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+ WELCOME! TISP: Uruguay 9–10 May 2009. + Sort It Out Critical Load Pulleys and Force Ship the Chip Christopher Lester Yvonne Pelham Moshe Kam D.G. Gorham.

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Presentation on theme: "+ WELCOME! TISP: Uruguay 9–10 May 2009. + Sort It Out Critical Load Pulleys and Force Ship the Chip Christopher Lester Yvonne Pelham Moshe Kam D.G. Gorham."— Presentation transcript:

1 + WELCOME! TISP: Uruguay 9–10 May 2009

2 + Sort It Out Critical Load Pulleys and Force Ship the Chip Christopher Lester Yvonne Pelham Moshe Kam D.G. Gorham TISP: Uruguay 9–10 May 2009

3 + Welcome 3

4 + Package design and the engineering behind shipping products safely Exercise 1: Ship The Chip

5 + Ship the Chip Learn about engineering product planning and design Learn about meeting the needs of the customer and society Learn about teamwork and cooperation Objectives 5

6 + Ship the Chip Manufacturing Engineering Package design, manufacture and test Material properties and selection Real world application of mathematics Teamwork 6 Students will learn…

7 + Ship the Chip Design a package that will securely hold a potato chip and protect it from breaking when dropped Construct the lightest package to get the highest score Overall score based on: Weight of the package Volume of the package Intactness Score 7 The Challenge

8 + Ship the Chip 1. Sketch a design on the worksheet Label your worksheet with Table # and Team Name 2. Construct a model of your package 3. At a test station, drop the package from a height of 1.5 meters 4. Open your package and examine the chip 5. Calculate and record your score 6. Using a second kit, redesign and construct a new package Record the second design on the worksheet 7. Label your package with Table # and Team Name 8. Submit your worksheet and package to the Test Team for overnight testing 8 Procedure

9 + Ship the Chip Cardboard – 22 cm x 28 cm 10 Craft sticks 6 Cotton Balls String – 91 cm Plastic wrap – 1 sheet of 22 cm x 28 cm 10 Toothpicks Foil – 1 sheet of 22 cm x 28 cm Paper – 1 sheet of 22 cm x 28 cm 1 Mailing label 1 Potato Chip 9 Materials

10 + Ship the Chip Scissors Pencils/Pens Rulers Digital Scale Marking pen Calculator Clear Adhesive Tape Masking Tape 10 Tools and Accessories

11 + Intactness score : 100: like new, perfect 50 : slightly damaged; cracked but still in one piece 25 : broken in pieces 5 : broken in 6-20 pieces 1 : broken into more than 20 pieces; crumbled 11 Ship the Chip Scoring

12 + Ship the Chip We will imbed the package in the smallest-volume rectangular prism that contains it We will calculate the volume of the prism; Width x Length x Height For example : 3cm x 4cm x12cm =144 cm 3 in the prism shown below If your package weighed 100g and had a volume of 800 cm 3 and the chip has arrived broken in 3 pieces: 12 Calculating Volume

13 + Ship the Chip 1. Sketch a design on the worksheet Label your worksheet with Table # and Team Name 2. Construct a model of your package 3. At a test station, drop the package from a height of 1.5 meters 4. Open your package and examine the chip 5. Calculate and record your score 6. Using a second kit, redesign and construct a new package Record the second design on the worksheet 7. Label your package with Table # and Team Name 8. Submit your worksheet and package to the Test Team for overnight testing 13 Procedure

14 + The engineering behind industrial sorting processes Exercise 2: Sort It Out!

15 + Safety First!! This experiment uses scissors and box cutters! Please be slow, concentrated, and careful when using them 15

16 + Sort It Out Learn about engineering of systems and about measurements Learn about sorting mechanisms Get an introduction to Performance Indices and measures of errors Learn about teamwork and cooperation Objectives 16

17 + Sort It Out Sorting through History Miners panning for gold Quality control in food and other industries Bottle sorting for recycling 17

18 + Sort It Out Different Types of Sorting Lighting Digital I/O & Network Connection Frame Grabber Part Sensor Camera & PC platform Inspection software Optics Image Processing for the operation of Casinos: Off-the-shelf cameras, frame grabbers, and image-processing software used to develop a casino-coin sorting system 18

19 + Sort It Out Different Types of Sorting Material Properties of Coin: Current run through left coil, creates magnetic field Magnetic field passes through and is attenuated by coin Right coil receives magnetic field, creates measurable current with different value depending on the coin Coin in Center Transverse line represents direction of magnetic field 19

20 + Mixed coins come from a variety of sources and must be sorted out before they can be redistributed Coins from vending machines Coins from parking meters Also helpful to identify fake or foreign coins Sort It Out Why Coin Sorting is Needed 20

21 + Mixed coins are Sorted Rolled Re-circulated through banks and businesses Sort It Out Why Coin Sorting is Needed 21

22 + Groups of 2 You are a team of engineers hired by a bank to develop a machine to sort coins that are brought in by customers. Must mechanically sort 16 mixed coins into separate containers. In our experiment we use washers: ½ Inch 1 Inch 1¼ Inch 1½ Inch Sort It Out Your Turn 22 You will make TWO designs today

23 + Sort It Out! Parallel Sorter 23 Input Sorting Mechanism Output ½” 1” ½” 1” 1½” 1½” 1¼” 1¼”

24 + Sort It Out! Parallel Sorter 24 Input Sorting Mechanism Output

25 + Sort It Out! Serial Sorter 25 Input Output Sorting Mechanism

26 + Sort It Out How good is it? 1: “Distance” performance index: A washer that does not get sorted has maximum D error = 3 Performance Index 1: “Distance Index” ½in 1in 1¼in 1½in 1 Distance from correct bin here, D error = 2 bins ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ 1½ 1¼ ½

27 + Sort It Out How good is it? 2: “Percentage” performance index: Performance Index 2: “Percentage Index” 27 ½in 1in 1¼in 1½in ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ 1½ 1¼ ½ # of washers incorrectly identified Total # of washers to sort40 5%

28 Sort It Out! Table Number: Type of SorterSerial Team Name: Parallel # of this type inContainer for this size washer: Total washers sorted: 16 each container1/2"1"1 1/4"1 1/2" 1/2": Number left unsorted: 1": Distance Index: 1 1/4": 1 1/2": Percentage Index:

29 Sort It Out! Table Number: 16 Type of SorterSerial Team Name: The Perfect Group Parallel # of this type inContainer for this size washer: Total washers sorted: 16 each container1/2"1"1 1/4"1 1/2" 1/2": 4 Number left unsorted: 0 1": 4 Distance Index: 1 1/4": 4 1 1/2": 4 Percentage Index: 0 0%

30 Sort It Out! Distance Performance Index sqrt( 0x x x3 2 ) = 0 A Perfect Score! Remember: Lower is better Percentage Performance Index ( 0 / 16 ) x 100 = 0% Another Perfect Score!

31 Sort It Out! Table Number: 16 Type of SorterSerial Team Name: Not That Perfect Parallel # of this type inContainer for this size washer: Total washers sorted: 16 each container1/2"1"1 1/4"1 1/2" 1/2": 4 Number left unsorted: 0 1": 4 Distance Index: 1 1/4": 4 1 1/2": 1 3 Percentage Index: %

32 Sort It Out! Distance Performance Index sqrt( 1x x x3 2 ) = 1 A Less Than Perfect Score! Remember: Lower is better Percentage Performance Index ( 1 / 16 ) x 100 = 6.25% A Less Than Perfect Score!

33 Sort It Out! Table Number: 16 Type of SorterSerial Team Name: The Truly Miserable Parallel # of this type inContainer for this size washer: Total washers sorted: 16 each container1/2"1"1 1/4"1 1/2" 1/2": Number left unsorted: 2 1": 4 Distance Index: 1 1/4": 4 1 1/2": 2 Percentage Index: %

34 Sort It Out! Distance Performance Index sqrt( 1x x x x x3 2 ) = 6.16 Much higher score, much lower performance Remember: Lower is better Percentage Performance Index ( 9 / 16 ) x 100 = 56.25% Again, much lower performance 1/2": Number left unsorted: 2 1": 4 Distance Index: /4": 4 1 1/2": 2 Percentage Index: 56%

35 + Materials: glue, tape, paper or plastic plates, cardboard, scissors or hole punch, foil, paper, cardboard tubes washers Design (draw) a mechanical sorter that can separate the ½in, 1in, 1¼in, 1½in washers Input: either Parallel – all 16 washers are inserted at start of your sorter together; or Serial – 16 washers are inserted at start of your sorter one at a time Output: Each size of washer in its own physical container or surface Sort It Out Your Turn 35 Mechanical “shaking” of your device is allowed as part of its operation

36 + Sort It Out You will have 45 seconds to allow your sorter to operate Predict the value of the two performance indices for your design Construct your sorting mechanism Test it! Can you do better? Your Turn 36 Mechanical “shaking” of your device is allowed as part of its operation You will make TWO designs today: one PARALLEL and one SERIAL

37 + Sort It Out Did your sorting mechanism work? If not, why did it fail? What were your performance index values? What levels of error would be acceptable in: Medical Equipment manufacturing? Nail manufacturing? What redesigns were necessary when you went to construct your design? Why? Conclusion 37

38 + All about force and how pulleys can help reduce it Exercise 3: Pulleys & Force

39 + Learn about pulleys and pulley systems Learn how using multiple pulleys can dramatically reduce required force Learn how pulley systems are used in machines and impact everyday life Learn about teamwork and problem solving in groups Objectives 39

40 + 40 Fixed PulleyMovable Pulley Pulleys & Force Basics of Pulleys: Two orientations

41 + The tension in the rope, T, is always the same everywhere Fixed pulley allows for change in direction of applied force Sum of the forces: vertically 2 T = 100 N T = 50 N 41 Compound Pulley Pulleys & Force Basics of Pulleys

42 + Pulleys & Force Mechanical Advantage Mechanical Advantage (MA) is the factor by which a mechanism multiplies the force or torque put into it. Ideal MA: Actual MA: 42 This movable pulley system has a mechanical advantage of 2

43 + Work is the amount of energy transferred by a force acting through a distance Work = Force x Distance Work = Force x Distance A bigger mechanical advantage decreases the force required, but increases the distance over which it must be applied The total amount of work required to move the load stays the same 43 Pulleys & Force Work

44 + The ratio between Actual and Ideal mechanical advantage is Efficiency Frictionless system = 100% Efficiency 44 Pulleys & Force Efficiency

45 + Pulleys have long been used on sailing ships to handle the rigging and move the sails Even with large mechanical advantages, it still takes many people to do the work! Pulleys & Force Pulleys in the World 45

46 + Pulleys are used in elevators to change the direction of the tension in the cable, reduce power required of lift motor Pulleys & Force Pulleys in the World 46

47 + Industrial cranes lift large loads for construction and transportation Pulleys & Force Pulleys in the World 47

48 + Pulleys & Force Measuring Tension Spring Scale Calibrate: Hold spring scale at eye-level and turn adjustment screw until the internal indicator is precisely aligned with the top zero line Measure: Create a loop in the end of the rope you want to measure tension in; attach spring scale to loop. Hold the spring scale steady and read off the tension measurement. 48

49 + Groups of 2 Develop 2 systems to lift a filled soda bottle 10cm with 1 pulley 2 pulleys Build your systems Measure the distance the soda bottle moves and compare it to the distance you had to pull What is the actual mechanical advantage? Measure the force you must exert on the string and compare it to the force that is finally transmitted to the soda bottle What is the ideal mechanical advantage? Calculate the efficiency of each system Pulleys & Force Your Turn 49

50 + Now join with one other group at your table Develop 2 different systems to lift a filled soda bottle 10cm with all 4 pulleys Build both systems What are their actual mechanical advantages? Ideal? Which one has a better efficiency? Why do think that is? Pulleys & Force Your Turn 50

51 + Pulleys & Force Which system required the least amount of force to lift the bottle? How did this system rank in its mechanical advantage? Do you think the size of the pulley makes a difference in the ideal mechanical advantage? Actual? How could you further increase the efficiency of your most efficient pulley system design? What other engineering problems were solved with pulleys or pulley systems? Conclusion 51

52 + Spring Scale 52

53 + End of Saturday Exercises 53

54 + TISP: Uruguay Sunday, 10 May

55 + Structural engineering and how to reinforce the design of a structure to hold more weight. Exercise 4: Critical Load

56 + Learn about civil engineering and the testing of building structure Learn about efficiency ratings and critical load Learn about teamwork and the engineering problem solving Objectives 56

57 + Millau Viaduct Millau, France World’s Tallest Bridge 2460m long 434m pylon height 270m road height December, 2004 Critical Load Great Structures of the World 57

58 + Yokohama Landmark Tower Yokohama, Japan Japan’s Tallest Office Building 296m tall 70 floors including office and hotel July, 1993 Critical Load Great Structures of the World 58

59 + Beijing National Stadium – “Bird’s Nest” World’s Largest Steel Structure 258,000 square meters 5 years to construct 110,000 tons of steel used in construction 3,000,000 cubic meters Opened June, 2008 Critical Load Great Structures of the World 59

60 + Crystal Cathedral Garden Grove, California, USA World’s Largest Glass Building 12 stories tall 12,000+ panes of glass 16,000-pipe organ Opened 1980 Critical Load Great Structures of the World 60

61 + Skyscraper of Cards 2007 World Record House of Cards Over 7.5 meters tall No glue or tape; just cards Built by Bryan Berg in 2007 Critical Load Great Card Structures of the World 61

62 + Bryan Berg at Work A “cardstacker” from Santa Fe, NM, USA 62

63 + Force is placed on a structure Structure can support up to a certain force created by the weight At a certain point, the structure will fail, breaking The maximum force the structure can sustain before failure is known as the “Critical Load” Critical Load What is Critical Load? Force 63

64 + Critical Load A high critical load is not the only parameter to consider Is the best bridge made by filling a canyon with concrete? It certainly would have a high critical load! Consider also the weight of the structure Lighter is better, given the same critical load These two parameters are combined in an “Efficiency Rating”: Efficiency 64

65 + Groups of 2 Up to 12 cards + 1m tape Devise a plan to build a load bearing structure Should have a flat top Support load with base area of 10 x 10cm at least 8 cm above the table No altering of cards allowed – just tape! No wrap-ups of tape Tape is used to connect cards only Critical Load Your Turn 65

66 + FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS STRUCTURE NEEDS TO BE CONNECTED BENDING OF CARDS IS ALLOWED CUTTING OF CARDS IS NOT ALLWOED YOU CAN ATTACH SEVERAL CARDS TOGETHER TO MAKE A THICKER CARD THE TOP OF THE STRUCTURE SHOULD ALLOW FOR A LOAD WITH 10X10CM BASE HEIGHT SHOULD BE AT LEAST 8CM 66

67 + Example: Supports load Load is at least 8cm above table Cards failed after load of 2.4kg Structure made with 4 cards Efficiency rating: 2.4 kg / 4 cards = 0.6 kg/card Critical Load Your Turn cm height

68 + Critical Load Your efficiency rating: [Load at Failure] / [# of cards used] Predict what the rating of your design will be Build your design Test it! Discuss improvements, then repeat exercise for a second design Your Turn 68

69 + Critical Load What was your efficiency rating? How close were you to your prediction? How was your design different from the best design? How would you change your design? Why? What other factors would you need to take into consideration if your Card House were a real office building? Conclusion 69

70 + End of Sunday Exercises 70


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