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Session 5 – Science of Creation

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1 Session 5 – Science of Creation
Creation (what the Bible says) Theophanies and who created the world? How old is the world/life? Carbon -14 Radiometric dating (rocks) According to the Bible Evolution (what the world says) Origins of Life Problems with Theory of Evolution Resources for further study: Expelled – Ben Stein movie Answers in Genesis Institute for Creation Research Our Perfect Planet Article Apologetics Session 5 – Science of Creation

2 Who appeared? John 1:18, “No man has seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He has declared Him.” John 14:8-9, “Philip saith unto him, ‘Lord, show us the Father, and it is sufficient for us.’ Jesus said to him, ‘Have I been with you so long, and yet you have not known Me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father; so how can you say, Show us the Father?’” 1 Timothy 6:16, "who alone possesses immortality and dwells in unapproachable light; whom no man has seen or can see. To Him {be} honor and eternal dominion! Amen." (cf. 1 Timothy 1:17)

3 When did Jesus exist? John 8:58 “Jesus said to them, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was born, I am.’” John 17:5 “And now, O Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world was.” (Implies eternity before the beginning) John 3:13 “No one has ascended into heaven, but He who descended from heaven: the Son of Man.” John 6:62 “What then if you see the Son of Man ascending to where He was before?” (cf. Acts 1:9-10)

4 Jesus the Creator Colossians 1:15-17 "He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. For by Him all things were created, {both} in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities – all things have been created by Him and for Him. And He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together.“ John 1:1-3 "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being.“ Hebrews 1:2 "in these last days {God} has spoken to us in {His} Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the world."

5 OT – Eternal Messiah Micah 5:2 "But as for you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, {Too} little to be among the clans of Judah, From you One will go forth for Me to be ruler in Israel. His goings forth are from long ago, From the days of eternity.“ Isaiah 9:6 "For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; And the government will rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace."

6 Theophanies The Angel of the Lord appeared twice to Hagar (Genesis 16:7-14; Genesis 21:17-18), once to Abraham (Genesis 22:11-13) Balaam (Numbers 22:22-35), Gideon (Judges 6:11-22), Manoah and his wife (Judges 13:3-22). He was present at the judgment on Israel after David's numbering of the people (2 Samuel 24:16), He was the agent of destruction to Sennacherib's army (2 Kings 19:35-36; Isaiah 37:36-37). In a vision, Zechariah saw Him as judging between Joshua the high priest of Israel and Satan their accuser (Zechariah 3:1), the One who intervened on behalf of Israel's restoration after their seventy years of captivity (Zechariah 1:12). The Psalmist referred to Him as the deliverer of His people and the antagonist of their enemies (Psalm 34:7; 35:5-6). Joshua and the Battle of Jericho Moses? Burning Bush? Garden of Eden?

7 What does the Bible Say? God created in six days “Yom” Evening and Morning first Day “Yom” always means “day” (1,000 times) Exodus 20:9–11 blocks all attempts to fit millions of years into Genesis 1 “For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day. Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it.” The genealogies of Genesis 5 and 11 make it clear that the creation days happened only about 6,000 years ago

8 Satan, Did God really say?
Debate, at one time, wasn’t if it was millions of years, but why it took 6 days, not 1

9 Intelligent Design v. Evolution?
The fool has said in his heart, "There is no God.“ Psalm 14:1; 53:1 Almost every scientist now believes our Universe had a beginning. Beginning = Creation = Creator/God = We aren’t God (pride blow) = Rules? Where did everything come from? What caused everything to advance? “After his kind” – 17 times Genesis 1:11, 12, 21, 24, 25; 6:20; 7:14 Using radioactive dating, scientists have determined that the Earth is about 4.5 billion years old, ancient enough for all species to have been formed through evolution. Biology: Visualizing Life, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Austin, Texas, 1998, 177. The earth is now regarded as between 4.5 and 4.6 billion years old C. Plummer, D. Carlson, and D. McGeary, Physical Geology, McGraw Hill, New York, 2006, 216. Evolution (if possible) would require infinite amounts of time Extraterrestrial option now growing in popularity Evolution cannot be proven or disproven by the technology of the culture, and lacks characteristics of a scientific theory (which is testable and falsifiable)

10 Origins of Life: Spontaneous Generation History
In 1668, Francesco Redi challenged the idea that maggots arose spontaneously from rotting meat. In 1745, John Needham performed a series of experiments on boiled broths. Believing that boiling would kill all living things, he showed that when sealed right after boiling, the broths would cloud, allowing the belief in spontaneous generation to persist. Louis Pasteur's 1859 experiment put the question to rest. He boiled a meat broth in a flask that had a long neck which curved downward, like a goose. The idea being that the bend in the neck prevented any particles from reaching the broth, while still allowing the free flow of air. The flask remained free of growth for an extended period. When the flask was turned so that particles could fall down the bends, the broth became quickly clouded.

11 Origins of Life: Spontaneous Generation History
So with animals, some spring from parent animals according to their kind, whilst others grow spontaneously and not from kindred stock; and of these instances of spontaneous generation some come from putrefying earth or vegetable matter, as is the case with a number of insects, while others are spontaneously generated in the inside of animals out of the secretions of their several organs —Aristotle, History of Animals, Book V, Part 1 Shakespeare discusses snakes and crocodiles forming from the mud of the Nile (Ant 2.7 F1) Spontaneous generation or equivocal generation is an obsolete principle regarding the origin of life from inanimate matter It is generally accepted to have been ultimately disproven in the 19th century by the experiments of Louis Pasteur, expanding upon the experiments of other scientists before him. However, the question of abiogenesis, how living things originally arose from non-living material, remains relevant today. (how biological life could arise from inorganic matter through natural processes.)

12 Primordial Soup No geological evidence has ever been found for a primordial soup1 —and scientists speculate that if it ever did exist, it would have dissipated quickly 2—leaving scant time for life to appear. The only experimental evidence cited in 80+ years for a primordial soup is the Miller-Urey experiment in 1953, which demonstrated that elementary amino acids (building blocks of protein) could form spontaneously in what was assumed to be the atmosphere of the primordial Earth. Biology textbooks feature this experiment; but modern science believes the simulated atmosphere in the Miller-Urey experiment was incorrect.3 Similar experiments with a more realistic atmosphere have not been as successful (and/or have utilized so much operator interference that their validity is questioned).4 More recent experiments by chemists Jeffrey Bada and Jim Cleaves at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (in La Jolla, CA) were similar to those performed by Miller. However, Bada noted that in current models of early Earth conditions, carbon dioxide and nitrogen (N2) create nitrites, which destroy amino acids as fast as they form.

13 Problem with Evolution - Complexity
“The design of living things has always been a huge problem for evolutionists. Even the simplest single-cell organism is unimaginably complex, with scores of highly sophisticated parts, all performing important functions and all mutually interdependent. The laws of statistics have convinced all who have bothered to calculate the odds that even something as basic as a protein molecule could never arise by chance, consisting as it does of a chain of hundreds of precisely arranged amino acids.” Reproduction with male/female, fire farting beetle, diversity of species (why not just one microbe), the simple sell ain’t simple, Human genome has more info than any computer can hold, etc.

14 How Carbon 14 works (Living)
Carbon 14 works for once living organisms and diamonds, not rocks. Once a living thing dies, the dating process begins. As long as an organism is alive it will continue to take in C14; however, when it dies, it will stop. Since C14 is radioactive (decays into N14), the amount of C14 in a dead organism gets less and less over time. Carbon-14 dating is a way of determining the age of certain archeological artifacts of a biological origin up to about 50,000 years old. The use of carbon-14 dating is often misunderstood. Carbon-14 is mostly used to date once-living things (organic material). It cannot be used directly to date rocks; however, it can potentially be used to put time constraints on some inorganic material such as diamonds (diamonds could contain carbon-14). Because of the rapid rate of decay of 14C, it can only give dates in the thousands-of-year range and not millions. C14 N14 N14 C14 N14 N14 50% N14, 50% C14 6K old 75% N14, 25% C14 12K old 87% N14, 13% C14 18K old 100% N14, 0% C14 100K old C14

15 Difficulties with Carbon 14
In order to actually do the dating, other things need to be known. Three such things include the following questions: How fast does C14 decay? (known) What was the starting amount of C14 in the creature when it died? (assumption) Has the ratio of C14 to C12 in the atmosphere always been the same as it is today? (wrong assumption) A critical assumption used in carbon-14 dating has to do with this ratio. It is assumed that the ratio of 14C to 12C in the atmosphere has always been the same as it is today (1 to 1 trillion). If this assumption is true, then the AMS 14C dating method is valid up to about 80,000 years. Beyond this number, the instruments scientists use would not be able to detect enough remaining 14C to be useful in age estimates. This is a critical assumption in the dating process. If this assumption is not true, then the method will give incorrect dates. What could cause this ratio to change? If the production rate of 14C in the atmosphere is not equal to the removal rate (mostly through decay), this ratio will change. In other words, the amount of 14C being produced in the atmosphere must equal the amount being removed to be in a steady state (also called “equilibrium”). If this is not true, the ratio of 14C to 12C is not a constant, which would make knowing the starting amount of 14C in a specimen difficult or impossible to accurately determine. Dr. Willard Libby, the founder of the carbon-14 dating method, assumed this ratio to be constant. His reasoning was based on a belief in evolution, which assumes the earth must be billions of years old. Assumptions in the scientific community are extremely important. If the starting assumption is false, all the calculations based on that assumption might be correct but still give a wrong conclusion. Dr. Libby chose to ignore this discrepancy (nonequilibrium state), and he attributed it to experimental error. However, the discrepancy has turned out to be very real. The ratio of 14C /12C is not constant. The Specific Production Rate (SPR) of C-14 is known to be 18.8 atoms per gram of total carbon per minute. The Specific Decay Rate (SDR) is known to be only 16.1 disintegrations per gram per minute.3 What does this mean? If it takes about 30,000 years to reach equilibrium and 14C is still out of equilibrium, then maybe the earth is not very old.

16 Radioisotope dating (Non-Living)
Three critical assumptions can affect the results during radioisotope dating: The initial conditions of the rock sample are accurately known. (How much sand was in the hour glass?) The amount of parent or daughter elements in a sample has not been altered by processes other than radioactive decay. (Has any sand been taken out of the hourglass?) The decay rate (or half-life) of the parent isotope has remained constant since the rock was formed. (Does the sand always fall at a constant rate?) Ice Water analogy

17 Errors A rock sample from the newly formed 1986 lava dome from Mount St. Helens was dated using Potassium-Argon dating. The newly formed rock gave ages for the different minerals in it of between 0.5 and 2.8 million years.4 These dates show that significant argon (daughter element) was present when the rock solidified (assumption 1 is false). Mount Ngauruhoe is located on the North Island of New Zealand and is one of the country’s most active volcanoes. Eleven samples were taken from solidified lava and dated. These rocks are known to have formed from eruptions in 1949, 1954, and The rock samples were sent to a respected commercial laboratory (Geochron Laboratories in Cambridge, Massachusetts). The “ages” of the rocks ranged from 0.27 to 3.5 million years old.5 Because these rocks are known to be less than 70 years old, it is apparent that assumption #1 is again false. Note: Was the Earth created Aged? Was Adam created as a baby?

18 More Problems… The decay rates have been different in the past than they are today? Assumption 3

19 Many Earth Clocks Indicate Recent Creation
Diamonds and Strata Have Too Much Carbon 14 Natural diamonds are believed to have been formed deep underground in the upper mantle of the earth’s crust. Under extreme temperature and pressure, pure carbon is formed into the diamond’s crystalline form. Over time, the diamond is moved upwards by rising magma. Natural diamonds are commonly believed to have been formed millions of years ago. If the rate carbon 14 decays has been consistent, any carbon 14 older than 100,000 years is undetectable by current measuring techniques. But carbon 14 has been measured within natural diamonds. Either the decay rate of carbon 14 is not uniform, the diamonds are younger than believed, or both. Carbon 14 in diamonds is evidence that the earth is thousands of years old, not millions. Minerals Have Too Much Helium The shiny black specks in granite are mica. Within mica are natural zircon crystals, only a few microns in size. Helium quickly diffuses out of zircon. If the granite is millions of years old, as commonly believed, all the helium should be gone. However, measurements indicate that much of the helium still remains. Either the diffusion rate of the helium is not uniform, the zircon crystals are younger than believed, or both. Helium in granite is evidence that the earth is thousands of years old, not millions. The Sea Does Not Have Enough Minerals There is not enough salt in the sea or mud on the sea floor for the seas to be billions of years old. Every year, salt accumulates in the ocean from rivers. Given the present rate it is increasing per year, the current 3.5 percent ocean salinity is much too low if this process has been going on for a very long time. Mud enters the seas through rivers and dust storms. This occurs at much faster rates than plate tectonic subduction can remove it. Each year, 19 billion tons of mud accumulates. If the oceans were ancient, the oceans would be choked with sediment dozens of kilometers deep.

20 Math on Population Growth
If the earth’s population doubled every 300 years, the earth would be less than 10,000 years old, in reality, in 200 years it increased 6X Year 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400 2700 3000 3300 3600 3900 4200 8,400 8,700 9,000 9,300 People 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1,024 2,048 4,096 8,192 16,384 32,768 536,870,912 1,073,741,824 2,147,483,648 4,294,967,296

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