areas1/2 to 1 mile1/2 to 1.5 miles1 to 1.5 miles Inside Buildings or Malls1/2 mile or 5 floors 1/2 to 3/4 mile 15 floors 1 mile 20 floors 1/2 mile 10 Floors Between Buildings or Houses1/8 to 1/2 mile1/2 to 1 mile1/2 to 2 miles1 to 3 milesWoodlands, Moderate Vegetation1 to 1.5 miles1 to 2 miles1.5 to 2 miles2 to 3 milesWoodlands, Thick Vegetation1/2 to 1 mile1/2 to 1.5 miles1 to 1.5 miles 1.5 to 2 miles These figures are averages based upon our tests and customer feedback. Your results will vary depending upon obstruction s, elevation, terrain, vegetation and building constructio n. FRS Radios FRS radios like the Motorola TalkAbout use "Family Radio Service" UHF frequencies and do not require a FCC license. FRS radios are required to have a maximum 1/2 watt power output. Their range is normally 1/2 of the GMRS 2 watt radios. GMRS Radios Kenwood FreeTalk XL and the TalkAbout Distance and DPS radios use GMRS - "General Mobile Radio Service" UHF frequencies with 2 watts of output power. Channels on the FreeTalk XL and Motorola Distance and DPS radios are compatible with channels on all Motorola FRS radios. In most circumstances, with the exception of mountainous and ski environments, 2 Kenwood FreeTalk XL radios will talk twice as far as 2 Motorola TalkAbout FRS radios. When used from inside a lodge or condo, because the obstructions, there is usually a significant increase in range using these radios. We have not seen large increases in range when used skiing on the same slope. This has been in situations where the radios have been used from the top of the slope to the bottom with a clear line of sight path. The benefit of the 2 watts of power output shows best when they are used in very thick woodlands or dense steel and/or concrete buildings. The extra power of the Kenwood FreeTalk XL really pays off for campers, hikers, and hunters. 2 Watt UHF Business Radios On site business radios such as the Kenwood ProTalk T3100 or Motorola Spirit use UHF frequencies very similar to UHF GMRS frequencies. Performance of these radios will be identical to the UHF GMRS radios listed above. Kenwood ProTalk TK3100 radios can be dealer programmed for use on commercial UHF repeater systems. 2 Watt VHF Business and MURS Radios VHF frequencies are better suited for outdoor applications requiring maximum coverage areas. The VHF signals penetrate natural foliage and vegetation much better than the higher UHF frequencies. VHF frequencies are more susceptable to man made objects like steel, steel reinforced concrete buildings. In most cases, outdoors in rural environments a 2 watt VHF radio will have 50% more range than a 2 watt UHF radio. Other Factors Many other factors can affect the range of these radios: Terrain - flat land, hills, or mountains Foliage - woodlands, jungle, plains, or urban areas Weather Buildings and Structures Battery Condition The range you can expect will vary depending upon the conditions and terrain you use the radios in. General "Rule of Thumb" for Radio Range All other factors being equal: To achieve twice the range, 4 times the output power is necessary. If the antenna height is tripled then you have the potential to double your range. These concepts are very broad "rules of thumb" and your results may vary. More Kenwood Radio Information TK3101 FreeTalk XLTK3131 FreeTalk XLSTK3100 UHF ProTalkTK3130 ProTalk XLSTK2100 VHF ProTalkAccessoriesFrequencies and Codes FCC Licensing Info Although ET seeks comment on the possibility of using spectrum sensing, and other cognitive radio techniques, to identify and avoid TV channels occupied by an incumbent, and select channels for unlicensed operation, the Commission’s proposed rules sections do not permit that approach. This presentation does the following: Proposes a set of rules for an additional class of devices which permit cognitive radio technologies to be used in unlicensed devices operating in the TV band under Part Establishes that devices operating under these rules protect the operations of TV band incumbents based on widely available operational data and supporting analysis.

5 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 5 TV Band Incumbents Two Way Radio Range Guidelines Terrain 1/2 Watt FRS Family Radios Motorola TallkAbout FRS 1 Watt UHF GMRS Radios FreeTalk XLS ProTalk XLS FreeTalk XLS ProTalk XLS 2 Watt UHF GMRS Radios FreeTalk XL TK3101 ProTalk TK3100 Motorola TalkAbout Distance FreeTalk XL TK3101 ProTalk TK Watt VHF Radios ProTalk TK Watt MURS ProTalk TK2100 Outside Clear Flat Terrain 1.5 to 2 miles2 to 3 miles3 to 4 miles3 to 5 milesSuburban Neighborhoods1 to 1.5 miles1 to 2 miles1.5 to 2 miles1.5 to 3 milesUrban Areas1/2 to 1 mile1/2 to 1.5 miles1 to 1.5 miles Inside Buildings or Malls1/2 mile or 5 floors 1/2 to 3/4 mile 15 floors 1 mile 20 floors 1/2 mile 10 Floors Between Buildings or Houses1/8 to 1/2 mile1/2 to 1 mile1/2 to 2 miles1 to 3 milesWoodlands, Moderate Vegetation1 to 1.5 miles1 to 2 miles1.5 to 2 miles2 to 3 milesWoodlands, Thick Vegetation1/2 to 1 mile1/2 to 1.5 miles1 to 1.5 miles 1.5 to 2 miles These figures are averages based upon our tests and customer feedback. Your results will vary depending upon obstruction s, elevation, terrain, vegetation and building constructio n. FRS Radios FRS radios like the Motorola TalkAbout use "Family Radio Service" UHF frequencies and do not require a FCC license. FRS radios are required to have a maximum 1/2 watt power output. Their range is normally 1/2 of the GMRS 2 watt radios. GMRS Radios Kenwood FreeTalk XL and the TalkAbout Distance and DPS radios use GMRS - "General Mobile Radio Service" UHF frequencies with 2 watts of output power. Channels on the FreeTalk XL and Motorola Distance and DPS radios are compatible with channels on all Motorola FRS radios. In most circumstances, with the exception of mountainous and ski environments, 2 Kenwood FreeTalk XL radios will talk twice as far as 2 Motorola TalkAbout FRS radios. When used from inside a lodge or condo, because the obstructions, there is usually a significant increase in range using these radios. We have not seen large increases in range when used skiing on the same slope. This has been in situations where the radios have been used from the top of the slope to the bottom with a clear line of sight path. The benefit of the 2 watts of power output shows best when they are used in very thick woodlands or dense steel and/or concrete buildings. The extra power of the Kenwood FreeTalk XL really pays off for campers, hikers, and hunters. 2 Watt UHF Business Radios On site business radios such as the Kenwood ProTalk T3100 or Motorola Spirit use UHF frequencies very similar to UHF GMRS frequencies. Performance of these radios will be identical to the UHF GMRS radios listed above. Kenwood ProTalk TK3100 radios can be dealer programmed for use on commercial UHF repeater systems. 2 Watt VHF Business and MURS Radios VHF frequencies are better suited for outdoor applications requiring maximum coverage areas. The VHF signals penetrate natural foliage and vegetation much better than the higher UHF frequencies. VHF frequencies are more susceptable to man made objects like steel, steel reinforced concrete buildings. In most cases, outdoors in rural environments a 2 watt VHF radio will have 50% more range than a 2 watt UHF radio. Other Factors Many other factors can affect the range of these radios: Terrain - flat land, hills, or mountains Foliage - woodlands, jungle, plains, or urban areas Weather Buildings and Structures Battery Condition The range you can expect will vary depending upon the conditions and terrain you use the radios in. General "Rule of Thumb" for Radio Range All other factors being equal: To achieve twice the range, 4 times the output power is necessary. If the antenna height is tripled then you have the potential to double your range. These concepts are very broad "rules of thumb" and your results may vary. More Kenwood Radio Information TK3101 FreeTalk XLTK3131 FreeTalk XLSTK3100 UHF ProTalkTK3130 ProTalk XLSTK2100 VHF ProTalkAccessoriesFrequencies and Codes FCC Licensing Info Full Service TV Broadcast Stations (CFR1 Title 47 Part 73). Class A TV Broadcast Stations (CFR Title 47 Part 73 subpart J). LPTV, TV Translator, TV Booster Stations, Auxiliary Operations, and Wireless Microphones (CFR Title 47 Part 74). Private Land Mobile Radio Services (PLMRS) in 13 Metro Areas (CFR Title 47 Part 90), including Public Safety communications systems. Commercial Land Mobile Radio Services (CMRS) in 13 Metro Areas (CFR Title 47 Part 20). Wireless Medical Telemetry Services (WMTS) (CFR Title 47 Part 95 subpart H).

6 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 6 TV Band Incumbent Protection from Cognitive Devices In order to insure that public safety operations are protected, Ch are excluded from the proposed cognitive radio class of operation. Wireless Medical Telemetry Services operate on Ch 37 within the TV band, which is excluded by the Commission’s proposed rules from Part device operations. Wireless microphone operation as a Low Power Auxiliary Station under Part 74 can protected by cognitive techniques, or by rule (assignment to specific channels in each service area, etc). This presentation does not address wireless microphones. Wireless video assist devices are provided for as Low Power Auxiliary Devices in Part 74, but no equipment is presently authorized or licensed for operation. This class of equipment should be considered for termination. The remaining incumbents are TV broadcast signals, which, because of their unique signatures (analog/NTSC, and digital/ATSC), are readily identifiable.

7 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 7 Analog TV (NTSC) Spectrum Power primarily confined to Video and Audio carriers. Distinctive double peaked spectrum makes identification by spectrum profiling relatively easy. Relatively high narrowband power levels compared to DTV.

8 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 8 Digital TV (ATSC) Spectrum Power spread over center 5.38 MHz within a TV channnel. Pilot tone is a distinctive feature when observed in a narrowband receiver. Pilot tone power is 11.3 dB below average power measured in a 6 MHz bandwidth.

9 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 9 Elements of Cognitive Radio Operation (1) 1. Network Frequency Allocation (NFA): –Survey and monitor spectrum use patterns. –Avoid incumbents, operate network on an unused or lightly used channel. 2. Link Power Control (LPC): –Keep network transmitter power low while maintaining good link quality. –LPC mitigates interference and promotes frequency reuse with networks located nearby. 3. Incumbent Profile Detection (IPD): –Detect incumbent users based on specific spectrum signature (supports NFA) –Example: detecting the presence of a sound/video carriers in NTSC (analog TV) systems or a pilot tone in ATSC (DTV) systems. 4.Collision Detection And Avoidance (CDAA): –Transmitters wait until the channel is quiet before transmitting (“listen before talk”). –A receiving node acknowledges valid data by transmitting a response. –A transmitting node “detects” a collision if it does not receive an acknowledgement before a timeout occurs. –The protocol implements an appropriate backoff/retry timing mechanism for retransmission when a collision is detected. 1. Notor, J., Radio Architectures for Unlicensed Reuse of Broadcast TV Channels, Communications Design Conference 2003.

10 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 10 Proposed Cognitive Radio Rules These rules extend the FCC’s proposed rules for Part devices to authorize cognitive radio techniques. Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) threshold: a TV channel shall be considered unoccupied when the electric field strength at the receiving antenna is less than the following averaged for 10 ms over the entire 6 MHz channel. –For Ch 5-6, E(dBu) < -7 dBuV/m/10 kHz –For Ch 7-13, E(dBu) < 1 dBuV/m/10 kHz –For Ch 21-51, excluding Ch 37 E(dBu) < 11 dBuV/m/10 kHz To operate on a channel whose ambient field strength is greater than the DFS threshold, the cognitive device must, using appropriate Incumbent Profile Detection techniques, verify that the channel is not being occupied by either an analog or a digital TV signal. The cognitive radio network shall give priority to operation on empty or lightly occupied channels.

11 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 11 Proposed Cognitive Radio Rules Transmit Power Control (TPC) –Link Power Control protocols must be included in the cognitive radio devices to minimize transmitter power while supporting reliable communications between any transmitter and any single receiver. –The LPC protocol operation shall cause the transmitter in any single node to single node link to begin reducing output power when the signal level at the receiver is greater than 20 dB above the receiver’s nominal sensitivity. –The TPC function shall keep the signal level at the receiver less than 30 dB above the receiver’s nominal sensitivity at least 50% of the time, including the impact of any regular broadcast operations (transmission from a controlling node to all other nodes). Listen Before Talk –The transmitters must operate in burst mode, with a maximum continuous burst length less than 1 second. –Cognitive radio devices must monitor the operational channel periodically to verify that the channel remains unoccupied by an analog or digital TV signal.

12 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 12 Analysis for Personal/Portable Devices The following analyses establishes the performance limits of cognitive radio operation for personal/portable devices: – Expected loss exponent (L.E.) for personal/portable operation. –Detection performance for DTV signals. –DFS sensitivity margin. –Co-channel interference range margin. –Terrain blocking footprint and issues.

13 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 13 Operating Range of Personal/Portable Devices Table 1: Range data based on customer survey information (2) 2. Table provided by Southern Communications and Electronics at the following web site:

14 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 14 Operating Range of Personal/Portable Devices VHF Loss Exponent estimates based on the operational characteristics of MURS radio handsets ( MHz < fc < MHz). –Sensitivity: 0.2 uV at limit of range, or -121 dBm –Antenna Gain: 0 dBi –Tx Power: 2 W (+33 dBm) –Loss to limit of sensitivity: 33 – (-121) = 154 dB. –Loss Exponent (LE) = 154/[10*log(d)], where d is the range in m. Table 2: Anecdotal range data based on Table 1 with loss exponent: Est. Range (m)LEConditions Outdoors, clear flat terrain Suburban outdoor environments Urban outdoor environments Inside shopping mall

15 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 15 Operating Range of Personal/Portable Devices UHF Loss Exponent estimates based on the operational characteristics of FRS radio handsets ( MHz < fc < MHz). –Sensitivity: 0.2 uV at limit of range, or -121 dBm –Antenna Gain: 0 dBi –Tx Power: 500 mW (+27 dBm) –Loss to limit of sensitivity: 27 – (-121) = 148 dB. –Loss Exponent (LE) = 148/[10*log(d)], where d is the range in m. Table 3: Anecdotal range data from various sources with loss exponent: Data SourceEst. Range (m)LEConditions Manufacturers Over water McGuinn Hotel to hotel, 15 th story room to lobby, Disney World Various Normal cluttered outdoor environment Notor9844.9Outdoors in Willow Glen Neighborhood, San Jose, CA Other4025.7Inside shopping mall

16 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 16 Operating Range of Personal/Portable Devices VHF/UHF Loss Exponent (LE) range: Loss exponents by environment: –Clear flat terrain: LE = 4 –Outdoor suburban/urban environment: LE = –Indoor to indoor, 15 th floor hotel room to hotel lobby: LE = 4.4 –Inside shopping mall: Operational experience based on loss exponent analysis tracks well between VHF and UHF portable radios.

17 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 17 Detection of DTV Signals DTV is the limiting case re: DFS/IPD for TV signals. Receiver Assumptions: –CNR: 6 dB is sufficient for detection of a narrowband signal like an ATSC pilot tone. –NF: 5 dB –Antenna Gain: 0 dBi –Predetection Bandwidth: 10 kHz –Post Detection Time Constant: 10 ms –Square Law Detector Sensitivity Calculation (CNR = 6 dB) S = -174 dBm/Hz + 10log(10 kHz) + 5 dB + 6 dB S = -123 dBm

18 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 18 Detection of DTV Signals For a DFS detection threshold of -123 dBm/10 kHz applied to identifying a DTV signal by detecting the pilot tone, the equivalent clear channel DFS threshold for a DTV signal becomes: –DTV DFS = -123 dBm dB = dBm ~ -112 dBm in a 6 MHz bandwidth –-112 dBm is below the thermal noise floor for a 6 MHz bandwidth, i.e. Np = -174 dBm + 10log(6 MHz) = dBm > -112 dBm, but the analysis remains valid, since the pilot tone can be detected in a 10 kHz bandwidth. Assuming a 0 dBi antenna and a 50 Ohm reference impedance, the equivalent DFS threshold in terms of electric field strength in a 6 MHz bandwidth is –E(dBu) = P(dBm) + 20log[f(MHz)] –For Ch 6, E(dBu) = log[85] = 4 dBuV/m –For Ch 13, E(dBu) = 12 dBuV/m –For Ch 51, E(dBu) = 22 dBuV/m

19 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 19 DFS Sensitivity Margin - Personal/Portable Devices The sensitivity margin relative to the minimum in-service DTV field strength for a 30 ft high receive antenna is: –For Ch 6, margin = 28 – 4 = 24 dB –For Ch 13, margin = 36 – 12 = 24 dB –For Ch 51, margin = 41 – 22 = 19 dB For a receiver outdoor antenna height of 2 m (nomadic personal/portable device), reduce the sensitivity margin by a 9 dB correction factor (3). Table 4 (p.19) shows sensitivity margin calculations for various stations in the FCC database, using the FCC calculator at: The DFS detector operating outdoors with an antenna height of 2 m can sense a TV channel outdoors at ranges > 21% farther than the service contour (Table 4) in unobstructed terrain. 3. Mehrotra, A., Cellular Radio Performance Engineering, Artech House, 1994, p146

20 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 20 Table 4: DFS Sensitivity Margin – Personal/Portable Devices 4. The DFS limit is calculated at a 2 m antenna height, assuming a 9 dB loss relative to signal strength at 30 ft (~9 m). So, for Ch 6, DFS Limit =4 dBuV/m + 9 dB =13 dBu. These calculations exclude terrain blockage effects. Service AreaContourDFS (4) DFSRange DTVBandHAATERPLimitRangeLimitRangeMargin Station, LocaleCh(MHz)(m)(kW) (dBu) (km) (dBu) (km) (%) WCFT-TV, Tuscaloosa, AL % KNSO, Merced, CA % KYES, Anchorage, AK % WEDY, New Haven, CT % KMBC-TV, Kansas City, MO % KNTV, San Jose, CA % WDAF-TV,Kansas City, MO % KLCS, Los Angeles, CA % WMSY-TV, Marion, VA % KWDK, Tacoma, WA % WTVX, Fort Pierce, FL % KOPX, Oklahoma City, OK % KDTV, San Francisco, CA %

21 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 21 Co-Channel Interference Range Margin Part Device Tx Operating Parameters: –EIRP: 400 mW, or +26 dBm –E(dBu) = EIRP(dBm) – 20*log(D) = 131 dBu at D = 1 m. –Loss exponent (LE): 4 (lower limit of operational experience for portable devices). DTV Co-channel D/U: 23 dB at the edge of the service area. Maximum allowed co-channel interference field strength at the edge of the service contour (Full service DTV) –Ch 5-6: 28 – 23 = 5 dBu –Ch 7-13: 36 – 23 = 13 dBu –Ch 14-51: 41 – 23 = 18 dBu Interference Range (R), LE = 4, to DTV co-channel D/U = 23 dB limit –Ch 5-6: R = 10 [(131 – 5) / 40] = 1.4 km –Ch 7-13: R = 891 m –Ch 14-51: R = 668 m

22 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 22 Co-Channel Interference Range Margin FCC propagation calculations indicate that a unlicensed spectrum sensing device operating outdoors can sense a DTV signal km outside the service contour of a DTV station, excluding terrain blocking effects. The range of a Part personal/portable device transmitter operating at a +26 dBm EIRP to the field strength limit for an undesired co-channel signal within a service contour is 668 m to 1.4 km. So, DTV services areas are protected by a buffer zone (excluding terrain blockage effects) of greater than 20 km using spectrum sensing techniques.

23 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 23 Co-Channel Interference Range Margin DTV Service Area Edge of Service Contour Limit of DFS Sensing Capability km Cognitive Radio Range to 23 dB D/U Limit R <1.4 km (+26 dBm EIRP, LE = 4)

24 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 24 Terrain Blocking Reduces the available signal level significantly in the blocked area relative to adjacent unblocked areas due to terrain features: mountains, buildings, interior walls. Example terrain blocking losses: –40 dB over an 8 km stretch in Virginia for 50% of the cases, much fewer instances of 40 dB change for smaller geographic segments (5) –37 dB over a ~ 4 km stretch in Boulder, CO (6) (see p24) –27 dB over an ~ 2.4 km stretch (7) in Boulder, CO (see p.25) –10 dB for building shadowing losses, and dB for building penetration losses (8,9) (see p 26). Note: For the data in Table 5, the indoor antenna was placed next to a window on the same side of the building where the outdoor signal strength was measured, which tends to produce more optimistic results than otherwise. Reduces the range margin at the edge of a service contour over that available in an unblocked situation. 5. McHenry & Byrnes, Shared Spectrum Company Comments to FCC ET , p9 6. Holoway, Sanders, & McKenna, NTIA Report , p24 and Figure Holoway, Sanders, & McKenna, NTIA Report , p24 and Figure McHenry & Byrnes, Shared Spectrum Company Comments to FCC ET , p.6 8. Salehian, Khalil, Comparison Between the Field Strength of DTV Signals Inside and Outside of the Buildings, Communications Research Centre Canada.

25 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 25 Geographic Terrain Blocking V/m 1.3 V/m 37 dB ~ 4 km Figure 14 reproduced from Holoway, Sanders, & McKenna, NTIA Report

26 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 26 Geographic Terrain Blocking V/m 1.2 V/m 27 dB ~ 2.4 km Figure 16 reproduced from Holoway, Sanders, & McKenna, NTIA Report

27 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 27 Terrain Blocking By Buildings Site Number Outdoor IndoorFloor #Outdoor 10 m - Outdoor 2m (dB) Outdoor 10 m - Indoor (dB) 10 meters2 meters Average Notes: Min Sites 1-8 are 1-2 story suburban brick homes. Max Site 9 is a tall concrete apartment building. Std Dev Table 5: Outdoor to Indoor Propagation Data (10) (10) Ibid, adapted from the original CRC Canada report, including the addition of the last two columns of analysis.

28 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 28 Terrain Blocking Mitigation Limit transmit power of personal/portable devices. –At +26 dBm EIRP, the range of personal/portable devices to the co-channel D/U threshold is < 1.4 km on Ch 5-6, < 900 m on higher frequency channels, i.e., less than the expected shadow footprint (see p.28). –Using TPC reduces the interference range by reducing network aggregate transmitter power. –Burst mode operation reduces the impact of transmissions to DTV operation relative to the assumption of continuous operation built into the D/U regulatory limits. Require all devices to include DFS/IPD capability, not just access points –If all devices include DFS/IPD capability, the spectrum sensing footprint is increased, reducing the probability that an occupied channel will go undetected. –Avoids the possibility of a shadowed master control device accidentally trying to set up the network co-channel with a TV broadcast incumbent.

29 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 29 Co-Channel Interference in Blocked Terrain DTV Service Area Edge of Service Contour Cognitive Radio Range to 23 dB D/U 668 m < R <1.4 km at +26 dBm EIRP LbLb Shadow Depth (dB)L b (km) Terrain Shadow

30 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 30 Analysis for Fixed Devices The following analyses establishes the performance limits of cognitive radio operation for fixed devices: –DFS sensitivity margin. –Co-channel interference range margin. –Terrain blocking footprint and issues.

31 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 31 DFS Sensitivity Margin – Fixed Devices The sensitivity margin relative to the minimum in-service DTV field strength for a 30 ft high receive antenna is: –For Ch 6, margin = 28 – 4 = 24 dB –For Ch 13, margin = 36 – 12 = 24 dB –For Ch 51, margin = 41 – 22 = 19 dB Table 6 (p.32) shows sensitivity margin calculations for various stations in the FCC database, using the FCC calculator at: The DFS detector operating outdoors with an antenna height of 30 ft (~9 m) can sense a TV channel outdoors at ranges > 46% farther than the service contour (Table 6) in unobstructed terrain.

32 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 32 Table 6: DFS Sensitivity Margin – Fixed Devices Service DFS AreaContourDFSDFS 11,12 Range DTVBandHAATERPLimitRangeLimitRangeMargin Station, LocaleCh(MHz)(m)(kW) (dBu) (km) (dBu) (km) (%) WCFT-TV, Tuscaloosa, AL % KNSO, Merced, CA % KYES, Anchorage, AK % WEDY, New Haven, CT % KMBC-TV, Kansas City, MO % KNTV, San Jose, CA % WDAF-TV,Kansas City, MO % KLCS, Los Angeles, CA % WMSY-TV, Marion, VA % KWDK, Tacoma, WA % WTVX, Fort Pierce, FL % KOPX, Oklahoma City, OK % KDTV, San Francisco, CA % 11. The FCC calculator won't accept E field levels less than 10 dBu, so for channels 5, 6, 10 dBu was used for the calculation of range. 12. DFS Range assumes a 30 ft receiver antenna height for the fixed antenna.

33 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 33 Interference Range Margin – Fixed Devices Range to D/U TV D/URequiredD/U limitDFSRange ChannelCenter 1 mE limitLossITMRangeMargin (MHz)(dBu) (dB)(km) Table 7: Interference Range Margin Table 7 shows the interference range margin for 23 dB D/U, assuming 30 m base station antenna height and 9 m client antenna height. The interference range margin is 58 – 213 km (see p34).

34 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 34 Co-Channel Interference Range Margin DTV Service Area Edge of Service Contour Limit of DFS Sensing Capability km Cognitive Radio Range to 23 dB D/U Limit R < 31 km (+36 dBm EIRP)

35 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 35 Wrap Up Based on the proposed rules, the operational data, and the analysis presented herein, cognitive devices using spectrum sensing techniques can reliably operate in the TV band without causing interference to TV broadcast channels. The cognitive radio mode of operation is proposed as an addition to the rules for Part devices already proposed by the FCC in the TV Band NPRM. The application of cognitive radio technology to TV band unlicensed operation is an important step in realizing the full potential for a wide range of centralized and distributed networks utilizing otherwise unoccupied spectrum.

36 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 36 Acknowledgements The following organizations and individuals were immensely helpful in preparing this presentation: –The Berkeley Wireless Research Center, especially –Professor Robert W. Brodersen –Gary Kelson –Danielja Cabric’ –The Communications Research Centre Canada, especially –Gerald Chouinard –David Rogers –Khalil Salehian –Intel Corporation, especially –Jeffrey Schiffer –Alan E. Waltho

37 doc.: IEEE xxxx Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 37 Acknowledgements –Shared Spectrum Corporation, especially –Mark McHenry –William Byrnes –Professor Adam Wolisz, Technische Universitat Berlin –Michael Lynch, Nortel –Denis Kuwahara, Boeing


Download ppt "Doc.: IEEE 802.18-04-0030-01-0000 Submission July 2004 John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Slide 1 Proposal for Part 15.244 Cognitive Radio Operation."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google