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GOLD CASTING ALLOYS Stephen C. Bayne University of Michigan School of Dentistry Ann Arbor, Michigan
INDIRECT RESTORATIONS Overview of Errors ERRORS: ImpressionsImpressions Models/CastsModels/Casts WaxingWaxing InvestingInvesting CastingCasting Finishing/PolishingFinishing/Polishing CementingCementing 0.1 to 0.2% to 1.7% -1.5 to 1.7% Calculation of ideal permissible error: 2 x 25 m / 10,000 m = 0.5% *Image source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008 **Image source: Undetermined * * **
3.Mechanical Properties: a.High E (stiffness) b.Moderately high YS and H (resistance to plastic deformation) c.Hardenable by heat treatment (retention of polish) 4.Biological Properties: a.Biocompatible: no toxic soluble phases b.Non-reactive in the oral environment GENERAL REQUIREMENTS (continued) STRESS STRAIN x Yield Strength (or Hardness) Modulus (Stiffness, Slope of Line) x Graph source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008
REVIEW OF CORROSION 1.Types: Chemical Corrosion, Electrochemical Corrosion 2.Requirements for Electrochemical Corrosion: Anode, Cathode, Circuit, Electrolyte 3.Electrochemical Corrosion Categories: a.Galvanic Corrosion (macro-galvanic) b.Local Galvanic Corrosion (structure-selective corrosion) c.Concentration Cell Corrosion (crevice corrosion) d.Stress Corrosion Images source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008
CLASSIFICATION OF ALLOYS 1.Full Gold Crown and Bridge Alloys (based on precious metals) a.ADA Classification System (see phase diagrams) (1)Type I 83% Au+(Non-heat hardenable)-- inlay (2)Type II 78% Au+(Non-heat hardenable)-- inlay, onlay, … (3)Type III 78% Au+(Heat hardenable)-- onlay, crown (4)Type IV 75% Au+(Heat hardenable)-- crown, bridge b.Effects of Alloys Components: (1)Gold(Au) (2)Copper(Cu) (3)Silver(Ag) (4)Palladium (Pd) (5)Platinum (Pt) (6)Zinc (Zn) Corrosion resistance Hardness Counteract orange color of copper Increase MP and hardness Increase MP Prevent oxidation during melting (O 2 getter)
TERMINOLOGY 1.Precious Metal = containing metals of high economic value such as gold, platinum, palladium, silver, (rhodium), (iridium), (rhuthenium), and (osmium). 2.Noble Metal = a precious metal that is resistant to tarnish. This excludes “silver” by definition. 3.Low Gold Alloys = Alloys containing <75% gold (less than 50 a/o gold) which means that gold atoms represent less than every other atom. 4.Gold-substitute Alloys = precious metal alloys not containing gold. 5.Base-Metal Alloys = alloys not containing precious metals to impart their corrosion resistance.
ATOMIC PERCENT GOLD CUAU WEIGHT PERCENT GOLD LIQUIDUS SOLIDUS DENTALALLOYS TEMPERATURE ( C ) Low Gold Alloys High Gold Alloys RandomSolidSolution OrderedSolidSolution Graph source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008
AG CUAU + AU-AG-CUTenary Phase Diagram Type I Type II Type III Type IVI T Graph source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008
COMMERCIAL EXAMPLES Graph source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008
PROCESSING CYCLES investment alloy TIME Alloy LCTE = ppm/ C CASTGOLDALLOYS TmTm 890 C T rt Graph source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008
A.Distortion: 1.Margins: Probability highest in thinner portions of pattern. a.Wax Deformation: improper removal or handling of pattern. b.Premature Quenching: wait until button loses red color. c.Investment Expansion/Contraction: CASTING PROBLEMS for Gold Alloys a b c Image source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008
B.Surface Irregularities: 1.Fine Surface Roughness: Inherent particle size of investment a.High W/P ratio increases surface roughness. b.Low W/P ratio decreases investment adaptation or flow. c.Prolonged burnout encourages investment decomposition. d.Overheating alloy encourages investment decomposition. e.Overheating alloy encourages reaction with investment. 2.Surface Defects: a.Nodules: air bubbles trapped on the pattern during investing. (Use surfactant; paint pattern; vacuum invest; vibrate) b.Ridges or Veins: poor wetting causing water films on pattern. (Use surfactant; vacuum invest; vibrate investment carefully). 3.Gross Surface Defects: a.Fins: cracked investment (from overheating) INVESTMENTALLOY Nodules Ridges or veins Fins Surfaceroughness CASTING PROBLEMS for Gold Alloys Image source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008
C.Incomplete Castings: 1.Internal Porosity: due to improper solidification. a.Improper Spruing: Diameter too small or too long. b.Low Temperature: Investment or metal too cold. c.Included Gases: Contaminated gold or oxidized old gold. d.Occluded Gases: Improper burnout of pattern. 2.Incomplete External Shape: a.Insufficient casting pressure. b.Excessive back pressure from investment. c.Suck back into sprue. Internalporosity Incompletemargin Gasbubble CASTING PROBLEMS for Gold Alloys Image source: Steve Bayne, University of Michigan, 2008